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  1. Kura NU, Ramli MF, Sulaiman WNA, Ibrahim S, Aris AZ
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Mar;25(8):7231-7249.
    PMID: 26686857 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5957-6
    In this paper, numerous studies on groundwater in Malaysia were reviewed with the aim of evaluating past trends and the current status for discerning the sustainability of the water resources in the country. It was found that most of the previous groundwater studies (44 %) focused on the islands and mostly concentrated on qualitative assessment with more emphasis being placed on seawater intrusion studies. This was then followed by inland-based studies, with Selangor state leading the studies which reflected the current water challenges facing the state. From a methodological perspective, geophysics, graphical methods, and statistical analysis are the dominant techniques (38, 25, and 25 %) respectively. The geophysical methods especially the 2D resistivity method cut across many subjects such as seawater intrusion studies, quantitative assessment, and hydraulic parameters estimation. The statistical techniques used include multivariate statistical analysis techniques and ANOVA among others, most of which are quality related studies using major ions, in situ parameters, and heavy metals. Conversely, numerical techniques like MODFLOW were somewhat less admired which is likely due to their complexity in nature and high data demand. This work will facilitate researchers in identifying the specific areas which need improvement and focus, while, at the same time, provide policymakers and managers with an executive summary and knowledge of the current situation in groundwater studies and where more work needs to be done for sustainable development.
  2. Kura NU, Ramli MF, Ibrahim S, Sulaiman WN, Zaudi MA, Aris AZ
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:796425.
    PMID: 25574493 DOI: 10.1155/2014/796425
    The existing knowledge regarding seawater intrusion and particularly upconing, in which both problems are linked to pumping, entirely relies on theoretical assumptions. Therefore, in this paper, an attempt is made to capture the effects of pumping on seawater intrusion and upconing using 2D resistivity measurement. For this work, two positions, one perpendicular and the other parallel to the sea, were chosen as profile line for resistivity measurement in the coastal area near the pumping wells of Kapas Island, Malaysia. Subsequently, water was pumped out of two pumping wells simultaneously for about five straight hours. Then, immediately after the pumping stopped, resistivity measurements were taken along the two stationed profile lines. This was followed by additional measurements after four and eight hours. The results showed an upconing with low resistivity of about 1-10 Ωm just beneath the pumping well along the first profile line that was taken just after the pumping stopped. The resistivity image also shows an intrusion of saline water (water enriched with diluted salt) from the sea coming towards the pumping well with resistivity values ranging between 10 and 25 Ωm. The subsequent measurements show the recovery of freshwater in the aquifer and how the saline water is gradually diluted or pushed out of the aquifer. Similarly the line parallel to the sea (L2) reveals almost the same result as the first line. However, in the second and third measurements, there were some significant variations which were contrary to the expectation that the freshwater may completely flush out the saline water from the aquifer. These two time series lines show that as the areas with the lowest resistivity (1 Ωm) shrink with time, the low resistivity (10 Ωm) tends to take over almost the entire area implying that the freshwater-saltwater equilibrium zone has already been altered. These results have clearly enhanced our current understanding and add more scientific weight to the theoretical assumptions on the effects of pumping on seawater intrusion and upconing.
  3. Kura NU, Ramli MF, Ibrahim S, Sulaiman WN, Aris AZ
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2014;21(11):7047-64.
    PMID: 24532282 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-2598-0
    In this study, geophysics, geochemistry, and geostatistical techniques were integrated to assess seawater intrusion in Kapas Island due to its geological complexity and multiple contamination sources. Five resistivity profiles were measured using an electric resistivity technique. The results reveal very low resistivity <1 Ωm, suggesting either marine clay deposit or seawater intrusion or both along the majority of the resistivity images. As a result, geochemistry was further employed to verify the resistivity evidence. The Chadha and Stiff diagrams classify the island groundwater into Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3, Na-HCO3, and Na-Cl water types, with Ca-HCO3 as the dominant. The Mg(2+)/Mg(2+)+Ca(2+), HCO3 (-)/anion, Cl(-)/HCO3 (-), Na(+)/Cl(-), and SO4 (2-)/Cl(-) ratios show that some sampling sites are affected by seawater intrusion; these sampling sites fall within the same areas that show low-resistivity values. The resulting ratios and resistivity values were then used in the geographical information system (GIS) environment to create the geostatistical map of individual indicators. These maps were then overlaid to create the final map showing seawater-affected areas. The final map successfully delineates the area that is actually undergoing seawater intrusion. The proposed technique is not area specific, and hence, it can work in any place with similar completed characteristics or under the influence of multiple contaminants so as to distinguish the area that is truly affected by any targeted pollutants from the rest. This information would provide managers and policy makers with the knowledge of the current situation and will serve as a guide and standard in water research for sustainable management plan.
  4. Gazzaz NM, Yusoff MK, Juahir H, Ramli MF, Aris AZ
    Water Environ Res, 2013 Aug;85(8):751-66.
    PMID: 24003601
    This study investigated relationships of a water quality index (WQI) with multiple water quality variables (WQVs), explored variability in water quality over time and space, and established linear and non-linear models predictive of WQI from raw WQVs. Data were processed using Spearman's rank correlation analysis, multiple linear regression, and artificial neural network modeling. Correlation analysis indicated that from a temporal perspective, the WQI, temperature, and zinc, arsenic, chemical oxygen demand, sodium, and dissolved oxygen concentrations increased, whereas turbidity and suspended solids, total solids, nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), and biochemical oxygen demand concentrations decreased with year. From a spatial perspective, an increase with distance of the sampling station from the headwater was exhibited by 10 WQVs: magnesium, calcium, dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, temperature, NO3-N, arsenic, chloride, potassium, and sodium. At the same time, the WQI; Escherichia coli bacteria counts; and suspended solids, total solids, and dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased with distance from the headwater. Lastly, regression and artificial neural network models with high prediction powers (81.2% and 91.4%, respectively) were developed and are discussed.
  5. Gazzaz NM, Yusoff MK, Ramli MF, Juahir H, Aris AZ
    Water Environ Res, 2015 Feb;87(2):99-112.
    PMID: 25790513
    This paper describes the design of an artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict the water quality index (WQI) using land use areas as predictors. Ten-year records of land use statistics and water quality data for Kinta River (Malaysia) were employed in the modeling process. The most accurate WQI predictions were obtained with the network architecture 7-23-1; the back propagation training algorithm; and a learning rate of 0.02. The WQI forecasts of this model had significant (p < 0.01), positive, very high correlation (ρs = 0.882) with the measured WQI values. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the relative importance of the land use classes to WQI predictions followed the order: mining > rubber > forest > logging > urban areas > agriculture > oil palm. These findings show that the ANNs are highly reliable means of relating water quality to land use, thus integrating land use development with river water quality management.
  6. Aburas MM, Ho YM, Ramli MF, Ash'aari ZH
    Environ Monit Assess, 2018 Feb 20;190(3):156.
    PMID: 29464400 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-018-6522-9
    The identification of spatio-temporal patterns of the urban growth phenomenon has become one of the most significant challenges in monitoring and assessing current and future trends of the urban growth issue. Therefore, spatio-temporal and quantitative techniques should be used hand in hand for a deeper understanding of various aspects of urban growth. The main purpose of this study is to monitor and assess the significant patterns of urban growth in Seremban using a spatio-temporal built-up area analysis. The concentric circles approach was used to measure the compactness and dispersion of built-up area by employing Shannon's Entropy method. The spatial directions approach was also utilised to measure the sustainability and speed of development, while the gradient approach was used to measure urban dynamics by employing landscape matrices. The overall results confirm that urban growth in Seremban is dispersed, unbalanced and unsustainable with a rapid speed of regional development. The main contribution of using existing methods with other methods is to provide several spatial and statistical dimensions that can help researchers, decision makers and local authorities understand the trend of growth and its patterns in order to take the appropriate decisions for future urban planning. For example, Shannon's Entropy findings indicate a high value of dispersion between the years 1990 and 2000 and from 2010 to 2016 with a growth rate of approximately 94 and 14%, respectively. Therefore, these results can help and support decision makers to implement alternative urban forms such as the compactness form to achieve an urban form that is more suitable and sustainable. The results of this study confirm the importance of using spatio-temporal built-up area and quantitative analysis to protect the sustainability of land use, as well as to improve the urban planning system via the effective monitoring and assessment of urban growth trends and patterns.
  7. Sheikhy Narany T, Ramli MF, Aris AZ, Sulaiman WN, Fakharian K
    Environ Monit Assess, 2014 Sep;186(9):5797-815.
    PMID: 24891071 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-014-3820-8
    In recent years, groundwater quality has become a global concern due to its effect on human life and natural ecosystems. To assess the groundwater quality in the Amol-Babol Plain, a total of 308 water samples were collected during wet and dry seasons in 2009. The samples were analysed for their physico-chemical and biological constituents. Multivariate statistical analysis and geostatistical techniques were applied to assess the spatial and temporal variabilities of groundwater quality and to identify the main factors and sources of contamination. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that seven factors explained around 75% of the total variance, which highlighted salinity, hardness and biological pollution as the dominant factors affecting the groundwater quality in the Plain. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted on the dataset to evaluate the spatio-temporal variation. The results showed that there were no significant temporal variations between the two seasons, which explained the similarity between six component factors in dry and wet seasons based on the PCA results. There are also significant spatial differences (p > 0.05) of the parameters under study, including salinity, potassium, sulphate and dissolved oxygen in the plain. The least significant difference (LSD) test revealed that groundwater salinity in the eastern region is significantly different to the central and western side of the study area. Finally, multivariate analysis and geostatistical techniques were combined as an effective method for demonstrating the spatial structure of multivariate spatial data. It was concluded that multiple natural processes and anthropogenic activities were the main sources of groundwater salinization, hardness and microbiological contamination of the study area.
  8. Sheikhy Narany T, Ramli MF, Aris AZ, Sulaiman WN, Juahir H, Fakharian K
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:419058.
    PMID: 24523640 DOI: 10.1155/2014/419058
    Hydrogeochemical investigations had been carried out at the Amol-Babol Plain in the north of Iran. Geochemical processes and factors controlling the groundwater chemistry are identified based on the combination of classic geochemical methods with geographic information system (GIS) and geostatistical techniques. The results of the ionic ratios and Gibbs plots show that water rock interaction mechanisms, followed by cation exchange, and dissolution of carbonate and silicate minerals have influenced the groundwater chemistry in the study area. The hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater show a shift from low mineralized Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3, and Ca-Cl water types to high mineralized Na-Cl water type. Three classes, namely, C1, C2, and C3, have been classified using cluster analysis. The spatial distribution maps of Na(+)/Cl(-), Mg(2+)/Ca(2+), and Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) ratios and electrical conductivity values indicate that the carbonate and weathering of silicate minerals played a significant role in the groundwater chemistry on the southern and western sides of the plain. However, salinization process had increased due to the influence of the evaporation-precipitation process towards the north-eastern side of the study area.
  9. Dillon J, Yakub MA, Kong PK, Ramli MF, Jaffar N, Gaffar IF
    J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 2015 Mar;149(3):771-7; discussion 777-9.
    PMID: 25308120 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2014.08.066
    Mitral valve repair is perceived to be of limited durability for advanced rheumatic disease in adults. We aim to examine the long-term outcomes of repair for rheumatic disease, identify predictors of durability, and compare with repair for degenerative disease.
  10. Hamizan AW, Choo YY, Loh PV, Abd Talib NF, Mohd Ramli MF, Zahedi FD, et al.
    J Laryngol Otol, 2021 Feb;135(2):142-146.
    PMID: 33494850 DOI: 10.1017/S0022215120002492
    BACKGROUND: Laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms assessed with the reflux symptom index can overlap with non-allergic rhinitis symptoms. This study aims to explore the association between the reflux symptom index and nasal symptoms in non-allergic rhinitis patients.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on consecutive adults with non-allergic rhinitis. The reflux symptom index (score of more than 13 = laryngopharyngeal reflux) and nasal symptoms (categorised as mild (total score of 0-3), moderate (4-7) or severe (8-12)) were assessed.

    RESULTS: The study included 227 participants (aged 58.64 ± 12.39 years, 59.5 per cent female). The reflux symptom index scores increased with total nasal symptom scores (mild vs moderate vs severe, 8.61 ± 6.27 vs 12.94 ± 7.4 vs 16.40 ± 8.10; p < 0.01). Logistic regression indicated that laryngopharyngeal reflux is more likely in patients with severe nose block (odds ratio 5.47 (95 per cent confidence interval = 2.16-13.87); p < 0.01).

    CONCLUSION: Laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms are associated with nasal symptom severity, and nasal symptoms should be primarily treated. Those with predominant nose block and laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms are more likely to have laryngopharyngeal reflux.

  11. Mustapha A, Aris AZ, Ramli MF, Juahir H
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:294540.
    PMID: 22919302 DOI: 10.1100/2012/294540
    Robust statistical tools were applied on the water quality datasets with the aim of determining the most significance parameters and their contribution towards temporal water quality variation. Surface water samples were collected from four different sampling points during dry and wet seasons and analyzed for their physicochemical constituents. Discriminant analysis (DA) provided better results with great discriminatory ability by using five parameters with (P < 0.05) for dry season affording more than 96% correct assignation and used five and six parameters for forward and backward stepwise in wet season data with P-value (P < 0.05) affording 68.20% and 82%, respectively. Partial correlation results revealed that there are strong (r(p) = 0.829) and moderate (r(p) = 0.614) relationships between five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solids (TS) and dissolved solids (DS) controlling for the linear effect of nitrogen in the form of ammonia (NH(3)) and conductivity for dry and wet seasons, respectively. Multiple linear regression identified the contribution of each variable with significant values r = 0.988, R(2) = 0.976 and r = 0.970, R(2) = 0.942 (P < 0.05) for dry and wet seasons, respectively. Repeated measure t-test confirmed that the surface water quality varies significantly between the seasons with significant value P < 0.05.
  12. Mustapha A, Aris AZ, Ramli MF, Juahir H
    PMID: 22702815 DOI: 10.1080/10934529.2012.680415
    The pollution status of the downstream section of the Jakara River was investigated. Dissolved oxygen (DO), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), pH, conductivity, salinity, temperature, nitrogen in the form of ammonia (NH(3)), turbidity, dissolved solids (DS), total solids (TS), nitrates (NO(3)), chloride (Cl) and phosphates (PO(3-)(4)) were evaluated, using both dry and wet season samples, as a measure of variation in surface water quality in the area. The results obtained from the analyses were correlated using Pearson's correlation matrix, principal component analysis (PCA) and paired sample t-tests. Positive correlations were observed for BOD(5), NH(3), COD, and SS, turbidity, conductivity, salinity, DS, TS for dry and wet seasons, respectively. PCA was used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter, and yielded 5 varimax factors for each of dry and wet seasons, with 70.7 % and 83.1 % total variance, respectively. A paired sample t-test confirmed that the surface water quality varies significantly between dry and wet season samples (P < 0.01). The source of pollution in the area was concluded to be of anthropogenic origin in the dry season and natural origins in the wet season.
  13. Gazzaz NM, Yusoff MK, Ramli MF, Aris AZ, Juahir H
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2012 Apr;64(4):688-98.
    PMID: 22330076 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.01.032
    This study employed three chemometric data mining techniques (factor analysis (FA), cluster analysis (CA), and discriminant analysis (DA)) to identify the latent structure of a water quality (WQ) dataset pertaining to Kinta River (Malaysia) and to classify eight WQ monitoring stations along the river into groups of similar WQ characteristics. FA identified the WQ parameters responsible for variations in Kinta River's WQ and accentuated the roles of weathering and surface runoff in determining the river's WQ. CA grouped the monitoring locations into a cluster of low levels of water pollution (the two uppermost monitoring stations) and another of relatively high levels of river pollution (the mid-, and down-stream stations). DA confirmed these clusters and produced a discriminant function which can predict the cluster membership of new and/or unknown samples. These chemometric techniques highlight the potential for reasonably reducing the number of WQVs and monitoring stations for long-term monitoring purposes.
  14. Mustapha A, Aris AZ, Juahir H, Ramli MF, Kura NU
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2013 Aug;20(8):5630-44.
    PMID: 23443942 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-1542-z
    Jakara River Basin has been extensively studied to assess the overall water quality and to identify the major variables responsible for water quality variations in the basin. A total of 27 sampling points were selected in the riverine network of the Upper Jakara River Basin. Water samples were collected in triplicate and analyzed for physicochemical variables. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship of water quality parameters and revealed a significant relationship between salinity, conductivity with dissolved solids (DS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and nitrogen in form of ammonia (NH4). Partial correlation analysis (r p) results showed that there is a strong relationship between salinity and turbidity (r p=0.930, p=0.001) and BOD5 and COD (r p=0.839, p=0.001) controlling for the linear effects of conductivity and NH4, respectively. Principal component analysis and or factor analysis was used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter in the Jakara Basin and identified three major factors explaining 68.11 % of the total variance in water quality. The major variations are related to anthropogenic activities (irrigation agricultural, construction activities, clearing of land, and domestic waste disposal) and natural processes (erosion of river bank and runoff). Discriminant analysis (DA) was applied on the dataset to maximize the similarities between group relative to within-group variance of the parameters. DA provided better results with great discriminatory ability using eight variables (DO, BOD5, COD, SS, NH4, conductivity, salinity, and DS) as the most statistically significantly responsible for surface water quality variation in the area. The present study, however, makes several noteworthy contributions to the existing knowledge on the spatial variations of surface water quality and is believed to serve as a baseline data for further studies. Future research should therefore concentrate on the investigation of temporal variations of water quality in the basin.
  15. Kura NU, Ramli MF, Sulaiman WN, Ibrahim S, Aris AZ, Mustapha A
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2013 May;10(5):1861-81.
    PMID: 23648442 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10051861
    Groundwater chemistry of small tropical islands is influenced by many factors, such as recharge, weathering and seawater intrusion, among others, which interact with each other in a very complex way. In this work, multivariate statistical analysis was used to evaluate the factors controlling the groundwater chemistry of Kapas Island (Malaysia). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to 17 hydrochemical parameters from 108 groundwater samples obtained from 18 sampling sites. PCA extracted four PCs, namely seawater intrusion, redox reaction, anthropogenic pollution and weather factors, which collectively were responsible for more than 87% of the total variance of the island's hydrochemistry. The cluster analysis indicated that three factors (weather, redox reaction and seawater intrusion) controlled the hydrochemistry of the area, and the variables were allocated to three groups based on similarity. A Piper diagram classified the island's water types into Ca-HCO3 water type, Na-HCO3 water type, Na-SO4-Cl water type and Na-Cl water type, indicating recharge, mixed, weathering and leached from sewage and seawater intrusion, respectively. This work will provide policy makers and land managers with knowledge of the precise water quality problems affecting the island and can also serve as a guide for hydrochemistry assessments of other islands that share similar characteristics with the island in question.
  16. Yakub MA, Sivalingam S, Dillon J, Matsuhama M, Latiff HA, Ramli MF
    Ann Thorac Surg, 2015 Mar;99(3):884-90; discussion 890.
    PMID: 25579160 DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.09.016
    This study compares the midterm results of mitral valve repair using the biodegradable ring versus repair with non-ring annuloplasty techniques for congenital mitral valve disease in young children where it was not possible to use standard commercial rings.
  17. Gazzaz NM, Yusoff MK, Aris AZ, Juahir H, Ramli MF
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2012 Nov;64(11):2409-20.
    PMID: 22925610 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.08.005
    This article describes design and application of feed-forward, fully-connected, three-layer perceptron neural network model for computing the water quality index (WQI)(1) for Kinta River (Malaysia). The modeling efforts showed that the optimal network architecture was 23-34-1 and that the best WQI predictions were associated with the quick propagation (QP) training algorithm; a learning rate of 0.06; and a QP coefficient of 1.75. The WQI predictions of this model had significant, positive, very high correlation (r=0.977, p<0.01) with the measured WQI values, implying that the model predictions explain around 95.4% of the variation in the measured WQI values. The approach presented in this article offers useful and powerful alternative to WQI computation and prediction, especially in the case of WQI calculation methods which involve lengthy computations and use of various sub-index formulae for each value, or range of values, of the constituent water quality variables.
  18. Adnan RA, Ramli MF, Othman HF, Asha'ri ZH, Ismail SNS, Samsudin S
    Acta Trop, 2021 Apr;216:105834.
    PMID: 33485870 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.105834
    BACKGROUND: Dengue incidence has grown dramatically around the world in recent years. Vector control is the only method to reduce dengue incidence due to the lack of a vaccine available. By understanding the factors contributed to the vector densities such as environmental and sociological factors, dengue prevention and control may succeed.

    OBJECTIVE: This study is aimed at determining the impact of sociological and environmental factors contributing to dengue cases.

    METHODS: The study surveyed 379 respondents with dengue history. The socio-environmental factors were evaluated by chi-square and binary regression.

    RESULT: The chi-square results revealed sociological factors associated between family with dengue experience such as older age (p =0.012), fewer than four people in the household (p= 0.008), working people (p= 0.004) and apartment/terrace houses (p=0.023). Similarly, there is a significant association between respondent's dengue history and houses that are shaded with vegetation (p= 0.012) and the present of public playground areas near the residential (p = 0.011).

    CONCLUSION: The study identified socio-environmental factors that play an important role in the abundance of Aedes mosquitoes and also for the local dengue control measures.

  19. Kura NU, Ramli MF, Ibrahim S, Sulaiman WN, Aris AZ, Tanko AI, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015 Jan;22(2):1512-33.
    PMID: 25163562 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-3444-0
    In this work, the DRASTIC and GALDIT models were employed to determine the groundwater vulnerability to contamination from anthropogenic activities and seawater intrusion in Kapas Island. In addition, the work also utilized sensitivity analysis to evaluate the influence of each individual parameter used in developing the final models. Based on these effects and variation indices of the said parameters, new effective weights were determined and were used to create modified DRASTIC and GALDIT models. The final DRASTIC model classified the island into five vulnerability classes: no risk (110-140), low (140-160), moderate (160-180), high (180-200), and very high (>200), covering 4, 26, 59, 4, and 7 % of the island, respectively. Likewise, for seawater intrusion, the modified GALDIT model delineates the island into four vulnerability classes: very low (<90), low (90-110), moderate (110-130), and high (>130) covering 39, 33, 18, and 9 % of the island, respectively. Both models show that the areas that are likely to be affected by anthropogenic pollution and seawater intrusion are within the alluvial deposit at the western part of the island. Pearson correlation was used to verify the reliability of the two models in predicting their respective contaminants. The correlation matrix showed a good relationship between DRASTIC model and nitrate (r = 0.58). In a similar development, the correlation also reveals a very strong negative relationship between GALDIT model and seawater contaminant indicator (resistivity Ωm) values (r = -0.86) suggesting that the model predicts more than 86 % of seawater intrusion. In order to facilitate management strategy, suitable areas for artificial recharge were identified through modeling. The result suggested some areas within the alluvial deposit at the western part of the island as suitable for artificial recharge. This work can serve as a guide for a full vulnerability assessment to anthropogenic pollution and seawater intrusion in small islands and will help policy maker and manager with understanding needed to ensure sustainability of the island's aquifer.
  20. Hussain H, Yusoff MK, Ramli MF, Abd Latif P, Juahir H, Zawawi MA
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2013 Nov 15;16(22):1524-30.
    PMID: 24511695
    Nitrate-nitrogen leaching from agricultural areas is a major cause for groundwater pollution. Polluted groundwater with high levels of nitrate is hazardous and cause adverse health effects. Human consumption of water with elevated levels of NO3-N has been linked to the infant disorder methemoglobinemia and also to non-Hodgkin's disease lymphoma in adults. This research aims to study the temporal patterns and source apportionment of nitrate-nitrogen leaching in a paddy soil at Ladang Merdeka Ismail Mulong in Kelantan, Malaysia. The complex data matrix (128 x 16) of nitrate-nitrogen parameters was subjected to multivariate analysis mainly Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Analysis (DA). PCA extracted four principal components from this data set which explained 86.4% of the total variance. The most important contributors were soil physical properties confirmed using Alyuda Forecaster software (R2 = 0.98). Discriminant analysis was used to evaluate the temporal variation in soil nitrate-nitrogen on leaching process. Discriminant analysis gave four parameters (hydraulic head, evapotranspiration, rainfall and temperature) contributing more than 98% correct assignments in temporal analysis. DA allowed reduction in dimensionality of the large data set which defines the four operating parameters most efficient and economical to be monitored for temporal variations. This knowledge is important so as to protect the precious groundwater from contamination with nitrate.
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