Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 109 in total

  1. Yogarajah T, Bee YT, Noordin R, Yin KB
    Mol Med Rep, 2015 Jan;11(1):515-20.
    PMID: 25324014 DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2014.2686
    This study was conducted to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in visceral adipose tissue, as well as serum adipokine levels, in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were fed either a normal (control rats) or excessive (experimental rats) intake of food for 8 or 16 weeks, then sacrificed, at which time visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, as well as blood samples, were collected. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARs in the visceral adipose tissues were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, the levels of adipokines in the serum samples were determined using commercial ELISA kits. The results revealed that at 8 weeks, the mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue was higher than that of the visceral adipose tissue in the experimental rats, but the reverse occurred at 16 weeks. Furthermore, at 16 weeks the experimental rats exhibited an upregulation of PPARγ mRNA and protein expression levels in the visceral adipose tissues, and significant increases in the serum levels of CCL2 and interleukin (IL)-6 were observed, compared with those measured at 8 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the PPARγ expression level was likely correlated with serum levels of CCL2 and IL-6, molecules that may facilitate visceral adipose tissue accumulation. In addition, the levels of the two adipokines in the serum may be useful as surrogate biomarkers for the expression levels of PPARγ in accumulated visceral adipose tissues.
  2. Noordin R, Itoh M, Kimura E, Abdul Rahman R, Ravindran B, Mahmud R, et al.
    Filaria journal, 2007;6:9.
    PMID: 17961262
    In the global effort to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF), rapid field-applicable tests are useful tools that will allow on-site testing to be performed in remote places and the results to be obtained rapidly. Exclusive reliance on the few existing tests may jeopardize the progress of the LF elimination program, thus the introduction of other rapid tests would be useful to address this issue. Two new rapid immunochromatographic IgG4 cassette tests have been produced, namely WB rapid and panLF rapid, for detection of bancroftian filariasis and all three species of lymphatic filaria respectively. WB rapid was developed using BmSXP recombinant antigen, while PanLF rapid was developed using BmR1 and BmSXP recombinant antigens. A total of 165 WB rapid and 276 panLF rapid tests respectively were evaluated at USM and the rest were couriered to another university in Malaysia (98 WB rapid, 129 panLF rapid) and to universities in Indonesia (56 WB rapid, 62 panLF rapid), Japan (152 of each test) and India (18 of each test) where each of the tests underwent independent evaluations in a blinded manner. The average sensitivities of WB rapid and panLF rapid were found to be 97.6% (94%-100%) and 96.5% (94%-100%) respectively; while their average specificities were both 99.6% (99%-100%). Thus this study demonstrated that both the IgG4 rapid tests were highly sensitive and specific, and would be useful additional tests to facilitate the global drive to eliminate this disease.
  3. Salin NH, Noordin R, Al-Najjar BO, Kamarulzaman EE, Yunus MH, Karim IZA, et al.
    PLoS One, 2020;15(5):e0225232.
    PMID: 32442170 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225232
    Toxoplasma gondii is the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis, a disease which can lead to morbidity and mortality of the fetus and immunocompromised individuals. Due to the limited effectiveness or side effects of existing drugs, the search for better drug candidates is still ongoing. In this study, we performed structure-based screening of potential dual-targets inhibitors of active sites of T. gondii drug targets such as uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase) and adenosine kinase (AK). First screening of virtual compounds from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) was performed via molecular docking. Subsequently, the hit compounds were tested in-vitro for anti- T. gondii effect using cell viability assay with Vero cells as host to determine cytotoxicity effects and drug selectivities. Clindamycin, as positive control, showed a selectivity index (SI) of 10.9, thus compounds with SI > 10.9 specifically target T. gondii proliferation with no significant effect on the host cells. Good anti- T. gondii effects were observed with NSC77468 (7-ethoxy-4-methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-thiopyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-amine) which showed SI values of 25. This study showed that in-silico selection can serve as an effective way to discover potentially potent and selective compounds against T. gondii.
  4. Lew MH, Noordin R, Monsur Alam Khan M, Tye GJ
    Pathog Glob Health, 2018 10;112(7):387-394.
    PMID: 30332344 DOI: 10.1080/20477724.2018.1536854
    Toxoplasmosis, a parasitic disease in human and animals, is caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Our previous study has led to the discovery of a novel RAP domain binding protein antigen (TgRA15), an apparent in-vivo induced antigen recognised by antibodies in acutely infected individuals. This study is aimed to evaluate the humoral response and cytokine release elicited by recombinant TgRA15 protein in C57BL/6 mice, demonstrating its potential as a candidate vaccine for Toxoplasma gondii infection. In this study, the recombinant TgRA15 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and refolded into soluble form. C57BL/6 mice were immunised intradermally with the antigen and CASAC (Combined Adjuvant for Synergistic Activation of Cellular immunity). Antigen-specific humoral and cell-mediated responses were evaluated using Western blot and ELISA. The total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies specific to the antigen were significantly increased in treatment group compare to control group. A higher level of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) secretion was demonstrated in the mice group receiving booster doses of rTgRA15 protein, suggesting a potential Th1-mediated response. In conclusion, the rTgRA15 protein has the potential to generate specific antibody response and elicit cellular response, thus potentially serve as a vaccine candidate against T. gondii infection.
  5. Abdo AIK, Ngoh YY, Lew MH, Dass SA, Rahumatullah A, Noordin R, et al.
    PMID: 33258152 DOI: 10.1002/bab.2082
    Lymphatic filariasis is a neglected parasitic disease that affects millions in tropical and subtropical countries and is caused by Wuchereria and Brugia species. Specific and sensitive detection methods are essential in mapping infected areas where rapid tests are needed to cover underdeveloped and remote regions, which facilitates eliminating the disease as a public health problem. A few commercialized rapid tests based on antigen or antibody detection are available, but the former only detects infection by Wuchereria species and cross-reacts with nonlymphatic filaria, whereas antibody detection might provide positive results of previous infection. Here, we report the production of three different recombinant immunoglobulin gamma (IgG)1 antibodies based on scFvs previously generated via human antibody phage display technology, that is, anti-BmR1 clone 4, anti-BmXSP clone 5B, and anti-BmXSP clone 2H2. The scFv sequences were cloned into a pCMV-IgG1 vector, then transfected into a HEK293F cell line. The generated antibodies were found to be able to bind to their respective targets even at relatively low concentration. Conjugation of Fc to scFv induces binder stability and provides multiple labeling sites for probes and signaling molecules that can be used in rapid tests.
  6. Noordin R, Anuar NS, Juri NM, Wongphutorn P, Ruantip S, Kopolrat KY, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2021 07 08;105(3):688-691.
    PMID: 34237022 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0317
    Strongyloides stercoralis affects more than half a billion people worldwide, and hyperinfection in immunocompromised patients can be fatal. Elimination of this neglected tropical disease requires field-applicable diagnostic tools. We conducted a laboratory evaluation of a lateral flow rapid dipstick test (SsRapid™) using sera samples from a Strongyloides-endemic area in northeast Thailand. Group 1 was S. stercoralis-positive and larvae- and/or antibody-positive (according to the IgG ELISA) (N = 100). Group 2 had negative fecal examination and IgG ELISA results (N = 25). Group 3 had other parasitic infections and negative IgG ELISA results (N = 25). The results showed good diagnostic sensitivity (82%) and excellent specificity (96%). Suggested improvements in the SsRapid™ test include increased diagnostic sensitivity and conversion to the more robust cassette format. Field studies should be performed as well.
  7. Lim BH, Noordin R, Nor ZM, Rahman RA, Abdullah KA, Sinnadurai S
    Exp Parasitol, 2004 Sep-Oct;108(1-2):1-6.
    PMID: 15491542
    BmR1 recombinant antigen has previously been shown to demonstrate high sensitivity and specificity in the serological diagnosis of brugian filariasis in humans. In this study, the pattern of recognition of antibody to BmR1 during Brugia malayi infection was investigated by employing Meriones unguiculatus as the experimental model. Thirty two gerbils were infected subcutaneously with 120 L(3); and two control groups each comprising 25 animals were employed. ELISA using BmR1 was used to detect filaria-specific IgG antibodies elicited by the gerbils; using sera collected from the day 1 until day 150 post-inoculation (p.i.). The results showed that BmR1 detected B. malayi infection in gerbils harboring adult worms irrespective of the presence of circulating microfilaria, and was exemplified by positive ELISA results in nine a microfilaraemic animals that harbored live adult worms. The initial time of the antibody recognition was at day 8 p.i. and the antibody titre showed some correlation with adult worm burden.
  8. Kavitha N, Noordin R, Kit-Lam C, Sasidharan S
    Molecules, 2012 Aug 02;17(8):9207-19.
    PMID: 22858841 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17089207
    The inhibitory effect of active fractions of Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) root, namely TAF355 and TAF401, were evaluated against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). In our previous study, we demonstrated that T. gondii was susceptible to TAF355 and TAF401 with IC₅₀ values of 1.125 µg/mL and 1.375 µg/mL, respectively. Transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations were used to study the in situ antiparasitic activity at the IC₅₀ value. Clindamycin was used as positive control. SEM examination revealed cell wall alterations with formation of invaginations followed by completely collapsed cells compared to the normal T. gondii cells in response to the fractions. The main abnormality noted via TEM study was decreased cytoplasmic volume, leaving a state of structural disorganization within the cell cytoplasm and destruction of its organelles as early as 12 h of treatment, which indicated of rapid antiparasitic activity of the E. longifolia fractions. The significant antiparasitic activity shown by the TAF355 and TAF401 active fractions of E. longifolia suggests their potential as new anti-T. gondii agent candidates.
  9. Kavitha N, Noordin R, Chan KL, Sasidharan S
    PMID: 22781137 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-91
    Toxoplasma gondii infection causes toxoplasmosis, an infectious disease with worldwide prevalence. The limited efficiency of drugs against this infection, their side effects and the potential appearance of resistant strains make the search of novel drugs an essential need. We examined Eurycoma longifolia root extract and fractions as potential sources of new compounds with high activity and low toxicity. The main goal of this study was to investigate the anti-T. gondii activity of crude extract (TACME) and four fractions (TAF 273, TAF 355, TAF 191 and TAF 401) from E. longifolia, with clindamycin as the positive control.
  10. Noordin R, Wahyuni S, Mangali A, Huat LB, Yazdanbakhsh M, Sartono E
    Filaria journal, 2004 Aug 12;3(1):8.
    PMID: 15307892
    BACKGROUND: Brugia malayi is endemic in several Asian countries with the highest prevalence in Indonesia. Determination of prevalence of lymphatic filariasis by serology has been performed by various investigators using different kinds of antigen (either soluble worm antigen preparations or recombinant antigens). This investigation compared the data obtained from IgG4 assays using two different kinds of antigen in a study on prevalence of antibodies to B. malayi. METHODS: Serum samples from a transmigrant population and life long residents previously tested with IgG4 assay using soluble worm antigen (SWA-ELISA), were retested with an IgG4 assay that employs BmR1 recombinant antigen (BmR1 dipstick [Brugia Rapid trade mark ]). The results obtained with the two antigens were compared, using Pearson chi-square and McNemar test. RESULTS: There were similarities and differences in the results obtained using the two kinds of antigen (SWA and BmR1). Similarities included the observation that assays using both antigens demonstrated an increasing prevalence of IgG4 antibodies in the transmigrant population with increasing exposure to the infection, and by six years living in the area, antibody prevalence was similar to that of life-long residents. With regards to differences, of significance is the demonstration of similar antibody prevalence in adults and children by BmR1 dipstick whereas by SWA-ELISA the antibody prevalence in adults was higher than in children. CONCLUSIONS: Results and conclusions made from investigations of prevalence of anti-filarial IgG4 antibody in a population would be affected by the assay employed in the study.
  11. Khoo TK, Noordin R, Santhanam A
    Indian J. Exp. Biol., 2012 Apr;50(4):256-64.
    PMID: 22611913
    A rapid antibody detection test is very useful for the detection of lymphatic filariasis, especially for certification and surveillance of post-mass drug administration. panLF Rapid kit is suitable for this purpose since it can detect all species of lymphatic filaria. It is based on the detection of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies that react with recombinant B. malayi antigens, BmR1 and BmSXP. There is an increase demand for the test due to its attributes of being rapid, sensitive and specific results, as well as its field-applicability. The main aim of this paper is to obtain high recovery and purity of recombinant antigen BmSXP via a modified method of immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). The highest product yield of 11.82 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW) was obtained when IMAC was performed using the optimized protocol of 10 mM imidazole concentration in lysis buffer, 30 mM imidazole concentration in wash buffer, and 10 column volume wash buffer containing 300 mM salt concentration. This gave a 54% protein recovery improvement over the manufacturer's protocol which recorded a product yield of only 7.68 mg/g DCW. The recovered BmSXP recombinant antigen showed good western blot reactivity, high sensitivity (31/32, 97%) and specificity (32/32, 100%) in ELISA, thus attesting to its good purity and quality.
  12. Noordin R, Mohd Zain SN, Yunus MH, Sahimin N
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2017 08 01;111(8):370-372.
    PMID: 29206992 DOI: 10.1093/trstmh/trx062
    Background: Malaysia aims to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) by the year 2020, thus the potential threat of LF from migrant workers needs to be investigated.

    Methods: Brugian and bancroftian filariasis among 484 migrant workers from six countries were investigated using rapid tests based on detection of specific IgG4 antibodies against BmR1 (Brugia Rapid) and BmSXP recombinant antigens.

    Results: The seroprevalence of brugian filariasis was very low; however, bancroftian filariasis was notable among workers from India, Nepal and Myanmar.

    Conclusion: Malaysia is not endemic for Wuchereria bancrofti, but harbors the vectors for the parasite, thus the results showed that migrant workers should be monitored for this infection.

  13. Noordin R, Aziz RA, Ravindran B
    Filaria journal, 2004 Dec 31;3(1):10.
    PMID: 15627400
    BACKGROUND: The recombinant antigen BmR1 has been extensively employed in both ELISA and immunochromatographic rapid dipstick (Brugia Rapid) formats for the specific and sensitive detection of IgG4 antibodies against the lymphatic filarial parasites Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. In sera of individuals infected with Wuchereria bancrofti the IgG4 reactivity to BmR1 is variable, and cross-reactivity of sera from individuals infected with Onchocerca volvulus or Loa loa was observed only in single cases. In order to characterize the homologs of the BmR1 antigen in W. bancrofti (Wb-BmR1), O. volvulus (Ov-BmR1) and L. loa (Ll-BmR1) the cDNA sequences were identified, the protein expressed and the antibody reactivity of patients' sera was studied. METHODS: PCR methodology was used to identify the cDNA sequences from cDNA libraries and/or genomic DNA of W. bancrofti, O. volvulus and L. loa. The clones obtained were sequenced and compared to the cDNA sequence of BmR1. Ov-BmR1 and Ll-BmR1 were expressed in E. coli and tested using an IgG4-ELISA with 262 serum samples from individuals with or without B. malayi, W. bancrofti, O. volvulus and L. loa infections or various other parasitic infections. BmR1, Ov-BmR1 and Ll-BmR1 were also tested for reactivity with the other three IgG subclasses in patients' sera. RESULTS: Wb-BmR1 was found to be identical to BmR1. Ov-BmR1 and Ll-BmR1 were found to be identical to each other and share 99.7% homology with BmR1. The pattern of IgG4 recognition of all serum samples to BmR1, Ov-BmR1 and Ll-BmR1 were identical. This included weak IgG4 reactivities demonstrated by L. loa- and O. volvulus-infected patients tested with Ov-BmR1 and Ll-BmR1 (or BmR1). With respect to reactivity to other IgG subclasses, sera from O. volvulus- and L. loa-infected patients showed positive reactions (when tested with BmR1, Ov-BmR1 or Ll-BmR1 antigens) only with IgG1. No reactivity was observed with IgG2 or with IgG3. Similarly, ELISAs to detect reactivity to other anti-filarial IgG subclasses antibodies showed that sera from individuals infected with B. malayi or W. bancrofti (active infections as well as patients with chronic disease) were positive with BmR1 only for IgG1 and were negative when tested with IgG2 and with IgG3 subclasses. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that homologs of the BmR1 antigen are present in W. bancrofti, O. volvulus and L. loa and that these antigens are highly conserved. Recognition of this antigen by patients' sera is similar with regard to IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3, but different for IgG4 antibodies. We conclude that the BmR1 antigen is suitable for detection of IgG4 antibodies in brugian filariasis. However, its homologs are not suitable for IgG4-based diagnosis of other filarial infections.
  14. Noordin R, Abdullah KA, Azahri NA, Ramachandran CP
    PMID: 10928359
    Western blot analysis of infective larvae (L3) antigen of Brugia malayi were performed on 200 sera from six groups of individuals: 36 samples from B. malayi microfilaremic individuals; 10 samples from individuals with elephantiasis; 50 and 20 samples from amicrofilaremic individuals in a B. malayi endemic area with no anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies (towards microfilaria and adult worm antigens) and samples with high titres of the anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies respectively; 50 samples from non-endemic normals and 34 samples from geohelminth-infected individuals. After protein transfer, PVDF membrane strips were successively incubated with blocking solution, human sera, monoclonal anti-human IgG4 antibody-HRP and developed with luminol chemiluminescence substrate. 28/36 (78%), 1/10 (10%) and 16/20(80%) of sera from individuals with microfilariae, elephantiasis and amicrofilaremic individuals with high titers of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies respectively recognized L3 antigenic epitopes; the dominant and consistent antigenic bands were of approximately MW 43 kDa, 14 kDa, 15 kDa and 59 kDa. The rest of the sera were unreactive. This study showed that microfilaremics may or may not mount a notable antibody response to somatic L3 antigens, thus lending evidence that antibody response to this antigen is not protective against establishment of Brugia malayi infection.
  15. Noordin R, Shenoy RK, Rahman RA
    PMID: 15115085
    Brugia malayi infection is endemic in several Asian countries. Filaria-specific IgG4 antibody detection based on BmR1 recombinant antigen has been shown to be sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of brugian filariasis. Two formats of the test has been reported ie indirect ELISA (BE) and rapid dipstick test (BR). Since different test formats use different amounts of sample and reagents which may affect its sensitivity and specificity, this study was performed to compare these two test formats in the detection of B. malayi. A total of 264 blinded serum samples from India and Malaysia were employed. Group 1 comprised 164 samples from actively infected individuals and group 2 comprised 100 samples from filaria non-endemic areas. Sensitivity was 96.3% (158/164) and 90.8% (149/164) for rapid test and ELISA respectively; chi-square p=0.00. Both test formats demonstrated 100% specificity. Therefore the rapid test format was equally specific but more sensitive than the ELISA format. The ELISA format would be able to demonstrate decline in IgG4 titer post-treatment while the rapid test would be very useful for screening and diagnosis in the field.
  16. Ng YL, Olivos-García A, Lim TK, Noordin R, Lin Q, Othman N
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2018 12;99(6):1518-1529.
    PMID: 30298805 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0415
    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that causes amebiasis and poses a significant health risk for populations in endemic areas. The molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and regulation of the parasite are not well characterized. We aimed to identify and quantify the differentially abundant membrane proteins by comparing the membrane proteins of virulent and avirulent variants of E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS, and to investigate the potential associations among the differentially abundant membrane proteins. We performed quantitative proteomics analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling, in combination with two mass spectrometry instruments, that is, nano-liquid chromatography (nanoLC)-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and nanoLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Overall, 37 membrane proteins were found to be differentially abundant, whereby 19 and 18 membrane proteins of the virulent variant of E. histolytica increased and decreased in abundance, respectively. Proteins that were differentially abundant include Rho family GTPase, calreticulin, a 70-kDa heat shock protein, and hypothetical proteins. Analysis by Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships database revealed that the differentially abundant membrane proteins were mainly involved in catalytic activities (29.7%) and metabolic processes (32.4%). Differentially abundant membrane proteins that were found to be involved mainly in the catalytic activities and the metabolic processes were highlighted together with their putative roles in relation to the virulence. Further investigations should be performed to elucidate the roles of these proteins in E. histolytica pathogenesis.
  17. Ujang J, Sani AAA, Lim BH, Noordin R, Othman N
    Proteomics, 2018 12;18(23):e1700397.
    PMID: 30284757 DOI: 10.1002/pmic.201700397
    Entamoeba histolytica membrane proteins are important players toward the pathogenesis of amoebiasis, but the roles of most of the proteins are not fully understood. Since efficient protein extraction method is crucial for a successful MS analysis, three extractions methods are evaluated for the use in studying the membrane proteome of E. histolytica: Two commercial kits (ProteoExtract from Calbiochem and ProteoPrep from Sigma), and a conventional laboratory method. The results show that ProteoExtract and the conventional method gave higher protein yields compared to ProteoPrep. LC-ESI-MS/MS identifies 456, 482, and 551 membrane fraction proteins extracted using ProteoExtract, ProteoPrep, and a conventional method, respectively. In silico analysis predicts 108 (21%), 235 (45%), and 177 (34%) membrane proteins from the extracts of ProteoExtract, ProteoPrep, and the conventional method, respectively. Furthermore, analysis of the cytosolic and membrane fractions shows the highest selectivity of the membrane proteins using the ProteoPrep extraction kit. Overall, this study reports 828 E. histolytica membrane fraction proteins that include 249 predicted membrane proteins. The data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD010171.
  18. Noordin R, Othman N
    Malays J Med Sci, 2013 Mar;20(2):1-2.
    PMID: 23983570
    "Proteomics" refers to the systematic analysis of proteins. It complements other "omics" technologies such as genomics and transcriptomics in elucidating the identity of proteins of an organism, and understanding their functions. Proteomics is used in many areas of research such as discovery of markers for diagnosis and vaccine candidates, understanding pathogenic mechanisms, in the study of expression patterns at different time points and in response to different stimuli, and in elucidating functional protein networks. Proteomics analysis involves sample preparation, protein separation, and protein identification. The 'heart' of current proteomics is mass-spectrometry, with LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF being commonly used equipment. However, the high costs of the equipment, software, databases, and the need for skilled personnel limit the wide utilization of this technology in the less developed countries. Therefore, there need to be sharing of facilities, better networking and collaborations among our scientists and laboratories to take advantage of this powerful technology.
  19. Kumarasamy G, Abdus Sani AA, Olivos-García A, Noordin R, Othman N
    Pathog Glob Health, 2020 09;114(6):333-342.
    PMID: 32536281 DOI: 10.1080/20477724.2020.1780402
    Amoebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica, is one of the leading parasitic infections in the world. This study was aimed at profiling antigenic membrane proteins of a virulent variant of E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS. The membrane proteins were extracted using ProteoExtract® kit (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) or conventional method, separated using OFFGEL 3100 fractionator (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, California), followed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Selected antigenic membrane proteins were identified using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Subsequently, the proteins were classified according to their biological processes and predictions were made on membrane and membrane-associated proteins. When the proteins were probed with pooled sera from amoebic liver abscess (ALA) patients, 10 and 15 antigenic proteins with molecular weights 25 to 200 kDa were identified using the ProteoExtract® kit and conventional method, respectively. LC-ESI-MS/MS identified 13 antigenic proteins, and both extraction methods predicted six of them as membrane and membrane-associated proteins. The topmost biological processes which comprised of six proteins were involved in cellular processes.. These antigenic membrane proteins merit further investigations as potential candidates for vaccine studies.
  20. Khalilpour A, Osman S, Yunus MH, Santhanam A, Vellasamy N, Noordin R
    BMC Res Notes, 2014;7:809.
    PMID: 25406411 DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-809
    Helicobacter pylori is a human pathogen and during the process of infection, antigens from the bacterium elicit strong host humoral immune responses. In our previous report, native H. pylori UreG protein showed good reactivity with sera from H. pylori patients. This study was aimed at producing the recombinant form of the protein (rUreG) and determining its seroreactivities.
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