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  1. Du J, Loh KH, Hu W, Zheng X, Affendi YA, Ooi JLS, et al.
    Biodivers Data J, 2019;7:e47537.
    PMID: 31849564 DOI: 10.3897/BDJ.7.e47537
    Background: Redang Islands Marine Park consists of nine islands in the state of Terengganu, Malaysia. Redang Island is one of the largest off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, which is famous for its crystal-clear waters and white sandy beaches. The ichthyofauna of the Redang archipelago was surveyed by underwater visual observations between August 2016 and May 2018. Census data were compiled with existing records into the checklist of the marine fish of the Redang archipelago presented herein. A total of 314 species belonging to 51 families were recorded. The most speciose families (Pomacentridae, Labridae, Scaridae, Serranidae, Apogonidae, Carangidae, Gobiidae, Chaetodontidae, Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae and Siganidae) were also amongst the most speciose at the neighbouring Tioman archipelago (except Chaetodontidae). The coral fish diversity index value for the six families of coral reef fishes (Chaetodontidae, Pomacanthidae, Pomacentridae, Labridae, Scaridae and Acanthuridae) of the study sites was 132. We estimated that there were 427 coral reef fish species in the Redang archipelago. According to the IUCN Red List, eight species are Near Threatened (Carcharhinus melanopterus, Chaetodon trifascialis, Choerodon schoenleinii, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, E. polyphekadion, Plectropomus leopardus, Taeniura lymma and Triaenodon obesus), eleven are Vulnerable (Bolbometopon muricatum, Chaetodon trifasciatus, Chlorurus sordidus, Dascyllus trimaculatus, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, E. polyphekadion, Halichoeres marginatus, Heniochus acuminatus, Nebrius ferrugineus, Neopomacentrus cyanomos and Plectropomus areolatus) and three are Endangered (Amphiprion clarkia, Cheilinus undulatus and Scarus ghobban) in the Redang archipelago.

    New information: Five species are new records for Malaysia (Ctenogobiops mitodes, Epibulus brevis, Halichoeres erdmanni, H. richmondi and Scarus caudofasciatus) and 25 species are newly recorded in the Redang archipelago.

  2. Fang F, Luo XX, Zhang Q, Azlan H, Razali O, Ma Z, et al.
    Europace, 2015 Oct;17 Suppl 2:ii47-53.
    PMID: 26842115 DOI: 10.1093/europace/euv130
    Biventricular (BiV) pacing was superior to right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing at extended follow-up in the Pacing to Avoid Cardiac Enlargement (PACE) trial. Early pacing-induced systolic dyssynchrony (DYS) might be related to mid-term result. However, it remains unknown whether early pacing-induced DYS can predict long-term reduction of left ventricular (LV) systolic function.
  3. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
  4. Li Y, Yu P, Qu C, Li P, Li Y, Ma Z, et al.
    Antiviral Res., 2020 Feb 10;176:104743.
    PMID: 32057771 DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104743
    Enteric viruses including hepatitis E virus (HEV), human norovirus (HuNV), and rotavirus are causing global health issues. The host interferon (IFN) response constitutes the first-line defense against viral infections. Melanoma Differentiation-Associated protein 5 (MDA5) is an important cytoplasmic receptor sensing viral infection to trigger IFN production, and on the other hand it is also an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG). In this study, we investigated the effects and mode-of-action of MDA5 on the infection of enteric viruses. We found that MDA5 potently inhibited HEV, HuNV and rotavirus replication in multiple cell models. Overexpression of MDA5 induced transcription of important antiviral ISGs through IFN-like response, without triggering of functional IFN production. Interestingly, MDA5 activates the expression and phosphorylation of STAT1, which is a central component of the JAK-STAT cascade and a hallmark of antiviral IFN response. However, genetic silencing of STAT1 or pharmacological inhibition of the JAK-STAT cascade only partially attenuated the induction of ISG transcription and the antiviral function of MDA5. Thus, we have demonstrated that MDA5 effectively inhibits HEV, HuNV and rotavirus replication through provoking a non-canonical IFN-like response, which is partially dependent on JAK-STAT cascade.
  5. Ma ZF, Yusof N, Hamid N, Lawenko RM, Mohammad WMZW, Liong MT, et al.
    Benef Microbes, 2019 Mar 13;10(2):111-120.
    PMID: 30525951 DOI: 10.3920/BM2018.0008
    Individuals in a community who developed irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) after major floods have significant mental health impairment. We aimed to determine if Bifidobacterium infantis M-63 was effective in improving symptoms, psychology and quality of life measures in flood-affected individuals with IBS and if the improvement was mediated by gut microbiota changes. Design was non-randomised, open-label, controlled before-and-after. Of 53 participants, 20 with IBS were given B. infantis M-63 (1×109 cfu/sachet/day) for three months and 33 were controls. IBS symptom severity scale, hospital anxiety and depression scale, SF-36 Questionnaire, hydrogen breath testing for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and stools for 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis were performed before and after intervention. 11 of 20 who were given probiotics (M-63) and 20 of 33 controls completed study as per-protocol. Mental well-being was improved with M-63 vs controls for full analysis (P=0.03) and per-protocol (P=0.01) populations. Within-group differences were observed for anxiety and bodily pain (both P=0.04) in the M-63 per-protocol population. Lower ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes was observed with M-63 vs controls (P=0.01) and the lower ratio was correlated with higher post-intervention mental score (P=0.04). B. infantis M-63 is probably effective in improving mental health of victims who developed IBS after floods and this is maybe due to restoration of microbial balance and the gut-brain axis. However, our conclusion must be interpreted within the context of limited sample size. The study was retrospectively registered on 12 October 2017 and the Trial Registration Number (TRN) was NCT03318614.
  6. Zainul NH, Ma ZF, Besari A, Siti Asma H, Rahman RA, Collins DA, et al.
    Epidemiol. Infect., 2017 Oct;145(14):3012-3019.
    PMID: 28891459 DOI: 10.1017/S0950268817002011
    Little is known about Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Asia. The aims of our study were to explore (i) the prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology of CDI and colonization in a tertiary academic hospital in North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia; (ii) the rate of carriage of C. difficile among the elderly in the region; (iii) the awareness level of this infection among the hospital staffs and students. For stool samples collected from hospital inpatients with diarrhea (n = 76) and healthy community members (n = 138), C. difficile antigen and toxins were tested by enzyme immunoassay. Stool samples were subsequently analyzed by culture and molecular detection of toxin genes, and PCR ribotyping of isolates. To examine awareness among hospital staff and students, participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. For the hospital and community studies, the prevalence of non-toxigenic C. difficile colonization was 16% and 2%, respectively. The prevalence of CDI among hospital inpatients with diarrhea was 13%. Out of 22 C. difficile strains from hospital inpatients, the toxigenic ribotypes 043 and 017 were most common (both 14%). In univariate analysis, C. difficile colonization in hospital inpatients was significantly associated with greater duration of hospitalization and use of penicillin (both P < 0·05). Absence of these factors was a possible reason for low colonization in the community. Only 3% of 154 respondents answered all questions correctly in the awareness survey. C. difficile colonization is prevalent in a Malaysian hospital setting but not in the elderly community with little or no contact with hospitals. Awareness of CDI is alarmingly poor.
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