OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EDCR) entails creating an opening from the lacrimal sac directly into the nasal cavity to counteract nasolacrimal duct obstruction. We reviewed the literature to determine the effectiveness and the safety of primary EDCR to treat pediatric nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
METHOD: A literature search was conducted by using a number of medical literature data bases for the period from 1995 to 2016. The following search words were used either individually or in combination: epiphora, nasolacrimal duct obstruction, endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, laser-assisted endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, children, congenital, acquired, presaccal obstruction, and postsaccal obstruction. In addition, a few articles were identified based on the experience and information provided by the senior authors (B.A., S.H., D.Y.W.). The search was conducted over a 1-month period (January 2017). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions were followed when possible.
RESULTS: Only 10 original clinical research articles were selected based on our objectives and selection criteria. All the studies were at level of evidence III: nonrandomized and noncomparative prospective or retrospective case series. Altogether, 313 patients with ages that ranged from 4 months to 18 years were enrolled. A total of 352 EDCRs were performed that were either single sided (n = 313) or bilateral (n = 39). The most common causes of the obstruction were classified as congenital, followed by idiopathic, and then acquired. A meta-analysis was not performed because of the heterogeneity of the patient groups and variability of the methods used to measure outcomes.
CONCLUSION: Analysis of the results indicated that EDCR was an effective, safe therapeutic approach to treating nasolacrimal duct obstruction in pediatric patients. It should be considered as an alternative procedure to external dacryocystorhinostomy after a failed conservative treatment.
CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we report on a middleaged male who presented with left-sided spontaneous epistaxis and aural fullness with no neck node which turned out to be basaloid cell carcinoma of nasopharynx.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We highlight high clinical suspicion of rare variant of nasopharyngeal carcinoma although no palpable node was evident upon presentation.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted for the period from January 2000 to December 2019 by using a number of medical literature data bases including Scopus, PubMed and Embase. The following search words were used either individually or in combination: drug-induced sleep endoscopy, sleep endoscopy directed surgery, paediatrics sleep apnoea. The search was conducted over a month period (December 2019). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions were followed when possible.
RESULTS: Seven clinical research articles were selected based on our objective and selection criteria. Seven studies were of level III evidence: retrospective, case-control and prospective series. Altogether, there were 996 patients with male predominance; 61%. Over 10% of patients (133 patients) were found to have comorbidities or were syndromic. The mean age of patient was 6 years and majority (87.6%) of our patients were found to be surgically naïve, that is, no previous surgical procedures were performed for OSA. Surgical decision was changed in 295 patients (30%) following DISE. Post intervention outcomes were objectively revealed in 4 studies. Most of our patients underwent a multilevel surgery based on DISE (86%). Complications were documented in 3 studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the results indicated that DISE directed surgery was an effective, safe therapeutic approach to treating paediatrics obstructive sleep apnoea. DISE directed surgery has shown to have changed surgical management in most studies.
DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, Embase.
REVIEW METHODS: A literature search was conducted over a period from January 1990 to March 2020. The following search words were used either individually or in combination: voice disorders, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and gastroesophageal reflux. The search was conducted over a period of a month: April 2020.
RESULTS: Five clinical research were selected based on our objectives and selection criteria. Four studies were of level III evidence. Altogether, a total of 606 patients were pooled with male predominance of 63%. In all studies, reflux was suggested to have strong relation with dysphonia. Majority of cases used 24-h pH monitoring to confirm reflux which yielded positive results in 69%. The top three most common endoscopic findings include: interarytenoid erythema and edema (32/38), vocal cord erythema and edema (160/231) and postglottic edema (141/337). Vocal cord nodules were found in 28% of our patients. Acoustic analysis and perceptual assessment of voice was performed in only 1 study. No complication from any procedure was mentioned in any of the studies. Outcome of treatment was mentioned in 1 study, whereby after 4.5 months of follow-up, 68% of children showed improvement in symptoms.
CONCLUSION: Current evidence shows that there is strong relation between reflux and dysphonia in children. Most common laryngoscopic findings suggestive of reflux includes interarytenoid erythema and edema, vocal cord erythema and edema and postglottic edema.
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