Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of psychosocial burden and its associated risk factors among women with abnormal Pap smear and post colposcopy.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted employing universal sampling of 218 respondents with abnormal Pap smear and post colposcopy. They fulfilled the specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Three tertiary hospitals in the East Coast of Malaysia were participated. Self-administration of validated Malay-version Psychosocial Effect of Abnormal Pap smear Questionnaire was used to assess the psychosocial burden. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) was applied to assess the general health factor. Data was analyzed using IBM-SPSS of version 22.
Results: The results showed that respondents with an abnormal Pap smear and post-colposcopy women (43.1%) demonstrated a high level of psychosocial burden. The significant risk factor of psychosocial burden was living in an urban and semi-urban area of residence (p≤0.001) and distress condition (p≤0.001) respectively.
Conclusions: A substantial number of women with abnormal Pap smear results were experiencing psychosocial burden. Women with an abnormal Pap-smear who were living in the urban and semi-urban and distressed were more likely to experience a higher psychosocial burden.
The article review was to identify, discuss, explore, critically analyze and evaluate the scenario of Human ImmunodeficiencyVirus (HIV) among women in nursing perspective taking into account global perspective. The current aim is to reduce the number of HIV globally, especially among women. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is considered as a disease state of hopelessness and imminent death. HIV and AIDS status demotivate the women emotionally in physical, social, and emotional perspectives. HIV-positive women portray of AIDS is deeply discrediting; with physical failure, moral failure, and social ostracism.
The purpose of this article is to discuss the strengths and limitations of two teaching strategies currently utilized
in Diploma in Nursing, in Malaysia. The diploma was started in 1994 with a 3 years duration of study. It also
requires certificates of qualification from the Malaysian Quality Agency (MQA) and the Malaysian Board of
Teaching strategies of individual teachers differ according to their teaching styles and generalized lesson plans,
which include structures, instructional objectives, outlines of teaching and learning tactics, and other
accessories needed to implement the strategies. A strategy does not necessarily follow a single track all the
time, but changes according to the demands of the situations such as the age, level, needs, interests and abilities
of the students. Thus, strategy is a method that is more comprehensive. It is directional in nature and refers to
the goal oriented activities of the teacher. Hence, it resembles science rather than arts.
Lecture and simulation methods are the best teaching strategies for nursing students in Malaysia. The lecture
method allows clarification on difficult concepts, organizes thinking, and promotes problem solving attitudes,
whereas simulation provides students with the opportunity for proper social, emotional and intellectual
development. Moreover, students are highly motivated by educational simulation, for they enjoy the learning
process while participating in it.
Currently, the development of information technology and the increase in the number of nursing students occur drastically. Based on this premise, the purpose of this article is to shed light into the future development of curriculum for the nursing field. Philosophy is considered one of the most important components of both education system and curriculum, because the educational philosophies reflect the social, economic and political aspects of a society, in which they are applied. As an educator, understanding the philosophy to be adapted in the curriculum and learning process is important, to provide a framework for the best performance of both the teacher and the student. In conclusion, it is important to implement the philosophy of curriculum in the education program as each philosophy aids in the principles and guidelines of the learning process. Globally, most programs are usually based on the philosophy related to that program. Therefore, as an educator, we must know the philosophical development of the curriculum of education, so that we are able to analyse and choose which is appropriate.