3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters (GE) are heat-induced contaminants which form during oil refining process, particularly at the high temperature deodorization stage. It is worth to investigate the content of 3-MCPD and GE in fries which also involved high temperature. The content of 3-MCPD esters and GE were monitored in fries. The factors that been chosen were temperature and duration of frying, and different concentration of salt (NaCl). The results in our study showed that the effect was in the order of concentration of sodium chloride
The present study focused on investigating the storage stability of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions with high oil volume fractions prepared with palm olein-based diacylglycerol oil (POL-DAG)/soybean oil (SBO) blends at 25 °C. The incorporation of different ratios of oil blends significantly influenced (p < 0.05) the texture, color, droplet size distribution, and rheological parameters of the emulsions. Only emulsions incorporated with 10% to 20% POL-DAG in oil phase exhibited pseudoplastic behavior that fitted the Power Law model well. Furthermore, the O/W emulsions prepared with POL-DAG/SBO blends exhibited elastic properties, with G' higher than G". During storage, the emulsion was found to be less solid-like with the increase in tan δ values. All emulsions produced with POL-DAG/SBO blends also showed thixotropic behavior. Optical microscopy revealed that the POL-DAG incorporation above 40% caused aggregated droplets to coalesce and flocculate and, thus, larger droplet sizes were observed. The current results demonstrated that the 20% POL-DAG substituted emulsion was more stable than the control emulsion. The valuable insights gained from this study would be able to generate a lot more possible applications using POL-DAG, which could further sustain the competitiveness of the palm oil industry.
A new coelozoic Myxozoan species, Ceratomyxa tunisiensis n. sp., was found infecting the gallbladders of two carangid fish, Caranx rhonchus and Trachurus trachurus (Perciforme, Carangidae), from the Gulf of Gabès, on the southern coast of Tunisia. The parasite develops in spherical mono-, diplo-, or polysporic tropozoites in the gallbladder of the hosts. Mature spores are typical of the genus Ceratomyxa. They are transversely elongated and narrowly crescent-shaped with a slightly convex anterior and concave posterior, and measure 23 ± 0. 27 (20-25) μm width × 6 ± 0.26 (5-8) μm in length. Spore shell valves are symmetrical with rounded ends. Two spherical polar capsules situated on either side of the sutural line measure 2.2 μm (2.0-3.0) in diam. Periodical sampling of C. rhonchus and T. trachurus from Marsh 2012 to February 2013 showed that infection due to C. tunisiensis occurs in 59% and 69% of the examined fish, respectively. Molecular analysis based on the small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequence shows high genetic divergence with all other ceratomyxid species. A Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic tree shows association with the species C. leatharjecketi Fiala, kova, Kodadkova, Freeman, Bartošova-Sojkova, and Atkinson, 2015 reported from the gallbladder of Aluterusmonoceros (L.) caught in the Andaman Sea, off Malaysia. Nonetheless, the SSU rRNA sequences of C. tunisiensis and C. leatharjecketi have only a 90% similarity.