Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 140 in total

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  1. Mohamad S, Isa NM, Muhammad R, Emran NA, Kitan NM, Kang P, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(1):e0117104.
    PMID: 25629968 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117104
    CHEK2 is a protein kinase that is involved in cell-cycle checkpoint control after DNA damage. Germline mutations in CHEK2 gene have been associated with increase in breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to identify the CHEK2 gene germline mutations among high-risk breast cancer patients and its contribution to the multiethnic population in Malaysia. We screened the entire coding region of CHEK2 gene on 59 high-risk breast cancer patients who tested negative for BRCA1/2 germline mutations from UKM Medical Centre (UKMMC), Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) and Hospital Putrajaya (HPJ). Sequence variants identified were screened further in case-control cohorts consisting of 878 unselected invasive breast cancer patients (180 Malays, 526 Chinese and 172 Indian) and 270 healthy individuals (90 Malays, 90 Chinese and 90 Indian). By screening the entire coding region of the CHEK2 gene, two missense mutations, c.480A>G (p.I160M) and c.538C>T (p.R180C) were identified in two unrelated patients (3.4%). Further screening of these missense mutations on the case-control cohorts unveiled the variant p.I160M in 2/172 (1.1%) Indian cases and 1/90 (1.1%) Indian control, variant p.R180C in 2/526 (0.38%) Chinese cases and 0/90 Chinese control, and in 2/180 (1.1%) of Malay cases and 1/90 (1.1%) of Malay control. The results of this study suggest that CHEK2 mutations are rare among high-risk breast cancer patients and may play a minor contributing role in breast carcinogenesis among Malaysian population.
  2. Iranpour F, Merican AM, Teo SH, Cobb JP, Amis AA
    Knee, 2017 Jun;24(3):555-563.
    PMID: 28330756 DOI: 10.1016/j.knee.2017.01.011
    BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral instability is a major cause of anterior knee pain. The aim of this study was to examine how the medial and lateral stability of the patellofemoral joint in the normal knee changes with knee flexion and measure its relationship to differences in femoral trochlear geometry.

    METHODS: Twelve fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were used. Five components of the quadriceps and the iliotibial band were loaded physiologically with 175N and 30N, respectively. The force required to displace the patella 10mm laterally and medially at 0°, 20°, 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion was measured. Patellofemoral contact points at these knee flexion angles were marked. The trochlea cartilage geometry at these flexion angles was visualized by Computed Tomography imaging of the femora in air with no overlying tissue. The sulcus, medial and lateral facet angles were measured. The facet angles were measured relative to the posterior condylar datum.

    RESULTS: The lateral facet slope decreased progressively with flexion from 23°±3° (mean±S.D.) at 0° to 17±5° at 90°. While the medial facet angle increased progressively from 8°±8° to 36°±9° between 0° and 90°. Patellar lateral stability varied from 96±22N at 0°, to 77±23N at 20°, then to 101±27N at 90° knee flexion. Medial stability varied from 74±20N at 0° to 170±21N at 90°. There were significant correlations between the sulcus angle and the medial facet angle with medial stability (r=0.78, p<0.0001).

    CONCLUSIONS: These results provide objective evidence relating the changes of femoral profile geometry with knee flexion to patellofemoral stability.

  3. Rebbeck TR, Mitra N, Wan F, Sinilnikova OM, Healey S, McGuffog L, et al.
    JAMA, 2015 Apr 07;313(13):1347-61.
    PMID: 25849179 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2014.5985
    IMPORTANCE: Limited information about the relationship between specific mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and cancer risk exists.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify mutation-specific cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1/2.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Observational study of women who were ascertained between 1937 and 2011 (median, 1999) and found to carry disease-associated BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The international sample comprised 19,581 carriers of BRCA1 mutations and 11,900 carriers of BRCA2 mutations from 55 centers in 33 countries on 6 continents. We estimated hazard ratios for breast and ovarian cancer based on mutation type, function, and nucleotide position. We also estimated RHR, the ratio of breast vs ovarian cancer hazard ratios. A value of RHR greater than 1 indicated elevated breast cancer risk; a value of RHR less than 1 indicated elevated ovarian cancer risk.

    EXPOSURES: Mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2.

    MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Breast and ovarian cancer risks.

    RESULTS: Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, 9052 women (46%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 2317 (12%) with ovarian cancer, 1041 (5%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 7171 (37%) without cancer. Among BRCA2 mutation carriers, 6180 women (52%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 682 (6%) with ovarian cancer, 272 (2%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 4766 (40%) without cancer. In BRCA1, we identified 3 breast cancer cluster regions (BCCRs) located at c.179 to c.505 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.22-1.74; P = 2 × 10(-6)), c.4328 to c.4945 (BCCR2; RHR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.78; P = .04), and c. 5261 to c.5563 (BCCR2', RHR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.22-1.55; P = 6 × 10(-9)). We also identified an ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) from c.1380 to c.4062 (approximately exon 11) with RHR = 0.62 (95% CI, 0.56-0.70; P = 9 × 10(-17)). In BRCA2, we observed multiple BCCRs spanning c.1 to c.596 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06-2.78; P = .03), c.772 to c.1806 (BCCR1'; RHR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.10-2.40; P = .01), and c.7394 to c.8904 (BCCR2; RHR = 2.31; 95% CI, 1.69-3.16; P = .00002). We also identified 3 OCCRs: the first (OCCR1) spanned c.3249 to c.5681 that was adjacent to c.5946delT (6174delT; RHR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.44-0.60; P = 6 × 10(-17)). The second OCCR spanned c.6645 to c.7471 (OCCR2; RHR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.41-0.80; P = .001). Mutations conferring nonsense-mediated decay were associated with differential breast or ovarian cancer risks and an earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Breast and ovarian cancer risks varied by type and location of BRCA1/2 mutations. With appropriate validation, these data may have implications for risk assessment and cancer prevention decision making for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.

  4. Couch FJ, Kuchenbaecker KB, Michailidou K, Mendoza-Fandino GA, Nord S, Lilyquist J, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2016 04 27;7:11375.
    PMID: 27117709 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11375
    Common variants in 94 loci have been associated with breast cancer including 15 loci with genome-wide significant associations (P<5 × 10(-8)) with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and BRCA1-associated breast cancer risk. In this study, to identify new ER-negative susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consisting of 4,939 ER-negative cases and 14,352 controls, combined with 7,333 ER-negative cases and 42,468 controls and 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers genotyped on the iCOGS array. We identify four previously unidentified loci including two loci at 13q22 near KLF5, a 2p23.2 locus near WDR43 and a 2q33 locus near PPIL3 that display genome-wide significant associations with ER-negative breast cancer. In addition, 19 known breast cancer risk loci have genome-wide significant associations and 40 had moderate associations (P<0.05) with ER-negative disease. Using functional and eQTL studies we implicate TRMT61B and WDR43 at 2p23.2 and PPIL3 at 2q33 in ER-negative breast cancer aetiology. All ER-negative loci combined account for ∼11% of familial relative risk for ER-negative disease and may contribute to improved ER-negative and BRCA1 breast cancer risk prediction.
  5. Vigorito E, Kuchenbaecker KB, Beesley J, Adlard J, Agnarsson BA, Andrulis IL, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(7):e0158801.
    PMID: 27463617 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158801
    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population.
  6. Ghoussaini M, Edwards SL, Michailidou K, Nord S, Cowper-Sal Lari R, Desai K, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2014 Sep 23;4:4999.
    PMID: 25248036 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5999
    GWAS have identified a breast cancer susceptibility locus on 2q35. Here we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 101,943 subjects from 50 case-control studies. We genotype 276 SNPs using the 'iCOGS' genotyping array and impute genotypes for a further 1,284 using 1000 Genomes Project data. All but two, strongly correlated SNPs (rs4442975 G/T and rs6721996 G/A) are excluded as candidate causal variants at odds against >100:1. The best functional candidate, rs4442975, is associated with oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) disease with an odds ratio (OR) in Europeans of 0.85 (95% confidence interval=0.84-0.87; P=1.7 × 10(-43)) per t-allele. This SNP flanks a transcriptional enhancer that physically interacts with the promoter of IGFBP5 (encoding insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5) and displays allele-specific gene expression, FOXA1 binding and chromatin looping. Evidence suggests that the g-allele confers increased breast cancer susceptibility through relative downregulation of IGFBP5, a gene with known roles in breast cell biology.
  7. Orr N, Dudbridge F, Dryden N, Maguire S, Novo D, Perrakis E, et al.
    Hum. Mol. Genet., 2015 May 15;24(10):2966-84.
    PMID: 25652398 DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddv035
    We recently identified a novel susceptibility variant, rs865686, for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer at 9q31.2. Here, we report a fine-mapping analysis of the 9q31.2 susceptibility locus using 43 160 cases and 42 600 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 52 studies and a further 5795 cases and 6624 controls of Asian ancestry from nine studies. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs676256 was most strongly associated with risk in Europeans (odds ratios [OR] = 0.90 [0.88-0.92]; P-value = 1.58 × 10(-25)). This SNP is one of a cluster of highly correlated variants, including rs865686, that spans ∼14.5 kb. We identified two additional independent association signals demarcated by SNPs rs10816625 (OR = 1.12 [1.08-1.17]; P-value = 7.89 × 10(-09)) and rs13294895 (OR = 1.09 [1.06-1.12]; P-value = 2.97 × 10(-11)). SNP rs10816625, but not rs13294895, was also associated with risk of breast cancer in Asian individuals (OR = 1.12 [1.06-1.18]; P-value = 2.77 × 10(-05)). Functional genomic annotation using data derived from breast cancer cell-line models indicates that these SNPs localise to putative enhancer elements that bind known drivers of hormone-dependent breast cancer, including ER-α, FOXA1 and GATA-3. In vitro analyses indicate that rs10816625 and rs13294895 have allele-specific effects on enhancer activity and suggest chromatin interactions with the KLF4 gene locus. These results demonstrate the power of dense genotyping in large studies to identify independent susceptibility variants. Analysis of associations using subjects with different ancestry, combined with bioinformatic and genomic characterisation, can provide strong evidence for the likely causative alleles and their functional basis.
  8. Balakrishnan N, Teo SH, Sinnadurai S, Bhoo Pathy NT, See MH, Taib NA, et al.
    World J Surg, 2017 11;41(11):2735-2745.
    PMID: 28653143 DOI: 10.1007/s00268-017-4081-9
    BACKGROUND: Reproductive factors are associated with risk of breast cancer, but the association with breast cancer survival is less well known. Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the association between time since last childbirth and breast cancer survival. We determined the association between time since last childbirth (LCB) and survival of women with premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancers in Malaysia.

    METHOD: A historical cohort of 986 premenopausal, and 1123 postmenopausal, parous breast cancer patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2012 in University Malaya Medical Centre were included in the analyses. Time since LCB was categorized into quintiles. Multivariable Cox regression was used to determine whether time since LCB was associated with survival following breast cancer, adjusting for demographic, tumor, and treatment characteristics.

    RESULTS: Premenopausal breast cancer patients with the most recent childbirth (LCB quintile 1) were younger, more likely to present with unfavorable prognostic profiles and had the lowest 5-year overall survival (OS) (66.9; 95% CI 60.2-73.6%), compared to women with longer duration since LCB (quintile 2 thru 5). In univariable analysis, time since LCB was inversely associated with risk of mortality and the hazard ratio for LCB quintile 2, 3, 4, and 5 versus quintile 1 were 0.53 (95% CI 0.36-0.77), 0.49 (95% CI 0.33-0.75), 0.61 (95% CI 0.43-0.85), and 0.64 (95% CI 0.44-0.93), respectively; P trend = 0.016. However, this association was attenuated substantially following adjustment for age at diagnosis and other prognostic factors. Similarly, postmenopausal breast cancer patients with the most recent childbirth were also more likely to present with unfavorable disease profiles. Compared to postmenopausal breast cancer patients in LCB quintile 1, patients in quintile 5 had a higher risk of mortality. This association was not significant following multivariable adjustment.

    CONCLUSION: Time since LCB is not independently associated with survival in premenopausal or postmenopausal breast cancers. The apparent increase in risks of mortality in premenopausal breast cancer patients with a recent childbirth, and postmenopausal patients with longer duration since LCB, appear to be largely explained by their age at diagnosis.

  9. McCormack VA, Burton A, dos-Santos-Silva I, Hipwell JH, Dickens C, Salem D, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol, 2016 Feb;40:141-51.
    PMID: 26724463 DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2015.11.015
    Mammographic density (MD) is a quantitative trait, measurable in all women, and is among the strongest markers of breast cancer risk. The population-based epidemiology of MD has revealed genetic, lifestyle and societal/environmental determinants, but studies have largely been conducted in women with similar westernized lifestyles living in countries with high breast cancer incidence rates. To benefit from the heterogeneity in risk factors and their combinations worldwide, we created an International Consortium on Mammographic Density (ICMD) to pool individual-level epidemiological and MD data from general population studies worldwide. ICMD aims to characterize determinants of MD more precisely, and to evaluate whether they are consistent across populations worldwide. We included 11755 women, from 27 studies in 22 countries, on whom individual-level risk factor data were pooled and original mammographic images were re-read for ICMD to obtain standardized comparable MD data. In the present article, we present (i) the rationale for this consortium; (ii) characteristics of the studies and women included; and (iii) study methodology to obtain comparable MD data from original re-read films. We also highlight the risk factor heterogeneity captured by such an effort and, thus, the unique insight the pooled study promises to offer through wider exposure ranges, different confounding structures and enhanced power for sub-group analyses.
  10. Lim KK, Yoon SY, Mohd Taib NA, Shabaruddin FH, Dahlui M, Woo YL, et al.
    Appl Health Econ Health Policy, 2018 06;16(3):395-406.
    PMID: 29572724 DOI: 10.1007/s40258-018-0384-8
    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies showed that offering BRCA mutation testing to population subgroups at high risk of harbouring the mutation may be cost effective, yet no evidence is available for low- or middle-income countries (LMIC) and in Asia. We estimated the cost effectiveness of BRCA mutation testing in early-stage breast cancer patients with high pre-test probability of harbouring the mutation in Malaysia, an LMIC in Asia.

    METHODS: We developed a decision analytic model to estimate the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) accrued through BRCA mutation testing or routine clinical surveillance (RCS) for a hypothetical cohort of 1000 early-stage breast cancer patients aged 40 years. In the model, patients would decide whether to accept testing and to undertake risk-reducing mastectomy, oophorectomy, tamoxifen, combinations or neither. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) from the health system perspective. A series of sensitivity analyses were performed.

    RESULTS: In the base case, testing generated 11.2 QALYs over the lifetime and cost US$4815 per patient whereas RCS generated 11.1 QALYs and cost US$4574 per patient. The ICER of US$2725/QALY was below the cost-effective thresholds. The ICER was sensitive to the discounting of cost, cost of BRCA mutation testing and utility of being risk-free, but the ICERs remained below the thresholds. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that at a threshold of US$9500/QALY, 99.9% of simulations favoured BRCA mutation testing over RCS.

    CONCLUSIONS: Offering BRCA mutation testing to early-stage breast cancer patients identified using a locally-validated risk-assessment tool may be cost effective compared to RCS in Malaysia.

  11. Easton DF, Lesueur F, Decker B, Michailidou K, Li J, Allen J, et al.
    J. Med. Genet., 2016 05;53(5):298-309.
    PMID: 26921362 DOI: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103529
    BACKGROUND: BRCA1 interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1 (BRIP1) is one of the Fanconi Anaemia Complementation (FANC) group family of DNA repair proteins. Biallelic mutations in BRIP1 are responsible for FANC group J, and previous studies have also suggested that rare protein truncating variants in BRIP1 are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. These studies have led to inclusion of BRIP1 on targeted sequencing panels for breast cancer risk prediction.

    METHODS: We evaluated a truncating variant, p.Arg798Ter (rs137852986), and 10 missense variants of BRIP1, in 48 144 cases and 43 607 controls of European origin, drawn from 41 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Additionally, we sequenced the coding regions of BRIP1 in 13 213 cases and 5242 controls from the UK, 1313 cases and 1123 controls from three population-based studies as part of the Breast Cancer Family Registry, and 1853 familial cases and 2001 controls from Australia.

    RESULTS: The rare truncating allele of rs137852986 was observed in 23 cases and 18 controls in Europeans in BCAC (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.58 to 2.03, p=0.79). Truncating variants were found in the sequencing studies in 34 cases (0.21%) and 19 controls (0.23%) (combined OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.70, p=0.75).

    CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that truncating variants in BRIP1, and in particular p.Arg798Ter, are not associated with a substantial increase in breast cancer risk. Such observations have important implications for the reporting of results from breast cancer screening panels.

  12. Darabi H, McCue K, Beesley J, Michailidou K, Nord S, Kar S, et al.
    Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2015 Jul 02;97(1):22-34.
    PMID: 26073781 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.05.002
    Genome-wide association studies have identified SNPs near ZNF365 at 10q21.2 that are associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density. To identify the most likely causal SNPs, we fine mapped the association signal by genotyping 428 SNPs across the region in 89,050 European and 12,893 Asian case and control subjects from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified four independent sets of correlated, highly trait-associated variants (iCHAVs), three of which were located within ZNF365. The most strongly risk-associated SNP, rs10995201 in iCHAV1, showed clear evidence of association with both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (OR = 0.85 [0.82-0.88]) and ER-negative (OR = 0.87 [0.82-0.91]) disease, and was also the SNP most strongly associated with percent mammographic density. iCHAV2 (lead SNP, chr10: 64,258,684:D) and iCHAV3 (lead SNP, rs7922449) were also associated with ER-positive (OR = 0.93 [0.91-0.95] and OR = 1.06 [1.03-1.09]) and ER-negative (OR = 0.95 [0.91-0.98] and OR = 1.08 [1.04-1.13]) disease. There was weaker evidence for iCHAV4, located 5' of ADO, associated only with ER-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.93 [0.90-0.96]). We found 12, 17, 18, and 2 candidate causal SNPs for breast cancer in iCHAVs 1-4, respectively. Chromosome conformation capture analysis showed that iCHAV2 interacts with the ZNF365 and NRBF2 (more than 600 kb away) promoters in normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells. Luciferase assays did not identify SNPs that affect transactivation of ZNF365, but identified a protective haplotype in iCHAV2, associated with silencing of the NRBF2 promoter, implicating this gene in the etiology of breast cancer.
  13. Lim KP, Chun NA, Gan CP, Teo SH, Rahman ZA, Abraham MT, et al.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2014;10(11):3214-23.
    PMID: 25483651 DOI: 10.4161/hv.29226
    The ever-increasing number of tumor-associated antigens has provided a major stimulus for the development of therapeutic peptides vaccines. Tumor-associated peptides can induce high immune response rates and have been developed as vaccines for several types of solid tumors, and many are at various stages of clinical testing. MAGED4B, a melanoma antigen, is overexpressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and this expression promotes proliferation and cell migration. In this study, we have identified 9 short peptides derived from MAGED4B protein that are restricted in binding to the HLA subtypes common in the Asian population (HLA-A2, A11, and A24). The peptides had good binding affinity with the MHC-Class I molecules and stimulated ex-vivo IFN-gamma and Granzyme-B production in blood samples from OSCC patients, suggesting that they are immunogenic. Further, T cells stimulated with peptide-pulsed dendritic cells showed enhanced T-cell cytotoxic activity against MAGED4B-overexpressing OSCC cell lines. In summary, we have identified MAGED4B peptides that induce anti-tumor immune responses advocating that they could be further developed as vaccine candidates for the treatment of OSCC.
  14. Gan CP, Patel V, Mikelis CM, Zain RB, Molinolo AA, Abraham MT, et al.
    Oncotarget, 2014 Oct 30;5(20):9626-40.
    PMID: 25275299
    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a propensity to spread to the cervical lymph nodes (LN). The presence of cervical LN metastases severely impacts patient survival, whereby the two-year survival for oral cancer patients with involved LN is ~30% compared to over 80% in patients with non-involved LN. Elucidation of key molecular mechanisms underlying OSCC metastasis may afford an opportunity to target specific genes, to prevent the spread of OSCC and to improve patient survival. In this study, we demonstrated that expression of the heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-12 (Gα12) is highly up-regulated in primary tumors and LN of OSCC patients, as assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also found that exogenous expression of the constitutively activated-form of Gα12 promoted cell migration and invasion in OSCC cell lines. Correspondingly, inhibition of Gα12 expression by shRNA consistently inhibited OSCC cell migration and invasion in vitro. Further, the inhibition of G12 signaling by regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) inhibited Gα12-mediated RhoA activation, which in turn resulted in reduced LN metastases in a tongue-orthotopic xenograft mouse model of oral cancer. This study provides a rationale for future development and evaluation of drug candidates targeting Gα12-related pathways for metastasis prevention.
  15. Chong CE, Lim KP, Gan CP, Marsh CA, Zain RB, Abraham MT, et al.
    Cancer Lett., 2012 Aug 1;321(1):18-26.
    PMID: 22459352 DOI: 10.1016/j.canlet.2012.03.025
    MAGE proteins have been shown to be good targets for cancer immunotherapy. We demonstrate that MAGED4B is over-expressed in more than 50% of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) tissues and the expression of MAGED4B is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor disease specific survival. OSCC cell lines that over-express MAGED4B promote migration in vitro, exhibit an increase in cell growth both in vitro and in vivo, and are more resistant to apoptosis compared to control cells. Our data suggest that MAGED4B over-expression is a driver in oral carcinogenesis and argues strongly that this protein may represent a potential therapeutic target in OSCC.
  16. Gan CP, Hamid S, Hor SY, Zain RB, Ismail SM, Wan Mustafa WM, et al.
    Head Neck, 2012 Mar;34(3):344-53.
    PMID: 21438066 DOI: 10.1002/hed.21734
    There are limited studies on the effects of drugs that modulate epigenetic regulation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). This study determined the effect of valproic acid (VPA) on HNSCC.
  17. Saleh A, Zain RB, Hussaini H, Ng F, Tanavde V, Hamid S, et al.
    Oral Oncol., 2010 May;46(5):379-86.
    PMID: 20371203 DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2010.02.022
    Despite the advances in cancer treatment, the 5-year survival rate for oral cancer has not changed significantly for the past 40 years and still remains among the worst of all anatomic sites. Gene expression microarrays have been used successfully in the identification of genetic alterations in cancer development, however, these have hitherto been limited by the need for specimens with good quality intact RNA. Here, we demonstrated the use of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues in microarray experiments to identify genes differentially expressed between cancerous and normal oral tissues. Forty-three tissue samples were macrodissected and gene expression analyses were conducted using the Illumina DASL assay. We report RNA yield of 2.4 and 0.8 microg/mm(3) from tumour and normal tissues, respectively and this correlated directly with the tissue volume used for RNA extraction. Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering, distinct gene expression profiles for tumour and normal samples could be generated, and differentially expressed genes could be identified. The majority of these genes were involved in regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle, metastasis and cell adhesion including BCL2A1, BIRC5, MMP1, MMP9 and ITGB4. Representative genes were further validated in independent samples suggesting that these genes may be directly associated with oral cancer development. The ability to conduct microarrays on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens represents a significant advancement that could open up avenues for finding genes that could be used as prognostication and predictive tools for cancer.
  18. Hamid S, Yang YH, Peng KN, Ismail SM, Zain RB, Lim KP, et al.
    Oral Oncol., 2009 Jun;45(6):496-500.
    PMID: 18804411 DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2008.06.003
    The MDM2 SNP309 has been associated with increased expression of the protein which could suppress p53 function, and has been shown to modulate risk to cancer. We have previously shown that overexpression of MDM2 is a common event in oral cancers. In the present study, we determined the association between the MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism and oral cancer in 207 oral cancer patients and 116 normal subjects. We genotyped the MDM2 SNP309 by PCR-RFLP. Logistic regression was adapted to calculate odds ratios for MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism from univariate and multivariable adjusted models. Our results suggest that MDM2 SNP309 does not confer increased risk to oral cancer (OR=1.55, 95% CI=0.77-3.11). However, the GG/TG genotype was associated with later disease onset in women above 55 years of age. Collectively, our data suggests that MDM2 SNP309 may modulate the risk to oral cancer and is a modifier of the age at oral cancer onset in women above the age of 55 years.
  19. Lim KP, Hamid S, Lau SH, Teo SH, Cheong SC
    Oncol. Rep., 2007 Jun;17(6):1321-6.
    PMID: 17487385 DOI: 10.3892/or.17.6.1321
    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma (pRB) pathway is a common event in oral squamous cell carcinoma particularly through the aberrant expression of the components within this pathway. This study examines the alterations of molecules within the pRB pathway by looking at the presence of homozygous deletions in p16(INK4A) and the expression patterns of pRB, cyclin D1 and CDK4, as well as the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in our samples. In our study, 5/20 samples demonstrated deletions of p16(INK4A) exon 1alpha. pRB overexpression was found in 20/20 samples, the expression was mainly observed in all layers of the epithelia, particularly in the basal layer where cells are actively dividing and aberrant pRB expression was found in 12/20 samples. Cyclin D1 and CDK4 overexpression was detected in 6/20 and 2/20 samples respectively in comparison to hyperplasias where both proteins were either not expressed or expressed at minimal levels (<10%). Strikingly, HPV was found to be present in all of our samples, suggesting that HPV plays a significant role in driving oral carcinogenesis. Notably, 17/20 of our samples showed more than one alteration in the pRB pathway, however, we did not find any significant relationship between the presence of HPV, homozygous deletion of p16(INK4A) and overexpression of pRB, cyclin D1 and CDK4. Collectively, this data demonstrates that alterations in the pRB pathway are a common event and involve the aberration of more than one molecule within the pathway. Furthermore, the involvement of HPV in all our samples suggests that HPV infection may play an important role in oral carcinogenesis.
  20. Hamid S, Lim KP, Zain RB, Ismail SM, Lau SH, Mustafa WM, et al.
    Int. J. Mol. Med., 2007 Mar;19(3):453-60.
    PMID: 17273794
    We have established 3 cell lines ORL-48, -115 and -136 from surgically resected specimens obtained from untreated primary human oral squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity. The in vitro growth characteristics, epithelial origin, in vitro anchorage independency, human papilloma-virus (HPV) infection, microsatellite instability status, karyotype and the status of various cell cycle regulators and gatekeepers of these cell lines were investigated. All 3 cell lines grew as monolayers with doubling times ranging between 26.4 and 40.8 h and were immortal. Karyotyping confirmed that these cell lines were of human origin with multiple random losses and gains of entire chromosomes and regions of chromosomes. Immunohistochemistry staining of cytokeratins confirmed the epithelial origin of these cell lines, and the low degree of anchorage independency expressed by these cell lines suggests non-transformed phenotypes. Genetic analysis identified mutations in the p53 gene in all cell lines and hypermethylation of p16INK4a in ORL-48 and -136. Analysis of MDM2 and EGFR expression indicated MDM2 overexpression in ORL-48 and EGFR overexpression in ORL-136 in comparison to the protein levels in normal oral keratinocytes. Analysis of the BAT-26 polyadenine repeat sequence and MLH-1 and MSH-2 repair enzymes demonstrated that all 3 cell lines were microsatellite stable. The role of HPV in driving carcinogenesis in these tumours was negated by the absence of HPV. Finally, analysis of the tissues from which these cell lines were derived indicated that the cell lines were genetically representative of the tumours, and, therefore, are useful tools in the understanding of the molecular changes associated with oral cancers.
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