Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 142 in total

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  1. Sharma A, Lal SK
    Front Microbiol, 2017;8:110.
    PMID: 28217114 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00110
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus discovered in Uganda in the 1940s. To date, three major ZIKV outbreaks have been reported. ZIKV infections have known to be primarily asymptomatic while causing mild illness in a few cases. However, the recent emergence and spread of ZIKV in the Americas has resulted in the declaration of "Public Health Emergency of International Concern" due to the potential association between the infection and prenatal microcephaly or other brain anomalies. In Brazil, a 20-fold increase in prenatal microcephaly cases and 19% increase in Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) cases were reported in 2015, as compared to the preceding year. The probable deleterious effects of ZIKV infection prompt the urgent development of diagnostics and therapeutics. To this end, the existing evidences supporting the increasingly common prenatal microcephaly and GBS association and the current known ZIKV transmission dynamics, modes of detection (molecular and serology-based), and current control strategies are summarized in this review. This review also emphasizes the importance of understanding ZIKV transmission in order to design a sensitive yet cost and time-efficient detection technique. Development of an efficient detection technique would subsequently allow for better surveillance and control of ZIKV infection. Currently, limited literature is available on the pathogenesis of ZIKV, hence, focusing on the modes of ZIKV transmission could potentially contribute to the understanding of the disease spectrum and formulation of targeted treatment and control.
  2. Chindera K, Mahato M, Kumar Sharma A, Horsley H, Kloc-Muniak K, Kamaruzzaman NF, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016;6:23121.
    PMID: 26996206 DOI: 10.1038/srep23121
    To combat infection and antimicrobial resistance, it is helpful to elucidate drug mechanism(s) of action. Here we examined how the widely used antimicrobial polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) kills bacteria selectively over host cells. Contrary to the accepted model of microbial membrane disruption by PHMB, we observed cell entry into a range of bacterial species, and treated bacteria displayed cell division arrest and chromosome condensation, suggesting DNA binding as an alternative antimicrobial mechanism. A DNA-level mechanism was confirmed by observations that PHMB formed nanoparticles when mixed with isolated bacterial chromosomal DNA and its effects on growth were suppressed by pairwise combination with the DNA binding ligand Hoechst 33258. PHMB also entered mammalian cells, but was trapped within endosomes and excluded from nuclei. Therefore, PHMB displays differential access to bacterial and mammalian cellular DNA and selectively binds and condenses bacterial chromosomes. Because acquired resistance to PHMB has not been reported, selective chromosome condensation provides an unanticipated paradigm for antimicrobial action that may not succumb to resistance.
  3. Agrawal R, Testi I, Mahajan S, Yuen YS, Agarwal A, Rousselot A, et al.
    PMID: 32250731 DOI: 10.1080/09273948.2020.1716025
    An international, expert led consensus initiative was set up by the Collaborative Ocular Tuberculosis Study (COTS) group to develop systematic, evidence, and experience-based recommendations for the treatment of ocular TB using a modified Delphi technique process. In the first round of Delphi, the group identified clinical scenarios pertinent to ocular TB based on five clinical phenotypes (anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis, choroiditis, retinal vasculitis, and panuveitis). Using an interactive online questionnaires, guided by background knowledge from published literature, 486 consensus statements for initiating ATT were generated and deliberated amongst 81 global uveitis experts. The median score of five was considered reaching consensus for initiating ATT. The median score of four was tabled for deliberation through Delphi round 2 in a face-to-face meeting. This report describes the methodology adopted and followed through the consensus process, which help elucidate the guidelines for initiating ATT in patients with choroidal TB.
  4. Monika, Sharma A, Suthar SK, Aggarwal V, Lee HB, Sharma M
    Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2014 Aug 15;24(16):3814-8.
    PMID: 25027934 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.06.068
    The new series of pentacyclic triterpenoids reduced lantadene A (3), B (4), and 22β-hydroxy-3-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (5) analogs were synthesized and tested in vitro for their NF-κB and IKKβ inhibitory potencies and cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cells. The lead analog (11) showed sub-micromolar activity against TNF-α induced activation of NF-κB and exhibited inhibition of IKKβ in a single-digit micromolar dose. At the same time, 11 showed promising cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cells with IC50 of 0.98 μM. The Western blot analysis further showed that the suppression of NF-κB activity by the lead analog 11 was due to the inhibition of IκBα degradation, a natural inhibitor of NF-κB. The physicochemical evaluation demonstrated that the lead analog 11 was stable in the simulated gastric fluid of pH 2, while hydrolyzed at a relatively higher rate in the human blood plasma to release the active parent moieties. Molecular docking analysis showed that 11 was hydrogen bonded with the Arg-31 and Gln-110 residues of the IKKβ.
  5. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2018 Apr 06;120(14):142301.
    PMID: 29694144 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.142301
    The relative yields of ϒ mesons produced in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02  TeV and reconstructed via the dimuon decay channel are measured using data collected by the CMS experiment. Double ratios are formed by comparing the yields of the excited states, ϒ(2S) and ϒ(3S), to the ground state, ϒ(1S), in both Pb-Pb and pp collisions at the same center-of-mass energy. The double ratios, [ϒ(nS)/ϒ(1S)]_{Pb-Pb}/[ϒ(nS)/ϒ(1S)]_{pp}, are measured to be 0.308±0.055(stat)±0.019(syst) for the ϒ(2S) and less than 0.26 at 95% confidence level for the ϒ(3S). No significant ϒ(3S) signal is found in the Pb-Pb data. The double ratios are studied as a function of collision centrality, as well as ϒ transverse momentum and rapidity. No significant dependencies are observed.
  6. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2017;77(4):252.
    PMID: 28515669 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-4781-1
    The nuclear modification factor [Formula: see text] and the azimuthal anisotropy coefficient [Formula: see text] of prompt and nonprompt (i.e. those from decays of b hadrons) [Formula: see text] mesons, measured from PbPb and pp collisions at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] at the LHC, are reported. The results are presented in several event centrality intervals and several kinematic regions, for transverse momenta [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text], extending down to [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] in the [Formula: see text] range. The [Formula: see text] of prompt [Formula: see text] is found to be nonzero, but with no strong dependence on centrality, rapidity, or [Formula: see text] over the full kinematic range studied. The measured [Formula: see text] of nonprompt [Formula: see text] is consistent with zero. The [Formula: see text] of prompt [Formula: see text] exhibits a suppression that increases from peripheral to central collisions but does not vary strongly as a function of either y or [Formula: see text] in the fiducial range. The nonprompt [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] shows a suppression which becomes stronger as rapidity or [Formula: see text] increases. The [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] of open and hidden charm, and of open charm and beauty, are compared.
  7. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2015 Feb 6;114(5):051801.
    PMID: 25699433
    A study of vector boson scattering in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.4  fb(-1) collected with the CMS detector. Candidate events are selected with exactly two leptons of the same charge, two jets with large rapidity separation and high dijet mass, and moderate missing transverse energy. The signal region is expected to be dominated by electroweak same-sign W-boson pair production. The observation agrees with the standard model prediction. The observed significance is 2.0 standard deviations, where a significance of 3.1 standard deviations is expected based on the standard model. Cross section measurements for W(±)W(±) and WZ processes in the fiducial region are reported. Bounds on the structure of quartic vector-boson interactions are given in the framework of dimension-eight effective field theory operators, as well as limits on the production of doubly charged Higgs bosons.
  8. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2019;79(2):123.
    PMID: 30863200 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-6620-z
    Measurements of normalized differential cross sections as functions of the multiplicity and kinematic variables of charged-particle tracks from the underlying event in top quark and antiquark pair production are presented. The measurements are performed in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13



    Te



    , and are based on data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9



    fb

    -
    1



    . Events containing one electron, one muon, and two jets from the hadronization and fragmentation of
    b
    quarks are used. These measurements characterize, for the first time, properties of the underlying event in top quark pair production and show no deviation from the universality hypothesis at energy scales typically above twice the top quark mass.
  9. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2018;78(3):242.
    PMID: 31264999 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-018-5691-6
    Events with no charged particles produced between the two leading jets are studied in proton-proton collisions at


    s

    =
    7




    TeV

    . The jets were required to have transverse momentum


    p

    T

    jet

    >
    40




    GeV

    and pseudorapidity


    1.5
    <
    |


    η
    jet


    |
    <
    4.7


    , and to have values of

    η
    jet

    with opposite signs. The data used for this study were collected with the CMS detector during low-luminosity running at the LHC, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 8



    pb

    -
    1



    . Events with no charged particles with


    p
    T

    >
    0.2




    GeV

    in the interval

    -
    1
    <
    η
    <
    1

    between the jets are observed in excess of calculations that assume no color-singlet exchange. The fraction of events with such a rapidity gap, amounting to 0.5-1% of the selected dijet sample, is measured as a function of the

    p
    T

    of the second-leading jet and of the rapidity separation between the jets. The data are compared to previous measurements at the Tevatron, and to perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations based on the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov evolution equations, including different models of the non-perturbative gap survival probability.
  10. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2017 Aug 25;119(8):082301.
    PMID: 28952777 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.082301
    The production of jets in association with Z bosons, reconstructed via the μ^{+}μ^{-} and e^{+}e^{-} decay channels, is studied in pp and, for the first time, in Pb-Pb collisions. Both data samples were collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. The Pb-Pb collisions were analyzed in the 0%-30% centrality range. The back-to-back azimuthal alignment was studied in both pp and Pb-Pb collisions for Z bosons with transverse momentum p_{T}^{Z}>60  GeV/c and a recoiling jet with p_{T}^{jet}>30  GeV/c. The p_{T} imbalance x_{jZ}=p_{T}^{jet}/p_{T}^{Z}, as well as the average number of jet partners per Z, R_{jZ}, was studied in intervals of p_{T}^{Z}. The R_{jZ} is found to be smaller in Pb-Pb than in pp collisions, which suggests that in Pb-Pb collisions a larger fraction of partons associated with the Z bosons fall below the 30  GeV/c p_{T}^{jet} threshold because they lose energy.
  11. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2016 Jan 22;116(3):032301.
    PMID: 26849587 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.032301
    The production cross sections of the B^{+}, B^{0}, and B_{s}^{0} mesons, and of their charge conjugates, are measured via exclusive hadronic decays in p+Pb collisions at the center-of-mass energy sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02  TeV with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. The data set used for this analysis corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 34.6  nb^{-1}. The production cross sections are measured in the transverse momentum range between 10 and 60  GeV/c. No significant modification is observed compared to proton-proton perturbative QCD calculations scaled by the number of incoherent nucleon-nucleon collisions. These results provide a baseline for the study of in-medium b quark energy loss in Pb+Pb collisions.
  12. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2019 Jul 12;123(2):022001.
    PMID: 31386524 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.022001
    The transverse momentum spectra of D^{0} mesons from b hadron decays are measured at midrapidity (|y|<1) in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center of mass energy of 5.02 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. The D^{0} mesons from b hadron decays are distinguished from prompt D^{0} mesons by their decay topologies. In Pb-Pb collisions, the B→D^{0} yield is found to be suppressed in the measured p_{T} range from 2 to 100  GeV/c as compared to pp collisions. The suppression is weaker than that of prompt D^{0} mesons and charged hadrons for p_{T} around 10  GeV/c. While theoretical calculations incorporating partonic energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma can successfully describe the measured B→D^{0} suppression at higher p_{T}, the data show an indication of larger suppression than the model predictions in the range of 2
  13. Tsapaki V, Faruque Ghulam M, Lim ST, Ngo Minh H, Nwe N, Sharma A, et al.
    Heart Asia, 2011;3(1):16-24.
    PMID: 27325974 DOI: 10.1136/ha.2009.001180
    Increasing use of interventional procedures in cardiology with unknown levels of radiation protection in many countries of Asia-Pacific region necessitates the need for status assessment. The study was part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project for achieving improved radiation protection in interventional cardiology (IC) in developing countries.
  14. Agrawal R, Agarwal A, Jabs DA, Kee A, Testi I, Mahajan S, et al.
    PMID: 31821096 DOI: 10.1080/09273948.2019.1653933
    Purpose: To standardize a nomenclature system for defining clinical phenotypes, and outcome measures for reporting clinical and research data in patients with ocular tuberculosis (OTB).Methods: Uveitis experts initially administered and further deliberated the survey in an open meeting to determine and propose the preferred nomenclature for terms related to the OTB, terms describing the clinical phenotypes and treatment and reporting outcomes.Results: The group of experts reached a consensus on terming uveitis attributable to tuberculosis (TB) as tubercular uveitis. The working group introduced a SUN-compatible nomenclature that also defines disease "remission" and "cure", both of which are relevant for reporting treatment outcomes.Conclusion: A consensus nomenclature system has been adopted by a large group of international uveitis experts for OTB. The working group recommends the use of standardized nomenclature to prevent ambiguity in communication and to achieve the goal of spreading awareness of this blinding uveitis entity.
  15. Sharma A, Kamble SH, León F, Chear NJ, King TI, Berthold EC, et al.
    Drug Test Anal, 2019 Aug;11(8):1162-1171.
    PMID: 30997725 DOI: 10.1002/dta.2604
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a psychoactive plant popular in the United States for the self-treatment of pain and opioid addiction. For standardization and quality control of raw and commercial kratom products, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of ten key alkaloids, namely: corynantheidine, corynoxine, corynoxine B, 7-hydroxymitragynine, isocorynantheidine, mitragynine, mitraphylline, paynantheine, speciociliatine, and speciogynine. Chromatographic separation of diastereomers, or alkaloids sharing same ion transitions, was achieved on an Acquity BEH C18 column with a gradient elution using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and aqueous ammonium acetate buffer (10mM, pH 3.5). The developed method was linear over a concentration range of 1-200 ng/mL for each alkaloid. The total analysis time per sample was 22.5 minutes. The analytical method was validated for accuracy, precision, robustness, and stability. After successful validation, the method was applied for the quantification of kratom alkaloids in alkaloid-rich fractions, ethanolic extracts, lyophilized teas, and commercial products. Mitragynine (0.7%-38.7% w/w), paynantheine (0.3%-12.8% w/w), speciociliatine (0.4%-12.3% w/w), and speciogynine (0.1%-5.3% w/w) were the major alkaloids in the analyzed kratom products/extracts. Minor kratom alkaloids (corynantheidine, corynoxine, corynoxine B, 7-hydroxymitragynine, isocorynantheidine) were also quantified (0.01%-2.8% w/w) in the analyzed products; however mitraphylline was below the lower limit of quantification in all analyses.
  16. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2017;77(5):327.
    PMID: 28943785 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-4853-2
    Searches are presented for direct production of top or bottom squark pairs in proton-proton collisions at the CERN LHC. Two searches, based on complementary techniques, are performed in all-jet final states that are characterized by a significant imbalance in transverse momentum. An additional search requires the presence of a charged lepton isolated from other activity in the event. The data were collected in 2015 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13[Formula: see text] with the CMS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 2.3[Formula: see text]. No statistically significant excess of events is found beyond the expected contribution from standard model processes. Exclusion limits are set in the context of simplified models of top or bottom squark pair production. Models with top and bottom squark masses up to 830 and 890[Formula: see text], respectively, are probed for light neutralinos. For models with top squark masses of 675[Formula: see text], neutralino masses up to 260[Formula: see text] are excluded at 95% confidence level.
  17. CMS Collaboration, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2014;74(9):3036.
    PMID: 25814912
    Searches for the direct electroweak production of supersymmetric charginos, neutralinos, and sleptons in a variety of signatures with leptons and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and Higgs bosons are presented. Results are based on a sample of proton-proton collision data collected at center-of-mass energy [Formula: see text] with the CMS detector in 2012, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 [Formula: see text]. The observed event rates are in agreement with expectations from the standard model. These results probe charginos and neutralinos with masses up to 720 [Formula: see text], and sleptons up to 260 [Formula: see text], depending on the model details.
  18. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2019;79(4):364.
    PMID: 31180390 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-6855-8
    A search for the pair production of heavy vector-like partners
    T
    and
    B
    of the top and bottom quarks has been performed by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC using proton-proton collisions at


    s

    =
    13


    Te



    . The data sample was collected in 2016 and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9



    fb

    -
    1



    . Final states studied for

    T

    T
    ¯


    production include those where one of the
    T
    quarks decays via

    T

    t
    Z

    and the other via

    T

    b
    W

    ,

    t
    Z

    , or

    t
    H

    , where
    H
    is a Higgs boson. For the

    B

    B
    ¯


    case, final states include those where one of the
    B
    quarks decays via

    B

    b
    Z

    and the other

    B

    t
    W

    ,

    b
    Z

    , or

    b
    H

    . Events with two oppositely charged electrons or muons, consistent with coming from the decay of a
    Z
    boson, and jets are investigated. The number of observed events is consistent with standard model background estimations. Lower limits at 95% confidence level are placed on the masses of the
    T
    and
    B
    quarks for a range of branching fractions. Assuming 100% branching fractions for

    T

    t
    Z

    , and

    B

    b
    Z

    ,
    T
    and
    B
    quark mass values below 1280 and 1130



    Ge



    , respectively, are excluded.
  19. Chatrchyan S, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014 Apr 25;112(16):161802.
    PMID: 24815637
    Results are presented of a search for a "natural" supersymmetry scenario with gauge mediated symmetry breaking. It is assumed that only the supersymmetric partners of the top quark (the top squark) and the Higgs boson (Higgsino) are accessible. Events are examined in which there are two photons forming a Higgs boson candidate, and at least two b-quark jets. In 19.7  fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at s=8  TeV, recorded in the CMS experiment, no evidence of a signal is found and lower limits at the 95% confidence level are set, excluding the top squark mass below 360 to 410 GeV, depending on the Higgsino mass.
  20. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2018;78(9):707.
    PMID: 30839784 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-018-6143-z
    A search for pair production of heavy scalar leptoquarks (LQs), each decaying into a top quark and a
    τ
    lepton, is presented. The search considers final states with an electron or a muon, one or two
    τ
    leptons that decayed to hadrons, and additional jets. The data were collected in 2016 in proton-proton collisions at


    s

    =
    13


    Te



    with the CMS detector at the LHC, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9



    fb

    -
    1



    . No evidence for pair production of LQs is found. Assuming a branching fraction of unity for the decay

    LQ

    t
    τ

    , upper limits on the production cross section are set as a function of LQ mass, excluding masses below 900



    Ge



    at 95% confidence level. These results provide the most stringent limits to date on the production of scalar LQs that decay to a top quark and a
    τ
    lepton.
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