Bone marrow derived Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were evaluated as an alternative source for tissue engineering of peripheral nerves. Human MSCs were subjected to a series of treatment with a reducing agent, retinoic acid and a combination of trophic factors. This treated MSCs differentiated into Schwann cells were characterized in vitro via flow cytometry analysis and immunocytochemically. In contrast to untreated MSCs, differentiated MSCs expressed Schwann cell markers in vitro, as we confirmed by flow cytometry analysis and immunocytochemically. These results suggest that human MSCs can be induced to be a substitute for Schwann cells that may be applied for nerve regeneration since it is difficult to grow Schwann cells in vitro.
Bone marrow derived progenitor cells have been widely studied for its multipotent property and have proofed to be an important resource in regenerative medicine. However, the propagation of murine bone marrow appeared to be a great challenge as compared to other mammalian species. In this study, various isolation techniques and the plasticity of the isolated cells were evaluated. Our result shows that magnetic sorting technique yielded the most viable cells and displayed wider differentiation capacity.
Nerve stem cells have a unique characteristic in that they form spherical aggregates, also termed neurospheres, in vitro. The study demonstrated the successful derivation of these neurospheres from bone marrow culture. Their plasticity as nerve stem cells was confirmed. The findings further strengthens the pluripotency of cell populations within the bone marrow.
Biomaterial, an essential component of tissue engineering, serves as a scaffold for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation; provides the three dimensional (3D) structure and, in some applications, the mechanical strength required for the engineered tissue. Both synthetic and naturally occurring calcium phosphate based biomaterial have been used as bone fillers or bone extenders in orthopedic and reconstructive surgeries. This study aims to evaluate two popular calcium phosphate based biomaterial i.e., hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HA) granules as scaffold materials in bone tissue engineering. In our strategy for constructing tissue engineered bone, human osteoprogenitor cells derived from periosteum were incorporated with human plasma-derived fibrin and seeded onto HA or TCP/HA forming 3D tissue constructs and further maintained in osteogenic medium for 4 weeks to induce osteogenic differentiation. Constructs were subsequently implanted intramuscularly in nude mice for 8 weeks after which mice were euthanized and constructs harvested for evaluation. The differential cell response to the biomaterial (HA or TCP/HA) adopted as scaffold was illustrated by the histology of undecalcified constructs and evaluation using SEM and TEM. Both HA and TCP/HA constructs showed evidence of cell proliferation, calcium deposition, and collagen bundle formation albeit lesser in the former. Our findings demonstrated that TCP/HA is superior between the two in early bone formation and hence is the scaffold material of choice in bone tissue engineering.
Osteoprogenitor cells have been reported to be present in periosteum, cancellous and cortical bone, and bone marrow; but no attempt to identify the best cell source for bone tissue engineering has yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the growth and differentiation pattern of cells derived from these four sources in terms of cell doubling time and expression of osteoblast-specific markers in both monolayer cells and three-dimensional cell constructs in vitro. In parallel, human plasma derived-fibrin was evaluated for use as biomaterial when forming three-dimensional bone constructs. Our findings showed osteoprogenitor cells derived from periosteum to be most proliferative followed by cortical bone, cancellous bone, and then bone marrow aspirate. Bone-forming activity was observed in constructs formed with cells derived from periosteum, whereas calcium deposition was seen throughout the constructs formed with cells derived from cancellous and cortical bones. Although no mineralization activity was seen in constructs formed with osteoprogenitor cells derived from bone marrow, well-organized lacunae as would appear in the early phase of bone reconstruction were noted. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation showed cell proliferation throughout the fibrin matrix, suggesting the possible application of human fibrin as the bioengineered tissue scaffold at non-load-bearing sites.
The cornea can be damaged by a variety of clinical disorders or chemical, mechanical, and thermal injuries. The objectives of this study were to induce bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to corneal lineage, to form a tissue engineered corneal substitute (TEC) using BMSCs, and to treat corneal surface defects in a limbal stem cell deficiency model. BMSCs were induced to corneal lineage using limbal medium for 10 days. Induced BMSCs demonstrated upregulation of corneal stem cell markers; β1-integrin, C/EBPδ, ABCG2, and p63, increased protein expression of CK3 and p63 significantly compared with the uninduced ones. For TEC formation, passage 1 BMSCs were trypsinized and seeded on amniotic membrane in a transwell co-culture system and were grown in limbal medium. Limbal stem cell deficiency models were induced by alkaline injury, and the TEC was implanted for 8 weeks. Serial slit lamp evaluation revealed remarkable improvement in corneal regeneration in terms of corneal clarity and reduced vascularization. Histologic and optical coherence tomography analyses demonstrated comparable corneal thickness and achieved stratified epithelium with a compact stromal layer resembling that of normal cornea. CK3 and p63 were expressed in the newly regenerated cornea. In conclusion, BMSCs can be induced into corneal epithelial lineage, and these cells are viable for the formation of TEC, to be used for the reconstruction of the corneal surface in the limbal stem cell deficient model.
The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of novel aspirin oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsion and water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) nano multiple emulsion formulations generated using ultrasound cavitation techniques. The anti-inflammatory activities of nanoemulsion and nano multiple emulsion were determined using the λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The analgesic activities of both nanoformulations were determined using acetic acid-induced writhing response and hot plate assay. For comparison, the effect of pretreatment with blank nanoemulsion and reference aspirin suspension were also studied for their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The results showed that oral administration of nanoemulsion and nano multiple emulsion containing aspirin (60 mg/kg) significantly reduced paw edema induced by λ-carrageenan injection. Both nanoformulations decreased the number of abdominal constriction in acetic acid-induced writhing model. Pretreatment with nanoformulations led to a significant increase in reaction time in hot plate assay. Nanoemulsion demonstrated an enhanced anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects compared to reference suspension while nano multiple emulsion exhibited a mild inhibitory effects in the three experimental animal model tests. The results obtained for nano multiple emulsion were relatively lower than reference. However, administration of blank nanoemulsion did not alter the nociceptive response significantly though it showed slight anti-inflammatory effect. These experimental studies suggest that nanoemulsion and nano multiple emulsion produced a pronounced anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in rats and may be candidates as new nanocarriers for pharmacological NSAIDs in the treatment of inflammatory disorders and alleviating pains.
Spinal cord, sciatic nerve, olfactory ensheathing cell and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells were evaluated as an alternative source for tissue engineering of nerve conduit. All cell sources were cultured in alpha-MEM medium. Olfactory Ensheathing Cell (OEC) showed the best result with higher growth kinetic compared to the others. Spinal cord and sciatic nerve were positive for GFAP, OEC were positive for GFAP, S100b and anti-cytokeratin 18 but negative for anti-Human Fibroblast.