The importance of lianas through time and their effect on tree reproduction are evaluated for the first time in a Southeast Asian Dipterocarp forest. We quantified flower and seed production by lianas and trees for 13 years, assessed liana loads in the crowns of all trees larger than 30 cm in diameter at breast height (1.3 m) in 2002 and 2014, and assessed levels of reproduction for the same trees during a strong general flowering event in 2014 for the 50-ha forest dynamics plot at the Pasoh Forest Reserve, Malaysia. General flowering refers to synchronous reproduction by hundreds of plant species at irregular, multiyear intervals and only occurs in Southeast Asian Dipterocarp forests. Overall, lianas were present in 50% of tree crowns and comprised 31% of flower production and 46% of seed production. Lianas reduced growth, survival, and reproduction by their host trees. Lianas were less frequent in canopy- emergent trees, Dipterocarps comprised a disproportionately large proportion of canopy emergents, and, as a consequence, lianas were less frequent in Dipterocarps than in trees from other plant families. Lianas infested the crowns of significantly fewer trees in 2014 (47.9%) than in 2002 (52.3%); however, the decrease was restricted to trees with the lightest liana loads and sample sizes and statistical power were enormous. Lianas comprised a stable proportion of flower production and a highly variable proportion of seed production from 2002 through 2013. We conclude lianas have a huge impact on trees in this forest and were a stable component of the forest between 2002 and 2014. The emergent habit and associated ability to avoid lianas might contribute to the success of the Dipterocarpaceae.
Previous work has shown that exposure to images of nature results in elevated state body appreciation, but static images may lack ecological validity. Here, we examined the impact of exposure to short films of simulated, first-person walks in natural or built environments. Thirty-six university students completed a measure of state body appreciation before and after watching films of either a walk in a natural or a built environment created specifically for the present study. Two weeks later, they completed the same task but watched the other film type. Results indicated that exposure to the film of a natural environment resulted in significantly elevated state body appreciation (d = 0.66). There was no significant change in state body appreciation following exposure to the film of the built environment (d = 0.14). These findings suggest that exposure to films depicting the natural environment may promote immediate, moderate-sized improvements in state body image.