Displaying all 14 publications

  1. Rashid AA, Devaraj NK, Mohd Yusof H, Mustapha F, Wong SV, Ismail AF, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2020 Jul 02;10(7):e037653.
    PMID: 32616493 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037653
    INTRODUCTION: Medical doctors are often subjected to long working hours with minimal rest in between the shifts. This has led to many fatal and non-fatal road crash involvement (RCI). This study aims to determine the prevalence and predictors of RCI among medical doctors in Malaysia.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a cross-sectional study among 375 Malaysian medical doctors who met the inclusion criteria. A predetermined self-administered questionnaires will be used to collect information regarding the sociodemographic, health status, workplace information, work commuting information, driving behaviour, history of RCI, fatigue, sleep quality, mental health status and work engagement. The questionnaires consist of the following instruments: (1) sociodemographic, health status, workplace information, work commuting information, driving behaviour and history of RCI; (2) Checklist of Individual Strength Questionnaire; (3) Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; (4) 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale; and (5) Utrecht's Work Engagement Scale. The data will be analysed using SPSS program V.24. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used to determine the prevalence and predictors of RCI.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study protocol has received ethics approval from the Medical Research and Ethics Committee (MREC), Ministry of Health Malaysia (NMRR-18-3983-40609) and the Ethics Committee for Research Involving Human Subject, University Putra Malaysia (JKEUPM). Online written informed consent will be obtained from each study participant by the researchers. Results of the study will be disseminated through relevant journals and conferences.


  2. Dhillon H, Nordin RB, Ramadas A
    PMID: 31547629 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16193561
    Diabetes complications, medication adherence, and psychosocial well-being have been associated with quality of life (QOL) among several Western and Asian populations with diabetes, however, there is little evidence substantiating these relationships among Malaysia's unique and diverse population. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a Malaysian public primary care clinic among 150 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Structured and validated questionnaires were used to investigate the associations between demographic, clinical, and psychological factors with QOL of the study participants. Approximately three-quarters of patients had a good-excellent QOL. Diabetes-related variables that were significantly associated with poor QOL scores included insulin containing treatment regimens, poor glycemic control, inactive lifestyle, retinopathy, neuropathy, abnormal psychosocial well-being, higher diabetes complication severity, and nonadherence (p < 0.05). The main predictors of a good-excellent QOL were HbA1c ≤ 6.5% (aOR = 20.78, 95% CI = 2.5175.9, p = 0.005), normal anxiety levels (aOR = 5.73, 95% CI = 1.8-18.5, p = 0.004), medication adherence (aOR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.3-8.7, p = 0.012), and an aDCSI score of one and two as compared to those greater than or equal to four (aOR = 7.78, 95% CI = 1.5-39.2, p = 0.013 and aOR = 8.23, 95% CI = 2.1-32.8, p = 0.003), respectively. Medication adherence has also been found to be an effect modifier of relationships between HbA1c, depression, anxiety, disease severity, and QOL. These predictors of QOL are important factors to consider when managing patients with T2DM.
  3. Ang KP, Nordin RB, Lee SCY, Lee CY, Lu HT
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 02;74(1):51-56.
    PMID: 30846663
    INTRODUCTION: We aim to study the diagnostic value of electrocardiogram (ECG) in cardiac tamponade.

    METHODS: This study was a single centre, retrospective casecontrol study. We recruited 42 patients diagnosed with cardiac tamponade of various aetiologies confirmed by transthoracic echocardiography and 100 controls between January 2011 and December 2015. The ECG criteria of cardiac tamponade we adopted was as follows: 1) Low QRS voltage in a) the limb leads alone, b) in the precordial leads alone or, c) in all leads, 2) PR segment depression, 3) Electrical alternans, and 4) Sinus tachycardia.

    RESULTS: Malignancy was the most common causes of cardiac tamponade, the two groups were of similar proportion of gender and ethnicity. We calculated the sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of each ECG criteria. Among the ECG abnormalities, we noted the SN of 'low voltage in all chest leads' (69%), 'low voltage in all limb leads' (67%) and 'sinus tachycardia' (69%) were higher as compared to 'PR depression' (12%) and 'electrical alternan' (5%). On the other hand, 'low voltage in all chest leads' (98%), 'low voltage in all leads' (99%), 'PR depression' (100%) and 'electrical alternans' (100%) has highest SP.

    CONCLUSION: Our study reaffirmed the findings of previous studies that electrocardiography cannot be used as a screening tool for diagnosing cardiac tamponade due to its low sensitivity. However, with clinical correlation, electrocardiography is a valuable adjuvant test to 'rule in' cardiac tamponade because of its high specificity.

  4. Nordin RB, Soni T, Kaur A, Loh KP, Miranda S
    Singapore Med J, 2019 Jan;60(1):40-47.
    PMID: 29774359 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2018049
    INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a serious global burden that affects men as well as their partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of ED among male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor, Malaysia.

    METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of Malaysian men aged ≥ 18 years attending two major outpatient clinics in Johor Bahru and Segamat in Johor, Malaysia, between 1 January 2016 and 31 March 2016. Subjects were chosen via simple random sampling and 400 patients were recruited. The study instrument was a survey form that consisted of three sections: sociodemographic and comorbid profile, validated English and Malay versions of the 15-item International Index of Erectile Function, and the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of self-reported ED was 81.5%. The prevalence of ED according to severity was as follows: mild (17.0%), mild to moderate (23.8%), moderate (11.3%) and severe (29.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that ED was associated with increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 4.023, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.633-9.913), Indian as compared to Malay ethnicity (OR 3.252, 95% CI 1.280-8.262), secondary as compared to tertiary education (OR 2.171, 95% CI 1.203-3.919), single as compared to married status (OR 6.119, 95% CI 2.542-14.734) and stress (OR 4.259, 95% CI 1.793-10.114).

    CONCLUSION: ED has significant prevalence and severity among adult male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. Increasing age, Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, singlehood and stress were significant predictors of ED.

  5. Lu HT, Ramsamy G, Lee CY, Syed Hamid SRG, Kan FK, Nordin RB
    Am J Case Rep, 2018 Mar 19;19:314-319.
    PMID: 29551765
    BACKGROUND Melioidosis is a rare tropical bacterial infection caused by the Gram-negative soil saprophyte, Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis can mimic a variety of diseases due to its varied presentation, and unless it is treated rapidly, it can be fatal.  A rare case of melioidosis, with pericarditis and pericardial effusion, is described, which demonstrates the value of early diagnosis with echocardiography and pericardiocentesis. CASE REPORT A 38-year-old native (Iban) East Malaysian man presented with shortness of breath and tachycardia. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed cardiac tamponade. Urgent pericardiocentesis drained a large amount of purulent pericardial fluid that grew Burkholderia pseudomallei. Despite appropriate dose and duration of intravenous treatment with ceftazidime followed by meropenem, the patient developed recurrent pericardial effusion and right heart failure due to constrictive pericarditis. The diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis was confirmed by computed tomography (CT) and surgical exploration. Following pericardiectomy, his symptoms resolved, but patient follow-up was recommended for possible sequelae of constrictive pericarditis. CONCLUSIONS After the onset of melioidosis pericarditis, the authors recommend follow-up and surveillance for possible complication of constrictive pericarditis.
  6. Farouk Musa A, Quan CZ, Xin LZ, Soni T, Dillon J, Hay YK, et al.
    F1000Res, 2018;7:164.
    PMID: 30254739 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.13244.2
    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common after cardiac surgery and has been associated with poor outcome and increased resource utilization. The main objective of this study is to determine the incidence of POAF in Malaysia and identify the predictors of developing POAF. The secondary outcome of this study would be to investigate the difference in mortality and morbidity rates and the duration of intensive care unit (ICU), high dependency unit (HDU) and hospital stay between the two. Methods: This is a retrospective single-center, cross sectional study conducted at the National Heart Institute, Malaysia. Medical records of 637 who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery in 2015 were accrued. Pre-operative, operative and post-operative information were subsequently collected on a pre-formulated data collection sheet. Data were then analyzed using IBM SPSS v23. Results: The incidence of POAF in our study stands at 28.7% with a mean onset of 45±33 hours post operatively. Variables with independent association with POAF include advancing age, Indian population, history of chronic kidney disease, left ventricular ejection fraction and beta-blocker treatment. The mortality rate is significantly higher statistically ( p < 0.05), and similarly the incidence of stroke. The incidence of other post-operative complications was also significantly higher statistically. The duration of ICU, HDU and hospital stays were statistically longer ( p < 0.001) with higher rates of ICU readmissions and reintubations seen. Conclusion: We conclude that the incidence of POAF in Malaysia is comparable to the figures in Western countries, making POAF one of the most commonly encountered condition after CABG with similar higher rates of mortality, poor outcomes and longer duration of stay, and therefore increased cost of care. Strategies to reduce the incidence of AF after cardiac surgery should favorably affect surgical outcomes and reduce utilization of resources and thus lower cost of care.
  7. Ilic D, Nordin RB, Glasziou P, Tilson JK, Villanueva E
    BMC Med Educ, 2015;15:39.
    PMID: 25884717 DOI: 10.1186/s12909-015-0321-6
    BACKGROUND: Few studies have been performed to inform how best to teach evidence-based medicine (EBM) to medical trainees. Current evidence can only conclude that any form of teaching increases EBM competency, but cannot distinguish which form of teaching is most effective at increasing student competency in EBM. This study compared the effectiveness of a blended learning (BL) versus didactic learning (DL) approach of teaching EBM to medical students with respect to competency, self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviour toward EBM.
    METHODS: A mixed methods study consisting of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) and qualitative case study was performed with medical students undertaking their first clinical year of training in EBM. Students were randomly assigned to receive EBM teaching via either a BL approach or the incumbent DL approach. Competency in EBM was assessed using the Berlin questionnaire and the 'Assessing Competency in EBM' (ACE) tool. Students' self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviour was also assessed. A series of focus groups was also performed to contextualise the quantitative results.
    RESULTS: A total of 147 students completed the RCT, and a further 29 students participated in six focus group discussions. Students who received the BL approach to teaching EBM had significantly higher scores in 5 out of 6 behaviour domains, 3 out of 4 attitude domains and 10 out of 14 self-efficacy domains. Competency in EBM did not differ significantly between students receiving the BL approach versus those receiving the DL approach [Mean Difference (MD)=-0.68, (95% CI-1.71, 0.34), p=0.19]. No significant difference was observed between sites (p=0.89) or by student type (p=0.58). Focus group discussions suggested a strong student preference for teaching using a BL approach, which integrates lectures, online learning and small group activities.
    CONCLUSIONS: BL is no more effective than DL at increasing medical students' knowledge and skills in EBM, but was significantly more effective at increasing student attitudes toward EBM and self-reported use of EBM in clinical practice. Given the various learning styles preferred by students, a multifaceted approach (incorporating BL) may be best suited when teaching EBM to medical students. Further research on the cost-effectiveness of EBM teaching modalities is required.
  8. Botross NP, Riad AA, Viswanathan S, Nordin RB, Lock HN
    Scott Med J, 2014 May;59(2):e1-6.
    PMID: 24671628 DOI: 10.1177/0036933014529868
    Gaucher's disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of glucocerebrosidase. Gaucher's disease has three clinical types: non-neuronopathic (Type 1), Acute Neuropathic (Type 2) and chronic neuronopathic (Type 3). The chronic neuronopathic (Type 3) is characterised by a variety of disease variants with onset in childhood with hepatomegaly, skeletal lesions and later slow horizontal saccades, treatment-resistant generalised tonic-clonic and myoclonic seizures, dementia, progressive spasticity, cognitive deterioration, ataxia and death in the second or third decade of life.
  9. Lu HT, Nordin RB
    PMID: 24195639 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-13-97
    The National Cardiovascular Disease (NCVD) Database Registry represents one of the first prospective, multi-center registries to treat and prevent coronary artery disease (CAD) in Malaysia. Since ethnicity is an important consideration in the occurrence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) globally, therefore, we aimed to identify the role of ethnicity in the occurrence of ACS among high-risk groups in the Malaysian population.
  10. Thomas S, Beh L, Nordin RB
    J Public Health Afr, 2011 Sep 05;2(2):e23.
    PMID: 28299064 DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2011.e23
    Since 1957, there has been major reorganization of health care services in Malaysia. This article assesses the changes and challenges in health care delivery in Malaysia and how the management in health care processes has evolved over the years including equitable health care and health care financing. The health care service in Malaysia is changing towards wellness service as opposed to illness service. The Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH), being the main provider of health services, may need to manage and mobilize better health care services by providing better health care financing mechanisms. It is recommended that partnership between public and private sectors with the extension of traditional medicine complementing western medicine in medical therapy continues in the delivery of health care.
  11. Bachok N, Nordin RB, Awang CW, Ibrahim NA, Naing L
    PMID: 17120976
    Head lice infestation contributes a significant morbidity among schoolchildren in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of head lice infestation among primary schoolchildren in Kelantan, Malaysia. Six schools were randomly selected from three sub-districts of Kuala Krai, Kelantan. A total of 463 eleven-year-old pupils were screened by visual scalp examination and fine-toothed combing. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demography and associated factors of head lice infestation. The prevalence of head lice infestation was 35.0% (95% Cl: 30.6, 39.3) with 11.9% inactive, 23.1% active, 18.2% light and 16.8% heavy infestations. The associated factors were girls; family income of RM247 or less; head lice infestation of family member and having four or more siblings. The high prevalence of head lice infestation in this study indicates the need for regular school health program that emphasis on the eradication of head lice. The significant associated factors identified in this study reconfirm the importance of controlling the transmissibility of head lice. Pupils and parents should be informed regarding factors that may facilitate the transmission of head lice.
  12. Kimura K, Yokoyama K, Sato H, Nordin RB, Naing L, Kimura S, et al.
    Ind Health, 2005 Apr;43(2):285-94.
    PMID: 15895843
    We examined the effects of pesticides on the central and peripheral nervous system in the setting of a tobacco farm at a developing country. Maximal motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities (MCV and SCV, respectively) in the median, sural and tibial nerves, postural sway, and brain-evoked potentials (auditory event-related and visual-evoked potentials) were measured in 80 male tobacco farmers and age- and sex-matched 40 controls in Kelantan, Malaysia. Median SCV (finger-wrist) in farmers using Delsen (mancozeb, dithiocarbamate fungicide), who showed significant decrease of serum cholinesterase activities, were significantly lower compared with the controls. Sural SCV in farmers using Fastac (alpha-cypermethrin, pyrethroid insecticide) and median MCV (elbow-wrist) in farmers using Tamex (butralin, dinitroaniline herbicide) were significantly slowed compared with their respective controls. In Delsen (mancozeb, dithiocarbamate) users, the power of postural sway of 0-1 Hz was significantly larger than that in the controls both in the anterior-posterior direction with eyes open and in the right-left direction with eyes closed. The former type of sway was also significantly increased in Tamaron (methamidophos, organophosphorus insecticide) users. In conclusion, nerve conduction velocities and postural sway seem to be sensitive indicators of the effects of pesticides on the central and peripheral nervous system.
  13. Onuki M, Yokoyama K, Kimura K, Sato H, Nordin RB, Naing L, et al.
    J Occup Health, 2003 May;45(3):140-5.
    PMID: 14646288
    To assess dermal absorption of nicotine from tobacco leaves in relation to Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS), urinary cotinine concentrations were measured in 80 male tobacco-growing farmers and in 40 healthy males (controls) who did not handle wet tobacco leaves in Kelantan, Malaysia. Among non-smokers, urinary cotinine levels in farmers were significantly higher than those of controls; farmers with urinary cotinine of 50 ng/ml/m2 or above showed eye symptoms more frequently than those below this level (p<0.05). Farmers who did not wear protective equipment had subjective symptoms more frequently than those who used the equipment (p<0.05); some of these symptoms were seen more frequently in organophosphate (Tamaron) users than in non-users. As tobacco farmers evidence a risk of nicotine poisoning from tobacco leaves, assessment including GTS together with effects of pesticides will be necessary.
  14. Nordin RB, Rahman Bin Isa A, Rusli Bin Abdullah M
    Malays J Med Sci, 2001 Jul;8(2):9-13.
    PMID: 22893754 MyJurnal
    The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among female drug abusers was studied by screening 130 new inmates of a rehabilitation centre. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire, physical examination and specimen collection for laboratory investigation at the Community Medicine Clinic of HUSM. The majority (64.6%) were Malays and self-confessed sex workers (77.7%). A high prevalence of syphilis (50.8%), hepatitis B (52.2%), moniliasis (23.8%), trichomoniasis (19.2%) and gonococcal vaginitis (8.5%) was noted. More than half of them harbour 2 or more STDs. Six subjects, of whom 5 were Malays, were HIV positive. The evidence indicates that female drug abusers need a thorough screening for STD followed by an aggressive treatment regimen. Since the majority of them were born Muslims, they should have access to spiritual counselling and rehabilitation, stressing on repentance, and adopting a compassionate and forgiving approach.
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