In order to control any pest it is essential to study the life cycle, biology and bionomics of the target pest under control. With this respect, we have studied the flight range of the house fly Musca domestica (L.). The flight range of the house fly from two sites i.e, the poultry farm and a stable farm has been studied. The flight range study was conducted using a mark release technique. The approach we used in this study was that the flies collected from the respective farms were marked and released at different distances from the farms. The flies were then re-captured from the poultry farm and the stable farm. Studies conducted elsewhere use the technique of releasing the insect species at one spot and recapturing the insect species with the help of baited traps placed at various locations from the release point. The advantage of the approach used in this study was that the flight range as well as the homing effect was determined. From this study, the flight range of house flies released at the poultry farm was 7 km whereas flight range for flies release from stable farm was 5 km. The recovery rate of house flies at the poultry and stable farm was 0.05% and 0.016%, In this study, marked specimens has been detected up to 8 days in field conditions indicating that under field condition the life expectancy could be in the range of 1-2 weeks.
Wild caught female Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) from Kuala Lumpur were blood fed and reared in the insectarium. The late third stage of the F1 larvae which survived the high selection pressure of malathion and permethrin were reared and colonies were established from adults that emerged. Larvae from these colonies were then subjected in the subsequent 9 generations to higher selection pressure. The rate of resistance development were measured by LC50 value of larval bioassay, LT50 value of adult bioassay and the frequency of the elevated esterase levels. In another set of experiments using the same batch of Culex mosquitos, the larvae were not exposed to any insecticides and the decrease in resistance rate was monitored in each subsequent 9 generations by using similar methods. The heterozygous standard laboratory strain was selected for susceptibility using the single raft sib-selection method. The result showed that the field collected F1 generation was 96.0 and 6.3 fold more resistant to malathion and permethrin, respectively. After selection for about 9 generations the resistance ratio to malathion and permethrin was 6.2 and 767.3 fold more compared to the LC50 values of F1 generations, respectively. Esterase in F1 larvae was 6.0 fold more than the standard laboratory strain.
Field strains of house flies, Musca domestica L., from three different breeding sites-garbage dump (IMR), poultry farm (Kundang, Selangor), and agricultural farm (Kampung Batu, Kuala Lumpur), were evaluated against five insecticides. Resistance status of adult female flies was determined using the modified WHO bioassay methods. The WHO susceptibility strain was used as a reference strain for comparison. Flies from the garbage dump and poultry farm were more resistant to the insecticides than the strain from the agricultural farm. Results obtained from bioassay tests were confirmed by in-vitro microenzyme assays of non-specific esterases and glutathione-S-transferases. Significant differences between the esterase levels of WHO and field strains were observed. Levels of glutathion-S-transferases were approximately the same, which may indicate that other enzymes are involved in house fly resistance.
Piophila casei (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Piophilidae) is reported from human cadavers in two separate forensic cases for the first time in Malaysia. Both bodies were found indoors. The first case, was that of a male of unknown nationality and age and also contained maggots of the muscid Ophyra spinigera (Stein). The second case was a female Chinese whose body also contained other species of maggots but these were not identifiable.