Skin tissue engineering has made remarkable progress in wound healing treatment with the advent of newer fabrication strategies using natural/synthetic polymers and stem cells. Stem cell therapy is used to treat a wide range of injuries and degenerative diseases of the skin. Nevertheless, many related studies demonstrated modest improvement in organ functions due to the low survival rate of transplanted cells at the targeted injured area. Thus, incorporating stem cells into biomaterial offer niches to transplanted stem cells, enhancing their delivery and therapeutic effects. Currently, through the skin tissue engineering approach, many attempts have employed biomaterials as a platform to improve the engraftment of implanted cells and facilitate the function of exogenous cells by mimicking the tissue microenvironment. This review aims to identify the limitations of stem cell therapy in wound healing treatment and potentially highlight how the use of various biomaterials can enhance the therapeutic efficiency of stem cells in tissue regeneration post-implantation. Moreover, the review discusses the combined effects of stem cells and biomaterials in in vitro and in vivo settings followed by identifying the key factors contributing to the treatment outcomes. Apart from stem cells and biomaterials, the role of growth factors and other cellular substitutes used in effective wound healing treatment has been mentioned. In conclusion, the synergistic effect of biomaterials and stem cells provided significant effectiveness in therapeutic outcomes mainly in wound healing improvement.
Skin tissue engineering possesses great promise in providing successful wound injury and tissue loss treatments that current methods cannot treat or achieve a satisfactory clinical outcome. A major field direction is exploring bioscaffolds with multifunctional properties to enhance biological performance and expedite complex skin tissue regeneration. Multifunctional bioscaffolds are three-dimensional (3D) constructs manufactured from natural and synthetic biomaterials using cutting-edge tissue fabrication techniques incorporated with cells, growth factors, secretomes, antibacterial compounds, and bioactive molecules. It offers a physical, chemical, and biological environment with a biomimetic framework to direct cells toward higher-order tissue regeneration during wound healing. Multifunctional bioscaffolds are a promising possibility for skin regeneration because of the variety of structures they provide and the capacity to customise the chemistry of their surfaces, which allows for the regulated distribution of bioactive chemicals or cells. Meanwhile, the current gap is through advanced fabrication techniques such as computational designing, electrospinning, and 3D bioprinting to fabricate multifunctional scaffolds with long-term safety. This review stipulates the wound healing processes used by commercially available engineered skin replacements (ESS), highlighting the demand for a multifunctional, and next-generation ESS replacement as the goals and significance study in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM). This work also scrutinise the use of multifunctional bioscaffolds in wound healing applications, demonstrating successful biological performance in the in vitro and in vivo animal models. Further, we also provided a comprehensive review in requiring new viewpoints and technological innovations for the clinical application of multifunctional bioscaffolds for wound healing that have been found in the literature in the last 5 years.