Case Report: Herein, we present a case of clicking larynx in a young girl followed by an overview of the latest literature on the aetiology and treatment options. This case aims to reinforce the presence of this entity further and subsequently increase its awareness among clinicians.
Conclusion: Expeditious diagnosis is imperative not just for the eventual treatment but also for timely relief to the anxious patients who would have been perplexed by the strange clicking in the throat.
CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we report on a middleaged male who presented with left-sided spontaneous epistaxis and aural fullness with no neck node which turned out to be basaloid cell carcinoma of nasopharynx.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We highlight high clinical suspicion of rare variant of nasopharyngeal carcinoma although no palpable node was evident upon presentation.
METHODS: A literature search was conducted over a period of one month (April 2022).
RESULTS: 16 articles were selected based on our objective and selection criteria. A total of patients was included, with a median age of 10.9 years. 11 studies diagnosed VM based on diagnostic criteria. Caloric test and electro/videonystagmography are the most favoured investigation used (50%). Imaging was performed in 56.2% of included studies.
CONCLUSION: Deciphering the ideal diagnostic approach for VM is prudent to ensure children and adolescents suffering from VM are treated earlier. VM can be diagnosed using the established diagnostic criteria, which requires thorough and meticulous history taking. The available oto-neurological examination aims to exclude other disorders as its significance in diagnosing VM is still debatable.
RELEVANCE: This paper reports two cases of congenital inferior turbinate hypertrophy in neonates that resulted in significant respiratory distress, feeding difficulties and sleep disturbance. Both patients were successfully treated surgically by endoscopic nasal dilatation and stenting. A literature search was performed to identify articles on congenital inferior turbinate hypertrophy in neonates and its management.
CONCLUSION: Albeit rare, congenital inferior turbinate hypertrophy should be considered a differential diagnosis in newborns presenting with respiratory distress at birth.
METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study. Each patient underwent pre- and post-shift voice analysis.
RESULTS: Among 42 teleoperators, 28 patients (66.7 per cent) completed all the tests. Female predominance (62 per cent) was noted, with a mean age of 40 years. Voice changes during working were reported by 48.1 per cent. Pre- and post-shift maximum phonation time (p < 0.018) and Voice Handicap Index-10 (p < 0.011) showed significant results with no correlation noted between subjective and objective assessment.
CONCLUSION: Maximum phonation time and Voice Handicap Index-10 are good voice assessment tools. The quality of evidence is inadequate to recommend 'gold standard' voice assessment until a better-quality study has been completed.
DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, Embase.
REVIEW METHODS: A literature search was conducted over a period from January 1990 to March 2020. The following search words were used either individually or in combination: voice disorders, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and gastroesophageal reflux. The search was conducted over a period of a month: April 2020.
RESULTS: Five clinical research were selected based on our objectives and selection criteria. Four studies were of level III evidence. Altogether, a total of 606 patients were pooled with male predominance of 63%. In all studies, reflux was suggested to have strong relation with dysphonia. Majority of cases used 24-h pH monitoring to confirm reflux which yielded positive results in 69%. The top three most common endoscopic findings include: interarytenoid erythema and edema (32/38), vocal cord erythema and edema (160/231) and postglottic edema (141/337). Vocal cord nodules were found in 28% of our patients. Acoustic analysis and perceptual assessment of voice was performed in only 1 study. No complication from any procedure was mentioned in any of the studies. Outcome of treatment was mentioned in 1 study, whereby after 4.5 months of follow-up, 68% of children showed improvement in symptoms.
CONCLUSION: Current evidence shows that there is strong relation between reflux and dysphonia in children. Most common laryngoscopic findings suggestive of reflux includes interarytenoid erythema and edema, vocal cord erythema and edema and postglottic edema.
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