Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 75 in total

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  1. Wan Ismail WS, Nik Jaafar NR, Sidi H, Midin M, Shah SA
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S114-20.
    PMID: 23763872 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.05.002
    INTRODUCTION: To determine sociodemographic and psychological factors associated with bullying behavior among young adolescents in Malaysia.
    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of four hundred ten 12-year-old adolescents from seven randomly sampled schools in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sociodemographic features of the adolescents and their parents, bullying behavior (Malaysian Bullying Questionnaire), ADHD symptoms (Conners Rating Scales), and internalizing and externalizing behavior (Child Behaviour Checklist) were obtained from adolescents, parents and teachers, respectively.
    RESULTS: Only male gender (OR=7.071, p=0.01*, CI=1.642-30.446) was a significant sociodemographic factor among bullies. Predominantly hyperactive (OR=2.285, p=0.00*, CI=1.507-3.467) and inattentive ADHD symptoms reported by teachers (OR=1.829, p=0.03*, CI=1.060-3.154) and parents (OR=1.709, p=0.03*, CI=1.046-2.793) were significant risk factors for bullying behavior while combined symptoms reported by young adolescents (OR=0.729, p=0.01*, CI=0.580-0.915) and teachers (OR=0.643, p=0.02*, CI=0.440-0.938) were protective against bullying behavior despite the influence of conduct behavior (OR=3.160, p=0.00*, CI=1.600-6.241). Internalizing behavior, that is, withdrawn (OR=0.653, p=0.04*, CI=0.436-0.977) and somatic complaints (OR=0.619, p=0.01*, CI=0.430-0.889) significantly protect against bullying behavior.
    DISCUSSIONS: Recognizing factors associated with bullying behavior, in particular factors distinctive to the local population, facilitates in strategizing effective interventions for school bullying among young adolescents in Malaysian schools.
  2. Nik Jaafar NR, Midin M, Mahadevan R, Sinniah A, Rahman AH, Ming W, et al.
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S60-4.
    PMID: 24139853 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.09.002
    OBJECTIVE: Most weight interventions among patients with severe mental illness (SMI) used body mass index (BMI) as outcome measure but excluded waist circumference (WC) although the latter is a stronger predictor of obesity complications. This study aimed to assess a weight-management program consisting of education, exercise and behavioural techniques for patients with SMI using weight parameters including WC as the outcome measures.
    METHODS: A group intervention was carried out as part of psychiatric outpatient community service. It used structured modules on diet, exercise and related topics comprising of education and exercises sessions with a total of 12-week duration. The participants were outpatients with SMI recruited through referrals to the program by the treating doctor. The participants' body weight, BMI and WC were measured at the baseline, fortnightly and at the end of the program.
    RESULTS: A total of 27 patients participated in the program which was carried out in 6 cycles. The pre- and post-intervention comparisons analysis of the weight parameters found a significant reduction in the WC (mean=3.878 cm+5.165, p=0.001) while no significant changes were recorded in body weight and BMI.
    CONCLUSION: Small but significant loss in WC and possibly weight maintenance were achieved using this non-pharmacological intervention. Modest loss in WC may have an impact on reducing the risk of obesity-related health risks.
    Study site: Psychiatric clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  3. Wong DTL, Sidi H, Salleh H, Tajjudin I
    MyJurnal
    With the availability of the Internet, pornographic materials are readily accessible. Pornographic materials may have a link to addiction and other deviant sexual behaviour. In this case report, we highlighted a link between voyeuristic disorder and internet sex addiction. Mr. SK is a 22-year-old single gentleman who was referred for psychiatric assessment due to voyeuristic acts. He had been watching pornographic materials since 16 years old and became addicted to it.
  4. Sidi H, Midin M
    The compulsive behaviour of observing an unsuspecting person undressing or being naked in voyeurism may be related to Obsessive-Compulsive spectrum disorder. The aim of this paper is to report a case that reiterates a unique psychopathology of a Malaysian male voyeur with an obsession on female body parts. This 35 year-old voyeur man who attended psychiatric outpatient clinic in an academic medical centre presented to a psychiatrist for taking photos of his sisters' naked bodies and collected nails and hairs from their body, coded them with intend for masturbation. His voyeuristic thoughts and urges which came repeatedly and intrusively, involving attempts to resist them and was associated with an inner tension for the urges to be fulfilled. He responded both to Paroxetine and behaviour therapy. The possibility that voyeurism, a paraphilia can manifest itself as a subtype of OCD is discussed. Keywords: Malaysian voyeur, obsession-compulsive spectrum disorder, body parts
  5. Yusof F, Sidi H, Das S, Midin M, Kumar J, Hatta MH
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(8):856-864.
    PMID: 27993112 DOI: 10.2174/1389450117666161215161108
    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the commonest male sexual dysfunctions. It is characterized by ejaculation which occurs before or soon after vaginal penetration, which causes significant psychological distress to the individual, and his partner. The exact cause of PE is still unknown but several mechanisms are proposed, and these involve complex interactions of neurophysiological, psychosocial, and cognitive factors. We discuss the role of serotonin, nitric oxide, phosphodiesterase enzymes and other neurotransmitters. Treatment of PE tends to co-occur with other sexual difficulties, especially erectile dysfunction (ED). Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and Dapoxitene are also discussed in detail. The treatment strategy requires a comprehensive holistic approach incorporating both combination of psychopharmacological agent and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The present review highlights the integration of the hypothalamic-neural and reverberating emotional circuit and discusses the etiology and treatment for patients with PE.
  6. Mohamed RMP, Kumar J, Yap E, Mohamed IN, Sidi H, Adam RL, et al.
    Curr Drug Targets, 2019;20(2):158-165.
    PMID: 28641520 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170622092824
    Memories associated with substance use disorders, or substance-associated cues increase the likelihood of craving and relapse during abstinence. There is a growing consensus that manipulation of synaptic plasticity may reduce the strength of substance abuse-related memories. On the biological front, there are new insights that suggest memories associated with substance use disorder may follow unique neurobiological pathways that render them more accessible to pharmacological intervention. In parallel to this, research in neurochemistry has identified several potential candidate molecules that could influence the formation and maintenance of long-term memory. Drugs that target these molecules (blebbistatin, isradipine and zeta inhibitory peptide) have shown promise at the preclinical stage. In this review, we shall provide an overview of the evolving understanding on the biochemical mechanisms involved in memory formation and expound on the premise that substance use disorder is a learning disorder.
  7. Sulaiman AH, Said MA, Habil MH, Rashid R, Siddiq A, Guan NC, et al.
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S89-94.
    PMID: 23433219 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.01.003
    The objective of this study was to determine the risk of lifetime and current methamphetamine-induced psychosis in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The association between psychiatric co-morbidity and methamphetamine-induced psychosis was also studied.
  8. Yeoh SH, Razali R, Sidi H, Razi ZR, Midin M, Nik Jaafar NR, et al.
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S1-6.
    PMID: 23116967 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2012.09.002
    The study aimed to measure the relationship of sexual functioning between male and female partners, who sought infertility treatment in a university hospital setting in Malaysia.
  9. Sidi H, Puteh SE, Abdullah N, Midin M
    J Sex Med, 2007 Mar;4(2):311-21.
    PMID: 17040486
    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a prevalent sexual health problem that does not spare the women in Malaysia, a nation with a conservative multiethnic society.
  10. Tee, B.C., Ahmad Rasidi, M.S., Mohd Rushdan, M.N., Ismail, A., Sidi, H.
    Medicine & Health, 2014;9(1):53-61.
    MyJurnal
    Sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent in gynaecological cancer patients. Most of the time, sexual dysfunction in gynaecological cancer is underdiagnosed as there is overlapping of symptoms with other psychological morbidities, interplaying of multiple risks, patients’ reluctance to complain or incompetence of health care provider to assess. Determining the risk factors of sexual dysfunction in cancer patients enables us to pay more attention to those who are vulnerable and to device strategies for early detection, prevention and treatment of sexual dysfunction in them. The main aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its risk factors in gynaecological cancer patients in Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Star, Malaysia. Sexual function of eighty-three gynaecological cancer patients who were married were assessed with self-rated MVFSFI (Malay version Female Sexual Function Index). Self-rated WHOQOL-BREF (World Health Organization- Quality of Life- 26) which assessed the domains of quality of life was used while MINI (Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview) was used for diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction among the married gynaecological cancer patients was 65% (54/83). Sexual dysfunction was significantly associated with low education level (OR 3.055, CI 1.009-9.250), shorter duration of cancer (OR 0.966, CI 0.966- 0.998), ongoing chemotherapy (OR 3.045, CI 1.149-8.067), pain perception (OR 3.230, CI 1.257-8.303), absence of sexual intercourse for more than one month (OR 1.862) and three domains of quality of life such as physical health, psychological health and social relationship (OR 0.942, CI 0.908-0.978; OR 0.955, CI 0.916-0.995; OR 0.933, CI 0.894-0.973, respectively). However, sexual dysfunction was not associated with major depressive disorder (χ2 ² = 1.224, p = 0.268). The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in gynaecological cancer patients was comparable to other studies of similar population. Since, the risk factors of sexual dysfunction in gynaecological cancer patients are multidimensional, the process of assessment and management need to be holistic and patient-oriented.
  11. Sidi H, Naing L, Midin M, Nik Jaafar NR
    J Sex Med, 2008 Oct;5(10):2359-66.
    PMID: 18086161
    The concept of a sexual response cycle (SRC) for women has gained interest lately with the reintroduction of terms with new definitions and a new model for the sexual response, especially the Basson's circular model.
  12. Adam RL, Sidi H, Midin M, Zakaria H, Das S, Mat KC
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(12):1402-1411.
    PMID: 28464773 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170502130126
    Sexuality is an important dimension in human beings as a form of expression of individuality. For many decades, sexual functioning has been a neglected area among patients suffering from schizophrenia. It was a presumption that patients with schizophrenia could be asexual and this could be secondary to overwhelming situations of delusion, hallucination, hostility and negative symptoms among others. The deficient in sexual functioning are due to innate factors, i.e. negative symptoms (apathy, avolition and amotivation) and also as a result of prefrontal dysfunction, i.e. inability to plan and execute meaningful relationship. Adverse effects of the psychopharmacological agents, especially the typical antipsychotics, e.g. dystonia, excessive sedation and hyperprolactinemia may interfere with patients' sexual activity. In this review, we highlight the neurobiology of schizophrenia in the context of understanding sexual functioning and to integrate the knowledge of dopamine-serotonin neurotransmitter's interaction and the receptors' target. Interventional approaches consist of psychopharmacological and psychosocial interventions. In the perspective of sexuality, we recommend atypical antipsychotic should be placed as the first line treatment for both drug naïve patients and also to patients who are already receiving psychopharmacological agents in consideration for a drug-switch from typical to atypical antipsychotics. Aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine exert benefits in terms of sexual functioning recovery due to their atypical mechanism of action. However, the potential adverse effect like metabolic syndrome should be adequately managed to prevent negative consequences. Psychosocial interventions, i.e. psychoeducation, destigmatization, supportive psychotherapy and psychiatric rehabilitation also play a crucial role in the management. In conclusion, restoration of sexual function is an achievable recovery target in patients with schizophrenia through these biopsycho- social interventions.
  13. Koon CS, Sidi H, Kumar J, Xi OW, Das S, Hatta MH, et al.
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(12):1366-1377.
    PMID: 28215172 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170215164747
    Erectile function (EF) is a prerequisite for satisfactory sexual intercourse (SI) and central to male sexual functioning. Satisfactory SI eventually initiates orgasm - a biopsychophysiological state of euphoria - leading to a sense of bliss, enjoyment and positive mental well being. For a psychiatrist, treating ED is self-propelled to harmonize these pleasurable experiences alongside with encouragement of physical wellness and sensuality. Hence, the role of PDE-5i is pivotal in this context and constitutes a therapeutic challenge. PDE-5i work via the dopaminergic-oxytocin-nitric oxide pathway by increasing the availability of endothelial's guanosine monophosphate (GMP), immediately causing relaxation of the penile smooth muscle and an erection. The PDE-5i, like sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil, are effective in the treatment of ED with some benefits/ flexibilities and disadvantages compared to other treatment modalities. Prescribed PDE-5i exclusively improve EF, fostering male's self-confidence and self-esteem. Treatment failures are associated with factors such as absent (or insufficient) sexual stimulation, psychosexual conflicts and the co-existence of medical disorders. Managing ED requires dealing with underlying medical diseases, addressing other co-morbid sexual dysfunctions like premature ejaculation (PE), and educating the patient on healthy life-styles. Furthermore, by dealing with interpersonal dynamics within the couple and embracing adequate lifestyles (managing stress and revising one's sexual scripts), PDE-5i treatment benefits may be enhanced. In this review, we propose a holistic conceptual framework approach for psychiatric management of patients with ED.
  14. Deang KT, Sidi H, Zakaria H, Adam RL, Das S, Hatta NH, et al.
    Curr Drug Targets, 2019;20(2):210-219.
    PMID: 28494748 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170511145628
    Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), a hyperactivity disorder prevalent among children may continue as an adulthood attention deficit. To date, treating an individual with an adult ADHD may be an arduous task as it involves numerous challenges, which include a need for high index of suspicion to diagnose this medical condition. Many psychiatric disorders masquerade as ADHD and delay the necessary assessment and proper treatment for this debilitating medical disorder. Adult ADHD is often misdiagnosed (or under diagnosed) due to the fact that this medical condition is being masked by the patients' high level of intellectual achievement. As the ADHD in adult persists, it may end-up with impairment in the personal-social-occupational function in which the management becomes a great challenge. The treatment of ADHD can be optimized by using various drugs targets agents like norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), with or without psycho stimulants like methylphenidate, which is marketed as Ritalin. Bupropion, an NDRI has a novel effect on ADHD as the molecule exerts its effects by modulating the reward-pleasure mesolimbic dopaminergic system and at the same time regulates the elevating mood dimension of the noradrenergic neurotransmission. The role of Bupropion in the neural and psychopharmacological perspective treatment of ADHD was deliberated. The present review highlights the novel effects of Bupropion in ADHD treatment, together with the help of other successful bio-psycho-social measures. This may be of immense benefit to the psychiatrists for treating their patients.
  15. Kadir ZS, Sidi H, Kumar J, Das S, Midin M, Baharuddin N
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(8):916-926.
    PMID: 28228081 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170222153908
    Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-5), it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis. The etiology of vaginismus is complex: through multiple biopsycho- social processes, involving bidirectional connections between pelvic-genital (local) and higher mental function (central regulation). It has robust neural and psychological-cognitive loop feedback involvement. The internal neural circuit involves an inter-play of at least two-pathway systems, i.e. both "quick threat assessment" of occipital-limbic-occipital-prefrontal-pelvic-genital; and the chronic pain pathways through the genito-spinothalamic-parietal-pre-frontal system, respectively. In this review, a neurobiology root of vaginismus is deliberated with the central role of an emotional-regulating amygdala, and other neural loop, i.e. hippocampus and neo-cortex in the core psychopathology of fear, disgust, and sexual avoidance. Many therapists view vaginismus as a neglected art-and-science which demands a better and deeper understanding on the clinico-pathological correlation to enhance an effective model for the bio-psycho-social treatment. As vaginismus has a strong presentation in psychopathology, i.e. fear of penetration, phobic avoidance, disgust, and anticipatory anxiety, we highlighted a practical psychiatric approach to the clinical management of vaginismus, based on the current core knowledge in the perspective of neuroscience.
  16. Sidi H, Abdullah N, Puteh SE, Midin M
    J Sex Med, 2007 Nov;4(6):1642-54.
    PMID: 17608666
    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a prevalent sexual health problem that has been inadequately investigated in Malaysia, a nation with a conservative multiethnic society.
  17. Roslan NS, Jaafar NRN, Sidi H, Baharudin N, Kumar J, Das S, et al.
    Curr Drug Targets, 2019;20(2):146-157.
    PMID: 28641524 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170622090337
    Sexual desire includes complex motivation and drive. In the context of biological and cognitive- emotive state art of science, it is often a neglected field in medicine. In regard to the treatment, study on women's sexual function received less attention compared to the men's sexuality. In the past, this endeavor was relatively not well disseminated in the scientific community. Recently, there was a revolutionized surge of drug targets available to treat women with low sexual desire. It is timely to review the relevant biological approach, especially in the context of pharmacotherapy to understand this interesting clinical entity which was modulated by numerous interactive psychosocial inter-play and factors. The complex inter-play between numerous dimensional factors lends insights to understand the neural mechanism, i.e. the rewards centre pathway and its interaction with external psychosocialstimulus, e.g. relationship or other meaningful life events. The function of hormones, e.g. oxytocin or testosterone regulation was described. The role of neurotransmitters as reflected by the introduction of a molecule of flibenserin, a full agonist of the 5-HT1A and partial agonist of the D4 to treat premenopausal women with low sexual desire was deliberated. Based on this fundamental scientific core knowledge, we suggest an outline on know-how of introduction for sex therapy (i.e. "inner-self" and "outer-self") where the role of partner is narrated. Then, we also highlighted on the use of pharmacological agent as an adjunct scope of therapy, i.e. phosphodiasterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors and hormonal treatment in helping the patient with low sexual desire.
  18. Choy CL, Sidi H, Koon CS, Ming OS, Mohamed IN, Guan NC, et al.
    J Sex Med, 2019 Jul;16(7):1029-1048.
    PMID: 31113742 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.04.007
    INTRODUCTION: Sexual dysfunction in hypertensive women is an often-neglected subject despite a reported prevalence of 42.1%. Although few reviews exist, a definitive relationship between hypertension and sexual dysfunction in women has not been clearly established.

    AIM: To review the existing literature to definitively examine sexual dysfunction in women with hypertension, in both treated and untreated subjects.

    METHODS: We performed a systematic search for published literature of 3 electronic databases (Scopus, EBSCOhost Medline Complete, and Cochrane Library) in August 2018. The search terms with relevant truncation and Boolean were developed according to a population exposure-comparator-outcome model combining pilot searches. The quality of included studies was assessed with the McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies. Initial search, limited to the English language, included a total of 2,198 studies. 31 studies (18,260 subjects) met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Sexual dysfunction in these studies was measured using different tools. We extracted information of study setting, country, number of subjects, participants' age and blood pressure, comparators, and outcome. We ran a meta-analysis on the presence of sexual dysfunction as an outcome from the following comparisons: (i) hypertensive vs normotensive (ii) treated vs untreated hypertension, and (iii) exposure vs absence of specific class of anti-hypertensive drug.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Women with sexual dysfunction and hypertension were included.

    RESULTS: We found significant sexual dysfunction in women with hypertension compared with the normotensive group (pooled odds ratio [OR] = 2.789, 95% CI = 1.452-5.357, P = .002). However, there was no statistical difference of sexual dysfunction in women with treated or untreated hypertension (OR = 1.229, 95% CI = 0.675-2.236, P = .5). Treatment with alpha-/beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics resulted in no statistical difference in sexual dysfunction in hypertensive women.

    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Because sexual dysfunction is prevalent in women with hypertension, it is imperative to address the underlying medical condition to manage this important clinical problem.

    STRENGTH & LIMITATIONS: Many studies had to be excluded from the meta-analysis, due to unavailability and incompleteness of data. Nevertheless, results of the review are useful to derive recommendations for alerting physicians of the need to routinely assess the sexual functioning of women with hypertension.

    CONCLUSION: We conclude that women with hypertension are at increased risk for sexual dysfunction, and our findings imply that evaluation for sexual dysfunction needs to be part of the clinical management guidelines for women with hypertension. Choy CL, Sidi H, Koon CS, et al. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis for Sexual Dysfunction in Women With Hypertension. J Sex Med 2019;16:1029-1048.

  19. Aishvarya S, Maniam T, Sidi H, Oei TP
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S95-100.
    PMID: 23433220 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.01.005
    The aim of this paper was to review the literature on suicide ideation and intent in Malaysia. PsyINFO, PubMed, Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from Ministry of Health, Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training, were included in the current review. A total of 13 studies on suicide ideation and intent in Malaysia were found and reviewed. The review showed that research on suicide ideation and intent in Malaysia was fragmented and limited, at best. Approximately 50% of existing research on suicide ideation and intent simply focused on sociodemographic data. Fifty-four percent of the data were obtained from hospitals. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide ideation and intent. None of the studies used validated suicide scales. The impact of culture was rarely considered. It was clear from the review that for researchers, clinicians and public health policy makers to gain a better understanding of suicide behavior especially suicide ideation and intent in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used.
  20. Samad FDA, Sidi H, Kumar J, Das S, Midin M, Hatta NH
    Curr Drug Targets, 2019;20(2):201-209.
    PMID: 28675999 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170704142708
    Human being is not spared from a broad-ranged emotional state, including being jealous. Jealousy has both affective-cognitive and behavioural-evaluative dimension where the person perceives, or experiences a real threat on a valued relationship. As this complex emotion becomes irrational and not amenable to reason, it later transforms into a dangerously 'green-eyed monster'. This perilous situation which is viewed as pathological jealousy is a form of delusion, which is maintained by a fixed and false reasoning in an originally entrusted intimate relationship. Pathological jealousy is equally prevailing among both gender, and with a greater ubiquity among the geriatric population. The role of dopamine hyperactivity in the fronto-parietal-temporal region was implicated, with the anatomical mapping of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), cingulate gyrus (CG), and amygdala involvement in the context of the disease's neurobiology. The etiology of pathological jealousy includes major psychiatric disorders, i.e. delusional disorder, schizophrenia, mood disorder, organic brain syndrome, and among others, the drug-induced psychosis. The role of relationship issues and psychodynamic perspective, i.e. psychological conflicts with dependence on a romantic partner, and low self-esteem are involved. Pathological jealousy inherits high-risk forensic psychiatry entanglement, which may warrant intensive intervention, including hospital admission and antipsychotic treatment. Treatment options include an early recognition, managing underlying neuropsychiatric disorders, psycho education, cognitive psychotherapy, and choosing an effective psychopharmacological agent. The management strategy may also resort to a geographical intervention, i.e. separation between both persons to complement the biological treatment.
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