This study aimed to determine the relationship between child feeding practices, food habits, and anthropometric indicators with cognitive performance of preschoolers aged 4-6 years in Peninsular Malaysia (n=1933). Parents were interviewed on socio-demographic background, nutrition knowledge, child feeding practices and food habits. Height and weight of the preschoolers were measured; BMI-for-age, weight-for-age and height-for-age were determined. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The mean monthly household income was RM3610 and 59.6% of parents attained secondary education. Thirty-three percent of parents had good knowledge on nutrition, 39% satisfactory and 28% poor. For child feeding practices, perceived responsibility had the highest mean score (M=3.99, SD=0.72), while perceived child weight had the lowest (M=2.94, SD=0.38). The prevalence of possible risk of overweight, being overweight, and obesity were 3.9%, 7.9% and 8.1%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 8.0% and 8.4%, respectively. Breakfast was the second most frequently skipped meal (16.8%) after dinner (18.1%). The mean cognitive score was 103.5 (SD=14.4). Height-for-age and consumption of dinner were found to contribute significantly towards cognitive performance after controlling for socio-demographic background and parent's nutrition knowledge.
The assessment of exclusive breastfeeding is important to invest the efforts to promote and support breastfeeding practices. Hence this study was carried out to compare breastfeeding practices among mothers using deuterium dose to mother technique with maternal recall breastfeeding practice. A total of 30 mother-infant pairs from a university hospital and government health clinics in Klang Valley participated and completed the study. Mother-infant pairs were recruited into the study when infants were aged 3 months ± 1 week. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference for mother; length and weight for infant) were carried out. Socio-demographic questionnaire was self-administered while breastfeeding practices were interview administered using maternal recall breastfeeding practice questionnaire (MRBF). This was followed by baseline saliva collection of mother-infant pairs before dose and 6 days after mothers were given 30 ± 0.01 g of D2 O. The post dose saliva sample of mother-infant pairs were collected 6 times at day 1,2,3,4,13 and 14.The results showed that majority of mothers (57%) were university graduates but majority were stay at home mothers. Meanwhile, mothers had BMI with mean 25 ± 4 kg/m2 . The results from MRBF questionnaire showed that all mothers were practicing exclusive breastfeeding and their infant never received any water sources other than their breast milk. However, the deuterium dose to mother technique revealed only 3% of mothers were actually practicing exclusive breastfeeding. From the isotopic data, the calculated mean intake of milk was 721 ± 243 g/day while the mean non-milk oral intake of 122 ± 22 g/ day. In contrast exclusive breastfeeding infants received only 10 g/day non milk oral intake, demonstrating exclusive breastfeeding practice of mothers. There were different breastfeeding practice reported from mother using deuterium oxide dose to mother technique with maternal recall breastfeeding practice.