Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 75 in total

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  1. Abdul Latif R, Muhamad R, Kanagasundram S, Sidi H, Nik Jaafar NR, Midin M, et al.
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:21-6.
    PMID: 23857833 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12039
    The objective of this study was to examine the risk of female sexual orgasmic disorder among a group of women with hypertension in Malaysia. The associated factors were also examined.
  2. Adam RL, Sidi H, Midin M, Zakaria H, Das S, Mat KC
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(12):1402-1411.
    PMID: 28464773 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170502130126
    Sexuality is an important dimension in human beings as a form of expression of individuality. For many decades, sexual functioning has been a neglected area among patients suffering from schizophrenia. It was a presumption that patients with schizophrenia could be asexual and this could be secondary to overwhelming situations of delusion, hallucination, hostility and negative symptoms among others. The deficient in sexual functioning are due to innate factors, i.e. negative symptoms (apathy, avolition and amotivation) and also as a result of prefrontal dysfunction, i.e. inability to plan and execute meaningful relationship. Adverse effects of the psychopharmacological agents, especially the typical antipsychotics, e.g. dystonia, excessive sedation and hyperprolactinemia may interfere with patients' sexual activity. In this review, we highlight the neurobiology of schizophrenia in the context of understanding sexual functioning and to integrate the knowledge of dopamine-serotonin neurotransmitter's interaction and the receptors' target. Interventional approaches consist of psychopharmacological and psychosocial interventions. In the perspective of sexuality, we recommend atypical antipsychotic should be placed as the first line treatment for both drug naïve patients and also to patients who are already receiving psychopharmacological agents in consideration for a drug-switch from typical to atypical antipsychotics. Aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine exert benefits in terms of sexual functioning recovery due to their atypical mechanism of action. However, the potential adverse effect like metabolic syndrome should be adequately managed to prevent negative consequences. Psychosocial interventions, i.e. psychoeducation, destigmatization, supportive psychotherapy and psychiatric rehabilitation also play a crucial role in the management. In conclusion, restoration of sexual function is an achievable recovery target in patients with schizophrenia through these biopsycho- social interventions.
  3. Ahmad Faizal S, Sidi H, Wahab S, Leny SS, Mat Zin N, Baharuddin N
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Marital satisfaction is vital to the wellbeing and functioning of the individual and family. Marital dissatisfaction can lead to detrimental effects on mental, physical and family health. The study aimed to determine the proportion of marital dissatisfaction in outpatient setting and its association with sexual functioning and psychiatric morbidity in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected primary care using purposive sampling. Data collection was done using socio-demographic questionnaire and several validated Malay version of self-administered questionnaires. Marital satisfaction was measured by the Malay version of Golombok–Rust Inventory of Marital State (Mal-GRIMS).
    Results: The prevalence of marriage dissatisfaction in sample population was about 37.3% with almost equal prevalence in both, 36.5% (male) and 37.8% (female). Using a regression analysis, the significant factors that affect marital dissatisfaction were respondent’s age group between 31-40 years old (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR. =11.4, 95% Confidence Interval, CI. =1.2-110.9), spouse’s salary of RM1000-RM2000 (lower income category) (AOR=7.3, 95% CI= 1.9-28.1), anxiety case (AOR= 4.8, 95% CI=1.1-21.5), depression case (AOR= 4.8, 95% CI=1.0-22.8), female sexual dysfunction in term of arousal function (AOR= 0.01, 95% CI=0.0-0.7), satisfaction dysfunction (AOR= 9.4, 95% CI= 1.5-58) and pain function (AOR=43.7, 95% CI=1.28 - 1489.2).
    Conclusion: Marital dissatisfaction can be influenced by financial factor, sexual dysfunction and presence of psychiatric morbidity. Hence, in management of marital discord, thorough screening of these factors should be prioritized in clinical setting.
  4. Ahmad Faizal S, Sidi H, Wahab S, Lenny SS, Mat Zin N, Baharuddin N
    Introduction: Marital satisfaction is vital to the wellbeing and functioning of the individual and family. Marital dissatisfaction can lead to detrimental effects on mental, physical and family health. The study aimed to determine the proportion of marital dissatisfaction in outpatient setting and its association with sexual functioning and psychiatric morbidity in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected primary care using purposive sampling. Data collection was done using socio-demographic questionnaire and several validated Malay version of self-administered questionnaires. Marital satisfaction was measured by the Malay version of Golombok-Rust Inventory of Marital State (Mal-GRIMS).
    Results: The prevalence of marriage dissatisfaction in sample population was about 37.3% with almost equal prevalence in both, 36.5% (male) and 37.8% (female). Using a regression analysis, the significant factors that affect marital dissatisfaction were respondent's age group between 31- 40 years old (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR. =11.4, 95% Confidence Interval, CI. =1.2-110.9), spouse's salary of RM1000-RM2000 (lower income category) (AOR=7.3, 95% CI= 1.9-28.1), anxiety case (AOR= 4.8, 95% CI=1.1- 21.5), depression case (AOR= 4.8, 95% CI=1.0-22.8), female sexual dysfunction in term of arousal function (AOR= 0.01, 95% CI=0.0-0.7), satisfaction dysfunction (AOR= 9.4, 95% CI= 1.5-58) and pain function (AOR=43.7, 95% CI=1.28 - 1489.2).
    Conclusion: Marital dissatisfaction can be influenced by financial factor, sexual dysfunction and presence of psychiatric morbidity. Hence, in management of marital discord, thorough screening of these factors should be prioritized in clinical setting.
  5. Aishvarya S, Maniam T, Karuthan C, Sidi H, Ruzyanei N, Oei TP
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S107-13.
    PMID: 24230486 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.06.010
    The Reasons For Living Inventory has been shown to have good psychometric properties in Western populations for the past three decades. The present study examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of English and Malay version of the Reasons For Living (RFL) Inventory in a sample of clinical outpatients in Malaysia. The RFL is designed to assess an individual's various reasons for not committing suicide. A total of 483 participants (283 with psychiatric illnesses and 200 with non-psychiatric medical illnesses) completed the RFL and other self-report instruments. Results of the EFA (exploratory factor analysis) and CFA (confirmatory factor analysis) supported the fit for the six-factor oblique model as the best-fitting model. The internal consistency of the RFL was α=.94 and it was found to be high with good concurrent, criterion and discriminative validities. Thus, the RFL is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the various reasons for not committing suicide among psychiatry and medical outpatients in Malaysia.
    Study site: Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
  6. Aishvarya S, Maniam T, Karuthan C, Sidi H, Nik Jaafar NR, Oei TP
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S101-6.
    PMID: 23602389 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.03.010
    The present study evaluated the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) in a sample of clinical outpatients in Malaysia. The SWLS is a measure designed to assess subjective life satisfaction. Four hundred eighty-three participants (283 with psychiatric illnesses and 200 with other medical illnesses) completed the SWLS and other self-report instruments. Results of the EFA and CFA supported the fit for the one-factor model as the best-fitting model. The internal consistency of the SWLS (α=0.86) was found to be high. Correlational analyses showed that SWLS had adequate concurrent validity. Scores on SWLS, which differentiated psychiatric patients and medical patients, supported criterion validity. The logistic regression analyses showed good discriminative validity of SWLS. The SWLS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the satisfaction with life among psychiatry and clinical outpatients in Malaysia.
    Study site: medical and psychiatric clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  7. Aishvarya S, Maniam T, Sidi H, Oei TP
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S95-100.
    PMID: 23433220 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.01.005
    The aim of this paper was to review the literature on suicide ideation and intent in Malaysia. PsyINFO, PubMed, Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from Ministry of Health, Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training, were included in the current review. A total of 13 studies on suicide ideation and intent in Malaysia were found and reviewed. The review showed that research on suicide ideation and intent in Malaysia was fragmented and limited, at best. Approximately 50% of existing research on suicide ideation and intent simply focused on sociodemographic data. Fifty-four percent of the data were obtained from hospitals. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide ideation and intent. None of the studies used validated suicide scales. The impact of culture was rarely considered. It was clear from the review that for researchers, clinicians and public health policy makers to gain a better understanding of suicide behavior especially suicide ideation and intent in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used.
  8. Asiff M, Sidi H, Masiran R, Kumar J, Das S, Hatta NH, et al.
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(12):1391-1401.
    PMID: 28325146 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170321144931
    Hypersexuality refers to abnormally increased or extreme involvement in any sexual activity. It is clinically challenging, presents trans-diagnostically and there is extensive medical literature addressing the nosology, pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric aspects in this clinical syndrome. Classification includes deviant behaviours, diagnosable entities related to impulsivity, and obsessional phenomena. Some clinicians view an increase in sexual desire as 'normal' i.e. psychodynamic theorists consider it as egodefensive at times alleviating unconscious anxiety rooted in intrapsychic conflicts. We highlight hypersexuality as multi-dimensional involving an increase in sexual activity that is associated with distress and functional impairment. The aetiology of hypersexuality is multi-factorial with differential diagnoses that include major psychiatric disorders (e.g. bipolar disorder), adverse effects of treatments (e.g. levodopatreatment), substance-induced disorders (e.g. amphetamine substance use), neuropathological disorders (e.g. frontal lobe syndrome), among others. Numerous neurotransmitters are implicated in its pathogenesis, with dopamine and noradrenaline playing a crucial role in the neural reward pathways and emotionally- regulated limbic system neural circuits. The management of hypersexuality is determined by the principle of de causa effectu evanescent, if the causes are treated, the effect may disappear. We aim to review the role of pharmacological agents causing hypersexuality and centrally acting agents treating the associated underlying medical conditions. Bio-psycho-social determinants are pivotal in embracing the understanding and guiding management of this complex and multi-determined clinical syndrome.
  9. Baharudin A, Mislan N, Ibrahim N, Sidi H, Nik Jaafar NR
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:67-73.
    PMID: 23857840 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12069
    INTRODUCTION: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions in men. The aim of the study was to determine the depressive symptoms and associated factors among men on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT).
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 108 subjects who attended the Drug Clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur. The instruments used include the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition Axis-I Disorder, Beck Depression Inventory and the 15-item International Index of Erectile Function.
    RESULTS: The rate of depression was 44.4%. There were significant associations between Malay ethnicity, secondary education level and concurrent illicit cannabis use with depression (P 
  10. Choy CL, Sidi H, Koon CS, Ming OS, Mohamed IN, Guan NC, et al.
    J Sex Med, 2019 Jul;16(7):1029-1048.
    PMID: 31113742 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.04.007
    INTRODUCTION: Sexual dysfunction in hypertensive women is an often-neglected subject despite a reported prevalence of 42.1%. Although few reviews exist, a definitive relationship between hypertension and sexual dysfunction in women has not been clearly established.

    AIM: To review the existing literature to definitively examine sexual dysfunction in women with hypertension, in both treated and untreated subjects.

    METHODS: We performed a systematic search for published literature of 3 electronic databases (Scopus, EBSCOhost Medline Complete, and Cochrane Library) in August 2018. The search terms with relevant truncation and Boolean were developed according to a population exposure-comparator-outcome model combining pilot searches. The quality of included studies was assessed with the McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies. Initial search, limited to the English language, included a total of 2,198 studies. 31 studies (18,260 subjects) met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Sexual dysfunction in these studies was measured using different tools. We extracted information of study setting, country, number of subjects, participants' age and blood pressure, comparators, and outcome. We ran a meta-analysis on the presence of sexual dysfunction as an outcome from the following comparisons: (i) hypertensive vs normotensive (ii) treated vs untreated hypertension, and (iii) exposure vs absence of specific class of anti-hypertensive drug.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Women with sexual dysfunction and hypertension were included.

    RESULTS: We found significant sexual dysfunction in women with hypertension compared with the normotensive group (pooled odds ratio [OR] = 2.789, 95% CI = 1.452-5.357, P = .002). However, there was no statistical difference of sexual dysfunction in women with treated or untreated hypertension (OR = 1.229, 95% CI = 0.675-2.236, P = .5). Treatment with alpha-/beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics resulted in no statistical difference in sexual dysfunction in hypertensive women.

    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Because sexual dysfunction is prevalent in women with hypertension, it is imperative to address the underlying medical condition to manage this important clinical problem.

    STRENGTH & LIMITATIONS: Many studies had to be excluded from the meta-analysis, due to unavailability and incompleteness of data. Nevertheless, results of the review are useful to derive recommendations for alerting physicians of the need to routinely assess the sexual functioning of women with hypertension.

    CONCLUSION: We conclude that women with hypertension are at increased risk for sexual dysfunction, and our findings imply that evaluation for sexual dysfunction needs to be part of the clinical management guidelines for women with hypertension. Choy CL, Sidi H, Koon CS, et al. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis for Sexual Dysfunction in Women With Hypertension. J Sex Med 2019;16:1029-1048.

  11. Dahlan R, Midin M, Sidi H, Maniam T
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:127-33.
    PMID: 23857849 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12058
    INTRODUCTION: Hospital-based community psychiatric service (HCPS) is a developing intervention in Malaysia targeted for patients with severe mental illnesses (SMIs). Its effectiveness had not been systematically measured. This study aimed to assess the outcome of HCPS with respect to re-hospitalization and factors associated with low re-hospitalization among patients with schizophrenia in the metropolitan city of Kuala Lumpur.
    METHODS: A naturalistic and retrospective cohort study was conducted using within-subject pre-post design on 155 patients with schizophrenia who received HCPS in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL). The selection was made by simple random sampling. The hospital admission profiles were obtained from clinical records. The socio-demographic and relevant clinical data were also assessed through clinical interviews.
    RESULTS: One hundred and forty (90%) of 155 respondents had low rate of hospital admission with significant reduction of being hospitalized within 1 year after receiving HCPS (p 
  12. Dahlan R, Midin M, Shah SA, Nik Jaafar NR, Abdul Rahman FN, Baharudin A, et al.
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S46-51.
    PMID: 23679983 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.03.007
    The study aimed to determine the rates of functional remission and employment as well as the factors associated with functional remission among patients with Schizophrenia, receiving community psychiatric service in an urban setting in Malaysia.
  13. Deang KT, Sidi H, Zakaria H, Adam RL, Das S, Hatta NH, et al.
    Curr Drug Targets, 2019;20(2):210-219.
    PMID: 28494748 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170511145628
    Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), a hyperactivity disorder prevalent among children may continue as an adulthood attention deficit. To date, treating an individual with an adult ADHD may be an arduous task as it involves numerous challenges, which include a need for high index of suspicion to diagnose this medical condition. Many psychiatric disorders masquerade as ADHD and delay the necessary assessment and proper treatment for this debilitating medical disorder. Adult ADHD is often misdiagnosed (or under diagnosed) due to the fact that this medical condition is being masked by the patients' high level of intellectual achievement. As the ADHD in adult persists, it may end-up with impairment in the personal-social-occupational function in which the management becomes a great challenge. The treatment of ADHD can be optimized by using various drugs targets agents like norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), with or without psycho stimulants like methylphenidate, which is marketed as Ritalin. Bupropion, an NDRI has a novel effect on ADHD as the molecule exerts its effects by modulating the reward-pleasure mesolimbic dopaminergic system and at the same time regulates the elevating mood dimension of the noradrenergic neurotransmission. The role of Bupropion in the neural and psychopharmacological perspective treatment of ADHD was deliberated. The present review highlights the novel effects of Bupropion in ADHD treatment, together with the help of other successful bio-psycho-social measures. This may be of immense benefit to the psychiatrists for treating their patients.
  14. Fadzil A, Balakrishnan K, Razali R, Sidi H, Malapan T, Japaraj RP, et al.
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:7-13.
    PMID: 23857831 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12036
    Anxiety and depression are prevalent during pregnancy. Estimates of the prevalence of anxiety and depression during pregnancy vary according to the criteria used, variable methodologies and population characteristics.
  15. Fadzil MA, Sidi H, Ismail Z, Hassan MR, Thuzar K, Midin M, et al.
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S23-8.
    PMID: 23453753 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2012.12.024
    OBJECTIVE:
    The main aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of ED and the associated socio-demographic and psychological correlates among hypertensive patients from a rural multiethnic community in Malaysia.

    METHODS:
    A cross-sectional study was conducted among hypertensive patients attending rural primary care clinics. The socio-demographic, health characteristics, erectile function and levels of depression, anxiety and stress were recorded and analysed. The International Index of ErectileFunction-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were used to assess erectile function and the levels of depression, anxiety and stress, respectively.

    RESULTS:
    A total of 253 hypertensive patients comprising 178 (70.4%) Malays, 56 (22.1%) Chinese and 18 (7.5%) Indians participated. The mean age of participants was 59.8 ± 10.62 years. Overall, the prevalence rate of ED was 62%: 90 (35%) with moderate and 69 (27%) with severe ED. The prevalence rate of ED among those aged 65 years or older (83.1%) was significantly higher than those less than 65 years (51.8%), (p<0.001). Higher prevalence rates were also noted among the Chinese (78.6%) compared to Malays (59.6%) and Indians (50%) (p=0.021); lower education level (69.1%) (p=0.026), among hypertensive patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (70.6%) (p=0.026) and WHR ≥ 0.9 (31.3%) (p=0.021). However, no significant association was found between depression, anxiety and stress scores with IIEF-5 score.

    CONCLUSION:
    The prevalence rate of ED among Malaysian hypertensive patients is high. The rate increases significantly with age, Chinese ethnicity, concomitant diabetes mellitus, lower education level, WHR and the number of pack years of smoking. ED should be properly recognized and managed in hypertensive patients.
  16. Grewal GS, Gill JS, Sidi H, Gurpreet K, Jambunathan ST, Suffee NJ
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:14-20.
    PMID: 23857832 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12037
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for female sexual desire disorder (FSDD) among healthcare personnel at selected healthcare facilities in Malaysia.
    METHODS: Two hundred and one female healthcare workers from three large tertiary hospitals were selected by stratified random sampling to participate in this cross-sectional study. Validated questionnaires were used to assess depression, anxiety, and sexual function in women and erectile dysfunction (ED) in their partners.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of FSDD was 18.9%. Women with low sexual desire were more likely to have higher educational attainment (OR = 3.06; 95% CI; 1.22-7.66), lower frequency of sexual intercourse (OR = 12.81; 95% CI; 4.43-37.83), two or more children (OR = 3.05; 95% CI; 1.02-9.09), duration of marriage of 20 years or more (OR = 2.62; 95% CI; 1.27-5.40), and a spouse with ED (OR = 2.86; 95% CI; 1.08-7.56).
    DISCUSSION: FSDD is common among female healthcare personnel in Malaysia, affecting nearly one in five women. The implication of low sexual desire is important in terms of contributing to a meaningful sexual relationship, and indirectly affects the quality of life of the healthcare personnel.
    KEYWORDS: Malaysia; healthcare personnel; prevalence; risk factor; sexual desire disorder
  17. Grewal GS, Gill JS, Sidi H, Gurpreet K, Jambunathan ST, Suffee NJ, et al.
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S17-22.
    PMID: 23452905 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.01.009
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) among healthcare personnel in selected healthcare facilities in Malaysia.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out at three large healthcare facilities that were selected by convenience sampling. Within each facility, stratified random sampling was used to select suitable candidates to participate in the study (n=201). Validated questionnaires were used to assess depression, anxiety, sexual function in women and erectile dysfunction (ED) in their partners.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of FSD was 5.5%. Women with sexual dysfunction were more likely to be married longer (OR=4.08; 95% CI; 1.15-4.50), had lower frequency of sexual intercourse (OR=5.00; 95% C; 1.05-23.76) and had a spouse with ED (OR=24.35; 95% CI; 4.55-130.37). Multivariate analysis showed that ED was the strongest predictor for FSD (AOR=27.30; 95% CI; 4.706-159.08).
    CONCLUSION: One in eighteen female healthcare personnel suffered from FSD and presence of ED in the partner strongly impacted her sexual function, negatively. The findings highlight the importance of including the male partner in clinical assessment of FSD.
  18. Husin H, Sidi H, Baharudin A
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Anxiety and depression are both associated with increased morbidity in diabetic population, especially those afflicted with foot ulcer, whereas Erectile Dysfunction (“ED”) and Female Sexual Dysfunction (“FSD”) are amongst the common complication found in diabetes. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression as primary outcome and sexual dysfunction (“SD”) as a secondary outcome in diabetic patients with and without foot ulcer (“DFU”).
    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hospital Raja Permaisuri Bainun Ipoh, Perak, where 164 diabetic patients were recruited for the purpose of this study. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (“HADS”) were utilised to measure anxiety and depression. International Index for Erectile Function 5 (“IIEF-5”) and the Malay version of Female Sexual Function Index (“MVFSFI”) were used to detect SD. Simple and multiple logistic regressions were referred to in order to evaluate the factors associated with anxiety, depression and SD.
    Results: In the group with foot ulcer, 36.8% had depressive and anxiety risk respectively compared to without the foot ulcer, 37.5% and 38.5% respectively. Male gender (AOR=6.3,p=0.002,95%CI 1.975, 20.205) and having lower education status (AOR=6.0,p=0.018,95%CI1.36,26.59,) was associated with foot ulcer. High prevalence of SD found in foot ulcer group (52.6%,p=0.006). Those with depression (OR=4.421,95% CI 1.08,18.16,p=0.039) and male gender (OR=18.42,p<0.01,95%CI5.5,-61.62) predicts present of SD.
    Conclusion: Depression and anxiety prevalent were similar for both with and without diabetic foot ulcer. Several significant predictor factors were identified for DFU group, for anxiety and depression risk and for SD in a diabetes patient. Further studies are required to establish the directional nature of this relationship.
    Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, Diabetic food ulcer (DFU), Erectile Dysfunction (ED), Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD)
    Study site: outpatient clinic of medical and orthopedic departments in Hospital Raja Permaisuri Bainun (HRPB) Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia
  19. Ismail AH, Baw R, Sidi H, Guan NC, Midin M, Nik Jaafar NR, et al.
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S29-33.
    PMID: 23623640 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.03.009
    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of orgasmic dysfunction among Malay women with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Malaysia.
  20. Ismail AH, Bau R, Sidi H, Guan NC, Naing L, Nik Jaafar NR, et al.
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S34-7.
    PMID: 23375262 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2012.12.028
    This study compared the components of sexual responses between Malaysian women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and those without the disease.
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