Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 79 in total

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  1. Ming-Tatt L, Khalivulla SI, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Perimal EK, Khalid MH, et al.
    Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2012 Mar;110(3):275-82.
    PMID: 21967232 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2011.00804.x
    This study investigated the potential antinociceptive efficacy of a novel synthetic curcuminoid analogue, 2,6-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone (BHMC), using chemical- and thermal-induced nociception test models in mice. BHMC (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) administered via intraperitoneal route (i.p.) produced significant dose-related inhibition in the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test in mice with an ID(50) of 0.15 (0.13-0.18) mg/kg. It was also demonstrated that BHMC produced significant inhibition in both neurogenic (first phase) and inflammatory phases (second phase) of the formalin-induced paw licking test with an ID(50) of 0.35 (0.27-0.46) mg/kg and 0.07 (0.06-0.08) mg/kg, respectively. Similarly, BHMC also exerted significant increase in the response latency period in the hot-plate test. Moreover, the antinociceptive effect of the BHMC in the formalin-induced paw licking test and the hot-plate test was antagonized by pre-treatment with the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. Together, these results indicate that the compound acts both centrally and peripherally. In addition, administration of BHMC exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic nociception induced by intraplantar injections of glutamate and capsaicin with ID(50) of 0.66 (0.41-1.07) mg/kg and 0.42 (0.38-0.51) mg/kg, respectively. Finally, it was also shown that BHMC-induced antinociception was devoid of toxic effects and its antinociceptive effect was associated with neither muscle relaxant nor sedative action. In conclusion, BHMC at all doses investigated did not cause any toxic and sedative effects and produced pronounced central and peripheral antinociceptive activities. The central antinociceptive activity of BHMC was possibly mediated through activation of the opioid system as well as inhibition of the glutamatergic system and TRPV1 receptors, while the peripheral antinociceptive activity was perhaps mediated through inhibition of various inflammatory mediators.
  2. Ismail N, Jambari NN, Zareen S, Akhtar MN, Shaari K, Zamri-Saad M, et al.
    Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 2012 Mar 1;259(2):257-62.
    PMID: 22266348 DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2012.01.003
    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The current use of corticosteroids in the management of asthma has recently raised issues regarding safety and lack of responsiveness in 5-10% of asthmatic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a non-steroidal small molecule that has cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) inhibitory activity, upon attenuation of allergic lung inflammation in an acute murine model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with several intraperitoneal doses (100, 20, 2 and 0.2mg/kg) of 2,4,6,-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, blood and lung samples were obtained and respiratory function was measured. OVA sensitization increased pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary allergic inflammation was significantly reduced at doses of 100, 20 and 2mg/kg with no effect at the lowest dose of 0.2mg/kg. The beneficial effects in the lung were associated with reduced eosinophilic infiltration and reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines and cysLTs. Peripheral blood reduction of total IgE was also a prominent feature. Treatment with tHGA significantly attenuated altered airway hyperresponsiveness as measured by the enhanced pause (Penh) response to incremental doses of methacholine. These data demonstrate that tHGA, a synthetic non-steroidal small molecule, can prevent acute allergic inflammation. This proof of concept opens further avenues of research and development of tHGA as an additional option to the current armamentarium of anti-asthma therapeutics.
  3. Ong HM, Mohamad AS, Makhtar N', Khalid MH, Khalid S, Perimal EK, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Jan 7;133(1):227-33.
    PMID: 20920570 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.09.030
    Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. is a medicinal herbaceous plant that is commonly used by the Malay community in Malaysia to relieve pain often associated with mouth ulcers, toothache, sore throat, and stomach ache.
  4. Perimal EK, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Khalid MH, Ming OH, Khalid S, et al.
    Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2011 Mar;108(3):155-62.
    PMID: 20955360 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2010.00635.x
    This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of zerumbone in chemical behavioural models of nociception in mice. Zerumbone given through intraperitoneal route (i.p.) produced dose-related antinociception when assessed on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test in mice. In addition, the i.p. administration of zerumbone exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic pain induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of capsaicin and bradykinin. Likewise, zerumbone given by i.p. route reduced the nociception produced by i.pl. injection of glutamate and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The antinociception caused by zerumbone in the acetic acid test was significantly attenuated by i.p. pre-treatment of mice with l-arginine (nitric oxide precursor) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel inhibitor). However, the antinociception of zerumbone was enhanced by methylene blue (non-specific gyanylyl cyclase inhibitor). Together, these results indicate that zerumbone produces pronounced antinociception against chemical models of nociception in mice. It also strongly suggests that the l-arginine-nitric oxide-cGMP-PKC-K(+) ATP channel pathways, the TRPV1 and kinin B2 receptors play an important role in the zerumbone-induced antinociception.
  5. Mohamad AS, Akhtar MN, Khalivulla SI, Perimal EK, Khalid MH, Ong HM, et al.
    Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2011 Jun;108(6):400-5.
    PMID: 21214864 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2010.00670.x
    The possible mechanisms of action in the antinociceptive activity induced by systemic administration (intraperitoneal, i.p.) of flavokawin B (FKB) were analysed using chemical models of nociception in mice. It was demonstrated that i.p. administration of FKB to the mice at 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 and 10 mg/kg produced significant dose-related reduction in the number of abdominal constrictions. The antinociception induced by FKB in the acetic acid test was significantly attenuated by i.p. pre-treatment of mice with L-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthase or glibenclamide, the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel inhibitor, but was enhanced by methylene blue, the non-specific guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. FKB also produced dose-dependent inhibition of licking response caused by intraplantar injection of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a protein kinase C activator (PKC). Together, these data indicate that the NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate/PKC/ATP-sensitive K(+) channel pathway possibly participated in the antinociceptive action induced by FKB.
  6. Sulaiman MR, Perimal EK, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Khalid MH, Tasrip NA, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2010 Oct;81(7):855-8.
    PMID: 20546845 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2010.05.009
    The anti-inflammatory activity of zerumbone (1), a natural cyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma tissue formation test in mice. It was demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of 1 at a dose of 5, 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg produced significant dose-dependent inhibition of paw edema induced by carrageenan. It was also demonstrated that 1 at similar doses significantly suppressed granulomatous tissue formation in cotton pellet-induced granuloma test.
  7. Harasstani OA, Moin S, Tham CL, Liew CY, Ismail N, Rajajendram R, et al.
    Inflamm. Res., 2010 Sep;59(9):711-21.
    PMID: 20221843 DOI: 10.1007/s00011-010-0182-8
    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated several flavonoid combinations for synergy in the inhibition of proinflammatory mediator synthesis in the RAW 264.7 cellular model of inflammation.

    METHODS: The inhibitory effect of chrysin, kaempferol, morin, silibinin, quercetin, diosmin and hesperidin upon nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion from the LPS-induced RAW 264.7 monocytic macrophage was assessed and IC(50) values obtained. Flavonoids that showed reasonable inhibitory effects in at least two out of the three assays were combined in a series of fixed IC(50) ratios and reassessed for inhibition of NO, PGE(2) and TNF-alpha. Dose-response curves were generated and interactions were analysed using isobolographic analysis.

    RESULTS: The experiments showed that only chrysin, kaempferol, morin, and silibinin were potent enough to produce dose-response effects upon at least two out of the three mediators assayed. Combinations of these four flavonoids showed that several combinations afforded highly significant synergistic effects.

    CONCLUSIONS: Some flavonoids are synergistic in their anti-inflammatory effects when combined. In particular chrysin and kaempferol significantly synergised in their inhibitory effect upon NO, PGE(2) and TNF-alpha secretion. These findings open further avenues of research into combinatorial therapeutics of inflammatory-related diseases and the pharmacology of flavonoid synergy.

  8. Liew CY, Tham CL, Lam KW, Mohamad AS, Kim MK, Cheah YK, et al.
    Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol, 2010 Sep;32(3):495-506.
    PMID: 20109039 DOI: 10.3109/08923970903575708
    HMP [3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(5-methyl-furan-2-y-l) propenone] was evaluated for its ability to inhibit the synthesis of major proinflammatory mediators and cytokines in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-differentiated/LPS-induced U937 cells. HMP suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) with significant inhibitory effects at doses as low as 0.78 microM (P < 0.05). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion was also inhibited at doses of 12.5 microM and above (P < 0.01). The secretion of both TNF-alpha and IL-6 were only inhibited at the highest dose used (25 microM; P < 0.001). IL-1beta secretion was also inhibited from 12.5 microM onwards (P < 0.01). This inhibition was demonstrated to be caused by down-regulation of inducible enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), without direct effect upon iNOS or COX-2 enzyme activity. HMP only inhibited iNOS (P < 0.001) and IL-1beta (P < 0.05) gene expression at the highest tested concentration. HMP did not affect the secretion of chemokines IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The most striking effect of HMP was its NO inhibitory activity and therefore we conclude that HMP is a selective inhibitor of iNOS.
  9. Mohamad AS, Akhtar MN, Zakaria ZA, Perimal EK, Khalid S, Mohd PA, et al.
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2010 Nov 25;647(1-3):103-9.
    PMID: 20826146 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.08.030
    The present study examined the potential antinociceptive activity of flavokawin B (6'-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxychalcone), a synthetic chalcone using chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models in mice. It was demonstrated that flavokawin B (FKB; 0.3, 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) administered via both oral (p.o.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes produced significant and dose-dependent inhibition in the abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid, with the i.p. route producing antinociception of approximately 7-fold more potent than the p.o. route. It was also demonstrated that FKB produced significant inhibition in the two phases of the formalin-induced paw licking test. In addition, the same treatment of flavokawin B (FKB) exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic nociceptive induced by intraplantar injections of glutamate and capsaicin. Likewise, this compound also induced a significant increase in the response latency period to thermal stimuli in the hot plate test and its antinociceptive effect was not related to muscle relaxant or sedative action. Moreover, the antinociception effect of the FKB in the formalin-induced paw licking test and the hot plate test was not affected by pretreatment of non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. The present results indicate that FKB produced pronounced antinociception effect against both chemical and thermal models of pain in mice that exhibited both peripheral and central analgesic activity.
  10. Tham CL, Liew CY, Lam KW, Mohamad AS, Kim MK, Cheah YK, et al.
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2010 Feb 25;628(1-3):247-54.
    PMID: 19958764 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.11.053
    Curcumin is a highly pleiotropic molecule with significant regulatory effects upon inflammation and inflammatory related diseases. However curcumin has one major important limitation in which it has poor bioavailability. Design of synthetic structural derivatives of curcumin is but one approach that has been used to overcome its poor bioavailability while retaining, or further enhancing, its drug-like effects. We have synthesized a series of curcumin analogues and describe the effects of 2,6-bis-4-(hydroxyl-3-methoxy-benzylidine)-cyclohexanone or BHMC upon nitric oxide and cytokine synthesis in cellular models of inflammation. BHMC showed a significant dose-response inhibitory action upon the synthesis of NO and we have shown that this effect was due to suppression of both iNOS gene and enzyme expression without any effects upon scavenging of nitrite. We also demonstrated that BHMC has a very minimal effect upon iNOS activity with no effect at all upon the secretion of PGE(2) but has a strong inhibitory effect upon MCP-1 and IL-10 secretion and gene expression. Secretion and gene expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were moderately inhibited whereas IL-8 and IL-1beta were not altered. We conclude that BHMC selectively inhibits the synthesis of several inflammatory mediators. BHMC should be considered a promising drug lead for preclinical and further pharmacological studies.
  11. Ahmad S, Israf DA, Lajis NH, Shaari K, Mohamed H, Wahab AA, et al.
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2006 May 24;538(1-3):188-94.
    PMID: 16650843
    Some chalcones, such as hydroxychalcones have been reported previously to inhibit major pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and reactive oxygen species production by suppressing inducible enzyme expression via inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and nuclear translocation of critical transcription factors. In this report, the effects of cardamonin (2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone), a chalcone that we have previously isolated from Alpinia rafflesiana, was evaluated upon two cellular systems that are repeatedly used in the analysis of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds namely RAW 264.7 cells and whole blood. Cardamonin inhibited NO and PGE(2) production from lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-gamma-induced RAW cells and whole blood with IC(50) values of 11.4 microM and 26.8 microM, respectively. Analysis of thromboxane B(2) (TxB(2)) secretion from whole blood either stimulated via the COX-1 or COX-2 pathway revealed that cardamonin inhibits the generation of TxB(2) via both pathways with IC(50) values of 2.9 and 1.1 microM, respectively. Analysis of IC(50) ratios determined that cardamonin was more COX-2 selective in its inhibition of TxB(2) with a ratio of 0.39. Cardamonin also inhibited the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and secretion of TNF-alpha from RAW 264.7 cells in a dose responsive manner with IC(50) values of 12.8 microM and 4.6 microM, respectively. However, cardamonin was a moderate inhibitor of lipoxygenase activity when tested in an enzymatic assay system, in which not a single concentration tested was able to cause an inhibition of more than 50%. Our results suggest that cardamonin acts upon major pro-inflammatory mediators in a similar fashion as described by previous work on other closely related synthetic hydroxychalcones and strengthens the conclusion of the importance of the methoxyl moiety substitution on the 4' or 6' locations of the A benzene ring.
  12. Zakaria ZA, Ghani ZD, Nor RN, Gopalan HK, Sulaiman MR, Jais AM, et al.
    J Nat Med, 2008 Apr;62(2):179-87.
    PMID: 18404320 DOI: 10.1007/s11418-007-0224-x
    This study was performed out to establish the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties of an aqueous extract of Dicranopteris linearis leaves in experimental animals. The antinociceptive activity was measured using the abdominal constriction, hot plate, and formalin tests. The anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities were measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. The extract, obtained after 72 h soaking of the air-dried leaves in distilled water and then prepared in the doses of 13.2, 66.0, 132.0, and 660.0 mg/kg, was administered subcutaneously 30 min before subjecting the animals to the assays mentioned above. Generally, the extract, at all doses used, was found to have significant (P < 0.05) concentration-independent antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic activity. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of D. linearis has antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity, supporting previous claims of its traditional use by the Malays to treat various ailments, particularly fever.
  13. Zakaria ZA, Raden Mohd Nor RN, Hanan Kumar G, Abdul Ghani ZD, Sulaiman MR, Rathna Devi G, et al.
    Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 2006 Dec;84(12):1291-9.
    PMID: 17487238
    The present study was carried out to establish the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties of the aqueous extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves in experimental animals. The antinociceptive activity was measured using abdominal constriction, hot-plate, and formalin tests, whereas the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities were measured using carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. The extract, which was obtained after soaking the air-dried leaves in distilled water for 72 h and then preparing in concentrations of 10%, 50%, and 100% (v/v), was administered subcutaneously 30 min prior to subjection to the above mentioned assays. At all concentrations tested, the extract was found to exhibit significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activities in a concentration-independent manner. Our findings that the aqueous extract of M. malabathricum possesses antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activities supports previous claims on its traditional uses to treat various ailments.
  14. Hisamuddin N, Shaik Mossadeq WM, Sulaiman MR, Abas F, Leong SW, Kamarudin N, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 18;24(14).
    PMID: 31323775 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24142614
    Curcumin, derived from the rhizome Curcuma longa, has been scientifically proven to possess anti-inflammatory activity but is of limited clinical and veterinary use owing to its low bioavailability and poor solubility. Hence, analogs of curcuminoids with improved biological properties have been synthesized to overcome these limitations. This study aims to provide the pharmacological basis for the use of 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (DHHPD), a synthetic curcuminoid analog, as an anti-edematogenic and anti-granuloma agent. The carrageenan-induced paw edema and the cotton pellet-induced granuloma assays were used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of DHHPD in mice. The effects of DHHPD on the histaminergic, serotonergic, and bradykininergic systems were determined by the histamine-, serotonin-, and bradykinin-induced paw edema tests, respectively. DHHPD (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) evoked significant reductions (p < 0.05) in carrageenan-induced paw edema at different time intervals and granuloma formation (p < 0.0001) by 22.08, 32.57, 37.20, and 49.25%, respectively. Furthermore, DHHPD significantly reduced paw edema (p < 0.05) induced by histamine, serotonin, and bradykinin. The present study suggests that DHHPD exerts anti-edematogenic activity, possibly by inhibiting the synthesis or release of autacoid mediators of inflammation through the histaminergic, serotonergic, and bradykininergic systems. The anti-granuloma effect may be attributed to the suppression of transudative, exudative, and proliferative activities associated with inflammation.
  15. Abu N, Akhtar MN, Yeap SK, Lim KL, Ho WY, Zulfadli AJ, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(10):e105244.
    PMID: 25286005 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105244
    INTRODUCTION: The kava-kava plant (Piper methsyticum) is traditionally known as the pacific elixir by the pacific islanders for its role in a wide range of biological activities. The extract of the roots of this plant contains a variety of interesting molecules including Flavokawain A and this molecule is known to have anti-cancer properties. Breast cancer is still one of the leading diagnosed cancers in women today. The metastatic process is also very pertinent in the progression of tumorigenesis.

    METHODS: MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells were treated with several concentrations of FKA. The apoptotic analysis was done through the MTT assay, BrdU assay, Annexin V analysis, cell cycle analysis, JC-1 mitochondrial dye, AO/PI dual staining, caspase 8/9 fluorometric assay, quantitative real time PCR and western blot. For the metastatic assays, the in vitro scratch assay, trans-well migration/invasion assay, HUVEC tube formation assay, ex vivo rat aortic ring assay, quantitative real time PCR and western blot were employed.

    RESULTS: We have investigated the effects of FKA on the apoptotic and metastatic process in two breast cancer cell lines. FKA induces apoptosis in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 in a dose dependent manner through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Additionally, FKA selectively induces a G2/M arrest in the cell cycle machinery of MDA-MB231 and G1 arrest in MCF-7. This suggests that FKA's anti-cancer activity is dependent on the p53 status. Moreover, FKA also halted the migration and invasion process in MDA-MB231. The similar effects can be seen in the inhibition of the angiogenesis process as well.

    CONCLUSIONS: FKA managed to induce apoptosis and inhibit the metastatic process in two breast cancer cell lines, in vitro. Overall, FKA may serve as a promising candidate in the search of a new anti-cancer drug especially in halting the metastatic process but further in vivo evidence is needed.

  16. Kamaldin MN, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Lajis N, Perimal EK, Akira A, et al.
    Molecules, 2013 Apr 10;18(4):4209-20.
    PMID: 23612473 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18044209
    Previous studies have shown that systemic administration of 6'-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxychalcone (flavokawin B, FKB) exerts significant peripheral and central antinociceptive effects in laboratory animals. However, the mechanisms underlying these peripheral and central antinociceptive effects have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the participation of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/potassium (K+) channels pathway in the peripheral antinociception induced by FKB. It was demonstrated that intraplantar (i.pl.) administration of FKB (150, 250, 375 and 500 µg/paw) resulted in dose-dependent peripheral antinociception against mechanical hyperalgesia in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia test model in rats. The possibility of FKB having either a central or a systemic effect was excluded since administration of FKB into the right paw did not elicit antinociception in the contralateral paw. Furthermore, peripheral antinociception induced by FKB (500 µg/paw) was significantly reduced when L-arginine (25 µg/paw, i.pl.), Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 50 µg/paw, i.pl.), glibenclamide (300 µg/paw, i.pl.), tetraethylammonium (300 µg/paw, i.pl.) and charybdotoxin (3 µg/paw, i.pl.) were injected before treatment. Taken together, our present data suggest that FKB elicits peripheral antinociception when assessed in the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan. In addition, it was also demonstrated that this effect was mediated through interaction of the NO/cGMP/K+ channels signaling pathway.
  17. Tham CL, Lam KW, Rajajendram R, Cheah YK, Sulaiman MR, Lajis NH, et al.
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2011 Feb 10;652(1-3):136-44.
    PMID: 21114991 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.10.092
    We previously showed that 2,6-bis-(4-hydroxyl-3-methoxybenzylidine)cyclohexanone (BHMC), suppressed the synthesis of various proinflammatory mediators. In this study we explain the mechanism of action of BHMC in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced U937 monocytes and further show that BHMC prevents lethality of CLP-induced sepsis. BHMC showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on p38, JNK and ERK 1/2 activity as determined by inhibition of phosphorylation of downstream transcription factors ATF-2, c-Jun and Elk-1 respectively. Inhibition of these transcription factors subsequently caused total abolishment of AP-1-DNA binding. BHMC inhibited p65 NF-κB nuclear translocation and DNA binding of p65 NF-κB only at the highest concentration used (12.5μM) but failed to alter phosphorylation of JNK, ERK1/2 and STAT-1. Since the inhibition of p38 activity was more pronounced we evaluated the possibility that BHMC may bind to p38. Molecular docking experiments confirmed that BHMC fits well in the highly conserved hydrophobic pocket of p38 MAP kinase. We also show that BHMC was able to improve survival from lethal sepsis in a murine caecal-ligation and puncture (CLP) model.
  18. Sulaiman MR, Mohd Padzil A, Shaari K, Khalid S, Shaik Mossadeq WM, Mohamad AS, et al.
    J. Biomed. Biotechnol., 2010;2010:937642.
    PMID: 21274262 DOI: 10.1155/2010/937642
    Melicope ptelefolia is a medicinal herb commonly used in Malaysia to treat fever, pain, wounds, and itches. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the Melicope ptelefolia ethanolic extract (MPEE) using animal models of nociception. The antinociceptive activity of the extract was assessed using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot-plate, and formalin-induced paw licking tests. Oral administration of MPEE produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects when tested in mice and rats using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and on the second phase of the formalin-induced paw licking test, respectively. It was also demonstrated that MPEE had no effect on the response latency time to the heat stimulus in the thermal model of the hot-plate test. In addition, the antinociception produced by MPEE was not blocked by naloxone. Furthermore, oral administration of MPEE did not produce any effect in motor performance of the rota-rod test and in acute toxicity study no abnormal behaviors as well as mortality were observed up to a dose level of the extract of 5 g/kg. These results indicated that MPEE at all doses investigated which did not produce any sedative and toxic effects exerted pronounce antinociceptive activity that acts peripherally in experimental animals.
  19. Khalid MH, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Perimal EK, Akira A, Israf DA, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Sep 1;137(1):345-51.
    PMID: 21664960 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.05.043
    Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith, a wild edible ginger species or locally known as "lempoyang", commonly used in the Malays traditional medicine as an appetizer or to treat stomachache, toothache, muscle sprain and as a cure for swelling sores and cuts.
  20. Zakaria ZA, Mohamed AM, Jamil NS, Rofiee MS, Hussain MK, Sulaiman MR, et al.
    Am. J. Chin. Med., 2011;39(1):183-200.
    PMID: 21213408
    The in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of the aqueous, chloroform and methanol extracts of Muntingia calabura leaves were determined in the present study. Assessed using the 3,(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay, the aqueous and methanol extracts of M. calabura inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7, HeLa, HT-29, HL-60 and K-562 cancer cells while the chloroform extract only inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7, HeLa, HL-60 and K-562 cancer cells. Interestingly, all extracts of M. calabura, which failed to inhibit the MDA-MB-231 cells proliferation, did not inhibit the proliferation of 3T3 (normal) cells, indicating its safety. All extracts (20, 100 and 500 μg/ml) were found to possess antioxidant activity when tested using the DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide scavenging assays with the methanol, followed by the aqueous and chloroform, extract exhibiting the highest antioxidant activity in both assays. The total phenolic content for the aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts were 2970.4 ± 6.6, 1279.9 ± 6.1 and 2978.1 ± 4.3 mg/100 g gallic acid, respectively. In conclusion, the M. calabura leaves possess potential antiproliferative and antioxidant activities that could be attributed to its high content of phenolic compounds, and thus, needs to be further explored.
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