Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 139 in total

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  1. Parsons MT, Tudini E, Li H, Hahnen E, Wappenschmidt B, Feliubadaló L, et al.
    Hum. Mutat., 2019 Sep;40(9):1557-1578.
    PMID: 31131967 DOI: 10.1002/humu.23818
    The multifactorial likelihood analysis method has demonstrated utility for quantitative assessment of variant pathogenicity for multiple cancer syndrome genes. Independent data types currently incorporated in the model for assessing BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants include clinically calibrated prior probability of pathogenicity based on variant location and bioinformatic prediction of variant effect, co-segregation, family cancer history profile, co-occurrence with a pathogenic variant in the same gene, breast tumor pathology, and case-control information. Research and clinical data for multifactorial likelihood analysis were collated for 1,395 BRCA1/2 predominantly intronic and missense variants, enabling classification based on posterior probability of pathogenicity for 734 variants: 447 variants were classified as (likely) benign, and 94 as (likely) pathogenic; and 248 classifications were new or considerably altered relative to ClinVar submissions. Classifications were compared with information not yet included in the likelihood model, and evidence strengths aligned to those recommended for ACMG/AMP classification codes. Altered mRNA splicing or function relative to known nonpathogenic variant controls were moderately to strongly predictive of variant pathogenicity. Variant absence in population datasets provided supporting evidence for variant pathogenicity. These findings have direct relevance for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant evaluation, and justify the need for gene-specific calibration of evidence types used for variant classification.
  2. Dörk T, Peterlongo P, Mannermaa A, Bolla MK, Wang Q, Dennis J, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 Aug 29;9(1):12524.
    PMID: 31467304 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-48804-y
    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoallelic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies. We used the Oncoarray project to genotype two truncating FANCC variants (p.R185X and p.R548X) in 64,760 breast cancer cases and 49,793 controls of European descent. FANCC mutations were observed in 25 cases (14 with p.R185X, 11 with p.R548X) and 26 controls (18 with p.R185X, 8 with p.R548X). There was no evidence of an association with the risk of breast cancer, neither overall (odds ratio 0.77, 95%CI 0.44-1.33, p = 0.4) nor by histology, hormone receptor status, age or family history. We conclude that the breast cancer risk association of these two FANCC variants, if any, is much smaller than for BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations. If this applies to all truncating variants in FANCC it would suggest there are differences between FA genes in their roles on breast cancer risk and demonstrates the merit of large consortia for clarifying risk associations of rare variants.
  3. Ugai T, Milne RL, Ito H, Aronson KJ, Bolla MK, Chan T, et al.
    Mol Genet Genomic Med, 2019 Jun;7(6):e707.
    PMID: 31066241 DOI: 10.1002/mgg3.707
    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies consistently indicate that alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for female breast cancer (BC). Although the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) polymorphism (rs671: Glu>Lys) has a strong effect on acetaldehyde metabolism, the association of rs671 with BC risk and its interaction with alcohol intake have not been fully elucidated. We conducted a pooled analysis of 14 case-control studies, with individual data on Asian ancestry women participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    METHODS: We included 12,595 invasive BC cases and 12,884 controls for the analysis of rs671 and BC risk, and 2,849 invasive BC cases and 3,680 controls for the analysis of the gene-environment interaction between rs671 and alcohol intake for BC risk. The pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with rs671 and its interaction with alcohol intake for BC risk were estimated using logistic regression models.

    RESULTS: The Lys/Lys genotype of rs671 was associated with increased BC risk (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.03-1.30, p = 0.014). According to tumor characteristics, the Lys/Lys genotype was associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive BC (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.05-1.36, p = 0.008), progesterone receptor (PR)-positive BC (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.36, p = 0.015), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative BC (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.48, p = 0.012). No evidence of a gene-environment interaction was observed between rs671 and alcohol intake (p = 0.537).

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the Lys/Lys genotype confers susceptibility to BC risk among women of Asian ancestry, particularly for ER-positive, PR-positive, and HER2-negative tumor types.

  4. Kemp Z, Turnbull A, Yost S, Seal S, Mahamdallie S, Poyastro-Pearson E, et al.
    JAMA Netw Open, 2019 May 03;2(5):e194428.
    PMID: 31125106 DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4428
    Importance: Increasing BRCA1 and BRCA2 (collectively termed herein as BRCA) gene testing is required to improve cancer management and prevent BRCA-related cancers.

    Objective: To evaluate mainstream genetic testing using cancer-based criteria in patients with cancer.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: A quality improvement study and cost-effectiveness analysis of different BRCA testing selection criteria and access procedures to evaluate feasibility, acceptability, and mutation detection performance was conducted at the Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust as part of the Mainstreaming Cancer Genetics (MCG) Programme. Participants included 1184 patients with cancer who were undergoing genetic testing between September 1, 2013, and February 28, 2017.

    Main Outcomes and Measures: Mutation rates, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were the primary outcomes.

    Results: Of the 1184 patients (1158 women [97.8%]) meeting simple cancer-based criteria, 117 had a BRCA mutation (9.9%). The mutation rate was similar in retrospective United Kingdom (10.2% [235 of 2294]) and prospective Malaysian (9.7% [103 of 1061]) breast cancer studies. If traditional family history criteria had been used, more than 50% of the mutation-positive individuals would have been missed. Of the 117 mutation-positive individuals, 115 people (98.3%) attended their genetics appointment and cascade to relatives is underway in all appropriate families (85 of 85). Combining with the equivalent ovarian cancer study provides 5 simple cancer-based criteria for BRCA testing with a 10% mutation rate: (1) ovarian cancer; (2) breast cancer diagnosed when patients are 45 years or younger; (3) 2 primary breast cancers, both diagnosed when patients are 60 years or younger; (4) triple-negative breast cancer; and (5) male breast cancer. A sixth criterion-breast cancer plus a parent, sibling, or child with any of the other criteria-can be added to address family history. Criteria 1 through 5 are considered the MCG criteria, and criteria 1 through 6 are considered the MCGplus criteria. Testing using MCG or MCGplus criteria is cost-effective with cost-effectiveness ratios of $1330 per discounted QALYs and $1225 per discounted QALYs, respectively, and appears to lead to cancer and mortality reductions (MCG: 804 cancers, 161 deaths; MCGplus: 1020 cancers, 204 deaths per year over 50 years). Use of MCG or MCGplus criteria might allow detection of all BRCA mutations in patients with breast cancer in the United Kingdom through testing one-third of patients. Feedback questionnaires from 259 patients and 23 cancer team members (12 oncologists, 8 surgeons, and 3 nurse specialists) showed acceptability of the process with 100% of patients pleased they had genetic testing and 100% of cancer team members confident to approve patients for genetic testing. Use of MCGplus criteria also appeared to be time and resource efficient, requiring 95% fewer genetic consultations than the traditional process.

    Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that mainstream testing using simple, cancer-based criteria might be able to efficiently deliver consistent, cost-effective, patient-centered BRCA testing.

  5. Lawrenson K, Song F, Hazelett DJ, Kar SP, Tyrer J, Phelan CM, et al.
    Gynecol. Oncol., 2019 05;153(2):343-355.
    PMID: 30898391 DOI: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2019.02.023
    OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have focused largely on populations of European ancestry. We aimed to identify common germline variants associated with EOC risk in Asian women.

    METHODS: Genotyping was performed as part of the OncoArray project. Samples with >60% Asian ancestry were included in the analysis. Genotyping was performed on 533,631 SNPs in 3238 Asian subjects diagnosed with invasive or borderline EOC and 4083 unaffected controls. After imputation, genotypes were available for 11,595,112 SNPs to identify associations.

    RESULTS: At chromosome 6p25.2, SNP rs7748275 was associated with risk of serous EOC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, P = 8.7 × 10-9) and high-grade serous EOC (HGSOC) (OR = 1.34, P = 4.3 × 10-9). SNP rs6902488 at 6p25.2 (r2 = 0.97 with rs7748275) lies in an active enhancer and is predicted to impact binding of STAT3, P300 and ELF1. We identified additional risk loci with low Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP) scores, indicating they are likely to be true risk associations (BFDP <10%). At chromosome 20q11.22, rs74272064 was associated with HGSOC risk (OR = 1.27, P = 9.0 × 10-8). Overall EOC risk was associated with rs10260419 at chromosome 7p21.3 (OR = 1.33, P = 1.2 × 10-7) and rs74917072 at chromosome 2q37.3 (OR = 1.25, P = 4.7 × 10-7). At 2q37.3, expression quantitative trait locus analysis in 404 HGSOC tissues identified ESPNL as a putative candidate susceptibility gene (P = 1.2 × 10-7).

    CONCLUSION: While some risk loci were shared between East Asian and European populations, others were population-specific, indicating that the landscape of EOC risk in Asian women has both shared and unique features compared to women of European ancestry.

  6. Qian F, Wang S, Mitchell J, McGuffog L, Barrowdale D, Leslie G, et al.
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 2019 Apr 01;111(4):350-364.
    PMID: 30312457 DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djy132
    BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 mutations confer high lifetime risk of breast cancer, although other factors may modify this risk. Whether height or body mass index (BMI) modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remains unclear.

    METHODS: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided.

    RESULTS: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.17; P = 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.17; P = .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.98; P = .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.98; P = .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer.

    CONCLUSION: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.

  7. Li J, Wen WX, Eklund M, Kvist A, Eriksson M, Christensen HN, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2019 03 01;144(5):1195-1204.
    PMID: 30175445 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.31841
    Breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2-driven tumors may benefit from targeted therapy. It is not clear whether current BRCA screening guidelines are effective at identifying these patients. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of inherited BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants in a large, clinically representative breast cancer cohort and to estimate the proportion of BRCA1/2 carriers not detected by selectively screening individuals with the highest probability of being carriers according to current clinical guidelines. The study included 5,122 unselected Swedish breast cancer patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2008. Target sequence enrichment (48.48 Fluidigm Access Arrays) and sequencing were performed (Illumina Hi-Seq 2,500 instrument, v4 chemistry). Differences in patient and tumor characteristics of BRCA1/2 carriers who were already identified as part of clinical BRCA1/2 testing routines and additional BRCA1/2 carriers found by sequencing the entire study population were compared using logistic regression models. Ninety-two of 5,099 patients with valid variant calls were identified as BRCA1/2 carriers by screening all study participants (1.8%). Only 416 study participants (8.2%) were screened as part of clinical practice, but this identified 35 out of 92 carriers (38.0%). Clinically identified carriers were younger, less likely postmenopausal and more likely to be associated with familiar ovarian cancer compared to the additional carriers identified by screening all patients. More BRCA2 (34/42, 81.0%) than BRCA1 carriers (23/50, 46%) were missed by clinical screening. In conclusion, BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence in unselected breast cancer patients was 1.8%. Six in ten BRCA carriers were not detected by selective clinical screening of individuals.
  8. Yang Y, Wu L, Shu X, Lu Y, Shu XO, Cai Q, et al.
    Cancer Res., 2019 Feb 01;79(3):505-517.
    PMID: 30559148 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-2726
    : DNA methylation is instrumental for gene regulation. Global changes in the epigenetic landscape have been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. However, the role of DNA methylation in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unclear. In this study, high-density genetic and DNA methylation data in white blood cells from the Framingham Heart Study (N = 1,595) were used to build genetic models to predict DNA methylation levels. These prediction models were then applied to the summary statistics of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer including 22,406 EOC cases and 40,941 controls to investigate genetically predicted DNA methylation levels in association with EOC risk. Among 62,938 CpG sites investigated, genetically predicted methylation levels at 89 CpG were significantly associated with EOC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 7.94 × 10-7. Of them, 87 were located at GWAS-identified EOC susceptibility regions and two resided in a genomic region not previously reported to be associated with EOC risk. Integrative analyses of genetic, methylation, and gene expression data identified consistent directions of associations across 12 CpG, five genes, and EOC risk, suggesting that methylation at these 12 CpG may influence EOC risk by regulating expression of these five genes, namely MAPT, HOXB3, ABHD8, ARHGAP27, and SKAP1. We identified novel DNA methylation markers associated with EOC risk and propose that methylation at multiple CpG may affect EOC risk via regulation of gene expression. SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of novel DNA methylation markers associated with EOC risk suggests that methylation at multiple CpG may affect EOC risk through regulation of gene expression.
  9. Ling JL, Teo SH, Mohamed Al-Fayyadh MZ, Mohamed Ali MR, Ng WM
    Arthroscopy, 2019 Feb;35(2):596-604.
    PMID: 30611592 DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2018.08.038
    PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of a low-cost self-made arthroscopic camera (LAC) in basic arthroscopic skills training compared with a commercial arthroscopic camera (CAC).

    METHODS: One hundred fifty-three orthopaedic residents were recruited and randomly assigned to either the LAC or CAC. They were allocated 2 practice sessions, with 20 minutes each, to practice 4 given arthroscopic tasks: task 1, transferring objects; task 2, stacking objects; task 3, probing numbers; and task 4, stretching rubber bands. The time taken for participants to complete the given tasks was recorded in 3 separate tests; before practice, immediately after practice, and after a period of 3 months. A comparison of the time taken between both groups to complete the given tasks in each test was measured as the primary outcome.

    RESULTS: Significant improvements in time completion were seen in the post-practice test for both groups in all given arthroscopic tasks, each with P < .001. However, there was no significant difference between the groups for task 1 (P = .743), task 2 (P = .940), task 3 (P = .932), task 4 (P = .929), and total (P = .944). The outcomes of the tests (before practice, after practice, and at 3 months) according to repeated measures analysis of variance did not differ significantly between the groups in task 1 (P = .475), task 2 (P = .558), task 3 (P = .850), task 4 (P = .965), and total (P = .865).

    CONCLUSIONS: The LAC is equally as effective as the CAC in basic arthroscopic skills training with the advantage of being cost-effective.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In view of the scarcity in commercial arthroscopic devices for trainees, this low-cost device, which trainees can personally own and use, may provide a less expensive and easily available way for trainees to improve their arthroscopic skills. This might also cultivate more interest in arthroscopic surgery among junior surgeons.

  10. Schumacher FR, Olama AAA, Berndt SI, Benlloch S, Ahmed M, Saunders EJ, et al.
    Nat. Genet., 2019 02;51(2):363.
    PMID: 30622367 DOI: 10.1038/s41588-018-0330-6
    In the version of this article initially published, the name of author Manuela Gago-Dominguez was misspelled as Manuela Gago Dominguez. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF version of the article.
  11. Tan M, Mariapun S, Yip CH, Ng KH, Teo SH
    Phys Med Biol, 2019 Jan 31;64(3):035016.
    PMID: 30577031 DOI: 10.1088/1361-6560/aafabd
    Historically, breast cancer risk prediction models are based on mammographic density measures, which are dichotomous in nature and generally categorize each voxel or area of the breast parenchyma as 'dense' or 'not dense'. Using these conventional methods, the structural patterns or textural components of the breast tissue elements are not considered or ignored entirely. This study presents a novel method to predict breast cancer risk that combines new texture and mammographic density based image features. We performed a comprehensive study of the correlation of 944 new and conventional texture and mammographic density features with breast cancer risk on a cohort of Asian women. We studied 250 breast cancer cases and 250 controls matched at full-field digital mammography (FFDM) status for age, BMI and ethnicity. Stepwise regression analysis identified relevant features to be included in a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier model, trained and tested using a leave-one-out based cross-validation method. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were used as the two performance assessment indices in our study. For the LDA trained classifier, the adjusted OR was 6.15 (95% confidence interval: 3.55-10.64) and for Volpara volumetric breast density, 1.10 (0.67-1.81). The AUC for the LDA trained classifier was 0.68 (0.64-0.73), compared to 0.52 (0.47-0.57) for Volpara volumetric breast density (p   
  12. Rajaram N, Lim ZY, Song CV, Kaur R, Mohd Taib NA, Muhamad M, et al.
    Psychooncology, 2019 Jan;28(1):147-153.
    PMID: 30346074 DOI: 10.1002/pon.4924
    OBJECTIVES: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in high-income countries (HICs) suggest that physical, emotional, and psychological needs are important in cancer care. To date, there have been few inconsistent descriptions of PROs in low-income and middle-income Asian countries. Using a standard questionnaire developed by the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM), we compared the perceived importance of PROs between patients in Malaysia and those in HICs and between clusters of Malaysian women.

    METHODS: Breast cancer patients were recruited from three Malaysian hospitals between June and November 2017. We compared the proportion of patients who rated PROs as very important (scored 7-9 on a 9-point Likert scale) between Malaysian patients and data collected from patients in HICs via the ICHOM questionnaire development process, using logistic regression. A two-step cluster analysis explored differences in PROs among Malaysian patients.

    RESULTS: The most important PROs for both cohorts were survival, overall well-being, and physical functioning. Compared with HIC patients (n = 1177), Malaysian patients (n = 969) were less likely to rate emotional (78% vs 90%), cognitive (76% vs 84%), social (72% vs 81%), and sexual (30% vs 56%) functioning as very important outcomes (P 

  13. Chai SJ, Ahmad Zabidi MM, Gan SP, Rajadurai P, Lim PVH, Ng CC, et al.
    Dis. Markers, 2019;2019:3857853.
    PMID: 31236144 DOI: 10.1155/2019/3857853
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly metastatic cancer prevalent in Southern China and Southeast Asia. The current knowledge on the molecular pathogenesis of NPC is still inadequate to improve disease management. Using gene expression microarrays, we have identified the four-jointed box 1 (FJX1) gene to be upregulated in primary NPC tissues relative to nonmalignant tissues. An orthologue of human FJX1, the four-jointed (fj) gene in Drosophila and Fjx1 in mouse, has reported to be associated with cancer progression pathways. However, the exact function of FJX1 in human is not well characterized. The overexpression of FJX1 mRNA was validated in primary NPC tissue samples, and the level of FJX1 protein was significantly higher in a subset of NPC tissues (42%) compared to the normal epithelium, where no expression of FJX1 was observed (p = 0.01). FJX1 is also found to be overexpressed in microarray datasets and TCGA datasets of other cancers including head and neck cancer, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. Both siRNA knockdown and overexpression experiments in NPC cell lines showed that FJX1 promotes cell proliferation, anchorage-dependent growth, and cellular invasion. Cyclin D1 and E1 mRNA levels were increased following FJX1 expression indicating that FJX1 enhances proliferation by regulating key proteins governing the cell cycle. Our data suggest that the overexpression of FJX1 contributes to a more aggressive phenotype of NPC cells and further investigations into FJX1 as a potential therapeutic target for NPC are warranted. The evaluation of FJX1 as an immunotherapy target for NPC and other cancers is currently ongoing.
  14. Yeoh ZY, Jaganathan M, Rajaram N, Rawat S, Tajudeen NA, Rahim N, et al.
    J Glob Oncol, 2018 Nov;4:1-13.
    PMID: 30398950 DOI: 10.1200/JGO.17.00229
    PURPOSE: Late stage at presentation and poor adherence to treatment remain major contributors to poor survival in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Patient navigation (PN) programs in the United States have led to improvement in diagnostic or treatment timeliness, particularly for women in lower socioeconomic classes or minority groups. To date, studies of PN in Asia have been limited. We aimed to assess the feasibility of PN in a state-run hospital in an LMIC and to report the impact on diagnostic and treatment timeliness for patients in its first year of implementation.

    METHODS: We established PN in a dedicated breast clinic of a Malaysian state-run hospital. We compared diagnostic and treatment timeliness between navigated patients (n = 135) and patients diagnosed in the prior year (n = 148), and described factors associated with timeliness.

    RESULTS: Women with PN received timely mammography compared with patients in the prior year (96.4% v 74.4%; P < .001), biopsy (92.5% v 76.1%; P = .003), and communication of news (80.0% v 58.5%; P < .001). PN reduced treatment default rates (4.4% v 11.5%; P = .048). Among navigated patients, late stage at presentation was independently associated with having emotional and language barriers ( P = .01). Finally, the main reason reported for delay, default, or refusal of treatment was the preference for alternative therapy.

    CONCLUSION: PN is feasible for addressing barriers to cancer care when integrated with a state-run breast clinic of an LMIC. Its implementation resulted in improved diagnostic timeliness and reduced treatment default. Wider adoption of PN could be a key element of cancer control in LMICs.

  15. Li J, Ugalde-Morales E, Wen WX, Decker B, Eriksson M, Torstensson A, et al.
    Cancer Res., 2018 11 01;78(21):6329-6338.
    PMID: 30385609 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-1018
    Genetic variants that increase breast cancer risk can be rare or common. This study tests whether the genetic risk stratification of breast cancer by rare and common variants in established loci can discriminate tumors with different biology, patient survival, and mode of detection. Multinomial logistic regression tested associations between genetic risk load [protein-truncating variant (PTV) carriership in 31 breast cancer predisposition genes-or polygenic risk score (PRS) using 162 single-nucleotide polymorphisms], tumor characteristics, and mode of detection (OR). Ten-year breast cancer-specific survival (HR) was estimated using Cox regression models. In this unselected cohort of 5,099 patients with breast cancer diagnosed in Sweden between 2001 and 2008, PTV carriers (n = 597) were younger and associated with more aggressive tumor phenotypes (ER-negative, large size, high grade, high proliferation, luminal B, and basal-like subtype) and worse outcome (HR, 1.65; 1.16-2.36) than noncarriers. After excluding 92 BRCA1/2 carriers, PTV carriership remained associated with high grade and worse survival (HR, 1.76; 1.21-2.56). In 5,007 BRCA1/2 noncarriers, higher PRS was associated with less aggressive tumor characteristics (ER-positive, PR-positive, small size, low grade, low proliferation, and luminal A subtype). Among patients with low mammographic density (<25%), non-BRCA1/2 PTV carriers were more often interval than screen-detected breast cancer (OR, 1.89; 1.12-3.21) than noncarriers. In contrast, higher PRS was associated with lower risk of interval compared with screen-detected cancer (OR, 0.77; 0.64-0.93) in women with low mammographic density. These findings suggest that rare and common breast cancer susceptibility loci are differentially associated with tumor characteristics, survival, and mode of detection.Significance: These findings offer the potential to improve screening practices for breast cancer by providing a deeper understanding of how risk variants affect disease progression and mode of detection. Cancer Res; 78(21); 6329-38. ©2018 AACR.
  16. Lu Y, Beeghly-Fadiel A, Wu L, Guo X, Li B, Schildkraut JM, et al.
    Cancer Res., 2018 09 15;78(18):5419-5430.
    PMID: 30054336 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-0951
    Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 35 loci associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. The majority of GWAS-identified disease susceptibility variants are located in noncoding regions, and causal genes underlying these associations remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study to search for novel genetic loci and plausible causal genes at known GWAS loci. We used RNA sequencing data (68 normal ovarian tissue samples from 68 individuals and 6,124 cross-tissue samples from 369 individuals) and high-density genotyping data from European descendants of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx V6) project to build ovarian and cross-tissue models of genetically regulated expression using elastic net methods. We evaluated 17,121 genes for their cis-predicted gene expression in relation to EOC risk using summary statistics data from GWAS of 97,898 women, including 29,396 EOC cases. With a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of P < 2.2 × 10-6, we identified 35 genes, including FZD4 at 11q14.2 (Z = 5.08, P = 3.83 × 10-7, the cross-tissue model; 1 Mb away from any GWAS-identified EOC risk variant), a potential novel locus for EOC risk. All other 34 significantly associated genes were located within 1 Mb of known GWAS-identified loci, including 23 genes at 6 loci not previously linked to EOC risk. Upon conditioning on nearby known EOC GWAS-identified variants, the associations for 31 genes disappeared and three genes remained (P < 1.47 × 10-3). These data identify one novel locus (FZD4) and 34 genes at 13 known EOC risk loci associated with EOC risk, providing new insights into EOC carcinogenesis.Significance: Transcriptomic analysis of a large cohort confirms earlier GWAS loci and reveals FZD4 as a novel locus associated with EOC risk. Cancer Res; 78(18); 5419-30. ©2018 AACR.
  17. Soh WH, Rajaram N, Mariapun S, Eriksson M, Fadzli F, Ho WK, et al.
    Cancer Causes Control, 2018 Sep;29(9):883-894.
    PMID: 30062608 DOI: 10.1007/s10552-018-1064-6
    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is a modifiable lifestyle factor associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Mammographic density is a strong, independent risk factor for breast cancer, and some breast cancer risk factors have been shown to modify mammographic density. However, the effect of physical activity on mammographic density, studied predominantly among Caucasians, has yielded conflicting results. In this study, we examined, in an Asian population, the association between physical activity and mammographic density.

    METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 2,377 Malaysian women aged 40-74 years. Physical activity information was obtained at screening mammogram and mammographic density was measured from mammograms by the area-based STRATUS method (n = 1,522) and the volumetric Volpara™ (n = 1,200) method. Linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between physical activity and mammographic density, adjusting for potential confounders.

    RESULTS: We observed that recent physical activity was associated with area-based mammographic density measures among postmenopausal women, but not premenopausal women. In the fully adjusted model, postmenopausal women with the highest level of recent physical activity had 8.0 cm2 [95% confidence interval: 1.3, 14.3 cm2] lower non-dense area and 3.1% [0.1, 6.3%] higher area-based percent density, compared to women with the lowest level of recent physical activity. Physical activity was not associated to volumetric mammographic density.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of physical activity on breast cancer risk may not be measurable through mammographic density. Future research is needed to identify appropriate biomarkers to assess the effect of physical activity on breast cancer risk.

  18. Schumacher FR, Al Olama AA, Berndt SI, Benlloch S, Ahmed M, Saunders EJ, et al.
    Nat. Genet., 2018 07;50(7):928-936.
    PMID: 29892016 DOI: 10.1038/s41588-018-0142-8
    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and fine-mapping efforts to date have identified more than 100 prostate cancer (PrCa)-susceptibility loci. We meta-analyzed genotype data from a custom high-density array of 46,939 PrCa cases and 27,910 controls of European ancestry with previously genotyped data of 32,255 PrCa cases and 33,202 controls of European ancestry. Our analysis identified 62 novel loci associated (P C, p.Pro1054Arg) in ATM and rs2066827 (OR = 1.06; P = 2.3 × 10-9; T>G, p.Val109Gly) in CDKN1B. The combination of all loci captured 28.4% of the PrCa familial relative risk, and a polygenic risk score conferred an elevated PrCa risk for men in the ninetieth to ninety-ninth percentiles (relative risk = 2.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.55-2.82) and first percentile (relative risk = 5.71; 95% CI: 5.04-6.48) risk stratum compared with the population average. These findings improve risk prediction, enhance fine-mapping, and provide insight into the underlying biology of PrCa1.
  19. Dadaev T, Saunders EJ, Newcombe PJ, Anokian E, Leongamornlert DA, Brook MN, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2018 06 11;9(1):2256.
    PMID: 29892050 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-04109-8
    Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1. In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling.
  20. Lim KK, Yoon SY, Mohd Taib NA, Shabaruddin FH, Dahlui M, Woo YL, et al.
    Appl Health Econ Health Policy, 2018 06;16(3):395-406.
    PMID: 29572724 DOI: 10.1007/s40258-018-0384-8
    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies showed that offering BRCA mutation testing to population subgroups at high risk of harbouring the mutation may be cost effective, yet no evidence is available for low- or middle-income countries (LMIC) and in Asia. We estimated the cost effectiveness of BRCA mutation testing in early-stage breast cancer patients with high pre-test probability of harbouring the mutation in Malaysia, an LMIC in Asia.

    METHODS: We developed a decision analytic model to estimate the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) accrued through BRCA mutation testing or routine clinical surveillance (RCS) for a hypothetical cohort of 1000 early-stage breast cancer patients aged 40 years. In the model, patients would decide whether to accept testing and to undertake risk-reducing mastectomy, oophorectomy, tamoxifen, combinations or neither. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) from the health system perspective. A series of sensitivity analyses were performed.

    RESULTS: In the base case, testing generated 11.2 QALYs over the lifetime and cost US$4815 per patient whereas RCS generated 11.1 QALYs and cost US$4574 per patient. The ICER of US$2725/QALY was below the cost-effective thresholds. The ICER was sensitive to the discounting of cost, cost of BRCA mutation testing and utility of being risk-free, but the ICERs remained below the thresholds. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that at a threshold of US$9500/QALY, 99.9% of simulations favoured BRCA mutation testing over RCS.

    CONCLUSIONS: Offering BRCA mutation testing to early-stage breast cancer patients identified using a locally-validated risk-assessment tool may be cost effective compared to RCS in Malaysia.

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