Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 59 in total

  1. Sartini C, Lomivorotov V, Pisano A, Riha H, Baiardo Redaelli M, Lopez-Delgado JC, et al.
    J. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth., 2019 Oct;33(10):2685-2694.
    PMID: 31064730 DOI: 10.1053/j.jvca.2019.03.022
    OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings.

    DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process.

    SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference.

    PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries.

    INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines.

    MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed.

    CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

  2. Sartini C, Lomivorotov V, Pieri M, Lopez-Delgado JC, Baiardo Redaelli M, Hajjar L, et al.
    J. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth., 2019 05;33(5):1430-1439.
    PMID: 30600204 DOI: 10.1053/j.jvca.2018.11.026
    The authors aimed to identify interventions documented by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reduce mortality in adult critically ill and perioperative patients, followed by a survey of clinicians' opinions and routine practices to understand the clinicians' response to such evidence. The authors performed a comprehensive literature review to identify all topics reported to reduce mortality in perioperative and critical care settings according to at least 2 RCTs or to a multicenter RCT or to a single-center RCT plus guidelines. The authors generated position statements that were voted on online by physicians worldwide for agreement, use, and willingness to include in international guidelines. From 262 RCT manuscripts reporting mortality differences in the perioperative and critically ill settings, the authors selected 27 drugs, techniques, and strategies (66 RCTs, most frequently published by the New England Journal of Medicine [13 papers], Lancet [7], and Journal of the American Medical Association [5]) with an agreement ≥67% from over 250 physicians (46 countries). Noninvasive ventilation was the intervention supported by the largest number of RCTs (n = 13). The concordance between agreement and use (a positive answer both to "do you agree" and "do you use") showed differences between Western and other countries and between anesthesiologists and intensive care unit physicians. The authors identified 27 clinical interventions with randomized evidence of survival benefit and strong clinician support in support of their potential life-saving properties in perioperative and critically ill patients with noninvasive ventilation having the highest level of support. However, clinician views appear affected by specialty and geographical location.
  3. Wang CY, Chiu CL, Har KO, Chan C, Rahman ZA
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2002 Oct;31(5):506-10.
    PMID: 12418566
    This study compares the use of inhalation sedation using sevoflurane (group S) with inhalation sedation using nitrous oxide (group N) in patients undergoing bilateral extraction of third molar teeth under local anaesthesia. The study was designed as a cross-over study. Seventeen ASA I, day surgery patients were studied. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either 8 l/min 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen (group N) or same flow of 1% sevoflurane (group S) for the first procedure. Each patient then had the alternate method of sedation for the second procedure. There were no significant differences between the methods in patient co-operation and surgeon's satisfaction with sedation. Psychomotor tests were comparable in both groups. The patients were significantly more sedated in the group S compared to group N (P=0.004). Significantly more patients complained of an unpleasant odour group S (P<0.01) but none withdrew from the study for this reason. No adverse cardiorespiratory effects resulted from sevoflurane or nitrous oxide sedation. Both methods gave good amnesia during the procedure. There was high acceptance of both methods and the patients rated the technique as equally satisfactory. We conclude that inhalation sedation with sevoflurane is a suitable alternative method to nitrous oxide sedation.
  4. Zangrillo A, Alvaro G, Pisano A, Guarracino F, Lobreglio R, Bradic N, et al.
    Am. Heart J., 2016 Jul;177:66-73.
    PMID: 27297851 DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.03.021
    OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery are at risk of perioperative low cardiac output syndrome due to postoperative myocardial dysfunction. Myocardial dysfunction in patients undergoing cardiac surgery is a potential indication for the use of levosimendan, a calcium sensitizer with 3 beneficial cardiovascular effects (inotropic, vasodilatory, and anti-inflammatory), which appears effective in improving clinically relevant outcomes.

    DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter randomized trial.

    SETTING: Tertiary care hospitals.

    INTERVENTIONS: Cardiac surgery patients (n = 1,000) with postoperative myocardial dysfunction (defined as patients with intraaortic balloon pump and/or high-dose standard inotropic support) will be randomized to receive a continuous infusion of either levosimendan (0.05-0.2 μg/[kg min]) or placebo for 24-48 hours.

    MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary end point will be 30-day mortality. Secondary end points will be mortality at 1 year, time on mechanical ventilation, acute kidney injury, decision to stop the study drug due to adverse events or to start open-label levosimendan, and length of intensive care unit and hospital stay. We will test the hypothesis that levosimendan reduces 30-day mortality in cardiac surgery patients with postoperative myocardial dysfunction.

    CONCLUSIONS: This trial is planned to determine whether levosimendan could improve survival in patients with postoperative low cardiac output syndrome. The results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial may provide important insights into the management of low cardiac output in cardiac surgery.

  5. Sim K, Yong KH, Chan YH, Tor PC, Xiang YT, Wang CY, et al.
    Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol., 2011 Oct;14(9):1157-64.
    PMID: 21557883 DOI: 10.1017/S1461145711000563
    Recent studies indicate relatively high international rates of adjunctive psychotropic medication, including mood stabilizers, for patients with schizophrenia. Since such treatments are little studied in Asia, we examined the frequency of mood-stabilizer use and its clinical correlates among hospitalized Asian patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in 2001-2008. We evaluated usage rates of mood stabilizers with antipsychotic drugs, and associated factors, for in-patients diagnosed with DSM-IV schizophrenia in 2001, 2004 and 2008 in nine Asian regions: China, Hong Kong, India, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Singapore. Overall, mood stabilizers were given to 20.4% (n=1377/6761) of hospitalized schizophrenia patients, with increased usage over time. Mood-stabilizer use was significantly and independently associated in multivariate logistic modeling with: aggressive behaviour, disorganized speech, year sampled (2008 vs. earlier), multiple hospitalizations, less negative symptoms, younger age, with regional variation (Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore>Taiwan or China). Co-prescription of adjunctive mood stabilizers with antipsychotics for hospitalized Asian schizophrenia patients increased over the past decade, and was associated with specific clinical characteristics. This practice parallels findings in other countries and illustrates ongoing tension between evidence-based practice vs. individualized, empirical treatment of psychotic disorders.
  6. NG KP, Wang CY
    Paediatr Anaesth, 1999;9(6):491-4.
    PMID: 10597551
    Intubating conditions under halothane anaesthesia aided with alfentanil 20 micrograms.kg-1 were compared with suxamethonium 2 mg.kg-1 in 40 children presenting for day dental procedures. The condition of vocal cords, jaw relaxation and presence of movement and coughing were scored to give the overall intubating conditions. Successful intubation was achieved in 100% of the suxamethonium group and 94.7% of the alfentanil group. The cardiovascular response to intubation was attenuated in the alfentanil group. Some 43.7% of those receiving suxamethonium developed myalgia the day after surgery compared with 0% in the alfentanil group (P < 0.01).
  7. Chiu CL, Wang CY
    Anaesth Intensive Care, 2004 Feb;32(1):77-80.
    PMID: 15058125
    This is a preliminary report on the use of the modified Airway Management Device in 50 spontaneously breathing patients undergoing elective day care surgery. We were successful in establishing a clear airway in all 50 patients, 46 of these patients had a patient airway on the first attempt. All patients were successfully managed with the Airway Management Device throughout the surgery. Partial airway obstruction during maintenance of anaesthesia occurred in three cases requiring only minor manipulations. Our result showed that the Airway Management Device may be used as an alternative airway management in anaesthesia.
  8. Xiang YT, Kreyenbuhl J, Dickerson FB, Ungvari GS, Wang CY, Si TM, et al.
    Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2012 Jul;50(7):500-4.
    PMID: 22541750 DOI: 10.5414/CP201683
    This study surveyed the prescribing patterns of antipsychotic medications in Asian older schizophrenia patients with extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) during the period between 2001 and 2009.
  9. Thomas S, Borges F, Bhandari M, De Beer J, Urrútia Cuchí G, Adili A, et al.
    J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2020 May 20;102(10):880-888.
    PMID: 32118652 DOI: 10.2106/JBJS.18.01305
    BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) is common and of prognostic importance. Little is known about MINS in orthopaedic surgery. The diagnostic criterion for MINS was a level of ≥0.03 ng/mL on a non-high-sensitivity troponin T (TnT) assay due to myocardial ischemia.

    METHODS: We undertook an international, prospective study of 15,103 patients ≥45 years of age who had inpatient noncardiac surgery; 3,092 underwent orthopaedic surgery. Non-high-sensitivity TnT assays were performed on postoperative days 0, 1, 2, and 3. Among orthopaedic patients, we determined (1) the prognostic relevance of the MINS diagnostic criteria, (2) the 30-day mortality rate for those with and without MINS, and (3) the probable proportion of MINS cases that would go undetected without troponin monitoring because of a lack of an ischemic symptom.

    RESULTS: Three hundred and sixty-seven orthopaedic patients (11.9%) had MINS. MINS was associated independently with 30-day mortality including among those who had had orthopaedic surgery. Orthopaedic patients without and with MINS had a 30-day mortality rate of 1.0% and 9.8%, respectively (odds ratio [OR], 11.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.72 to 18.92). The 30-day mortality rate was increased for patients with MINS who had an ischemic feature (i.e., symptoms, or evidence of ischemia on electrocardiography or imaging) (OR, 18.25; 95% CI, 10.06 to 33.10) and for those who did not have an ischemic feature (OR, 7.35; 95% CI, 3.37 to 16.01). The proportion of orthopaedic patients with MINS who were asymptomatic and in whom the myocardial injury would have probably gone undetected without TnT monitoring was 81.3% (95% CI, 76.3% to 85.4%).

    CONCLUSIONS: One in 8 orthopaedic patients in our study had MINS, and MINS was associated with a higher mortality rate regardless of symptoms. Troponin levels should be measured after surgery in at-risk patients because most MINS cases (>80%) are asymptomatic and would go undetected without routine measurements.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  10. Writing Committee for the VISION Study Investigators, Devereaux PJ, Biccard BM, Sigamani A, Xavier D, Chan MTV, et al.
    JAMA, 2017 Apr 25;317(16):1642-1651.
    PMID: 28444280 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2017.4360
    Importance: Little is known about the relationship between perioperative high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) measurements and 30-day mortality and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS).

    Objective: To determine the association between perioperative hsTnT measurements and 30-day mortality and potential diagnostic criteria for MINS (ie, myocardial injury due to ischemia associated with 30-day mortality).

    Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of patients aged 45 years or older who underwent inpatient noncardiac surgery and had a postoperative hsTnT measurement. Starting in October 2008, participants were recruited at 23 centers in 13 countries; follow-up finished in December 2013.

    Exposures: Patients had hsTnT measurements 6 to 12 hours after surgery and daily for 3 days; 40.4% had a preoperative hsTnT measurement.

    Main Outcomes and Measures: A modified Mazumdar approach (an iterative process) was used to determine if there were hsTnT thresholds associated with risk of death and had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 3.0 or higher and a risk of 30-day mortality of 3% or higher. To determine potential diagnostic criteria for MINS, regression analyses ascertained if postoperative hsTnT elevations required an ischemic feature (eg, ischemic symptom or electrocardiography finding) to be associated with 30-day mortality.

    Results: Among 21 842 participants, the mean age was 63.1 (SD, 10.7) years and 49.1% were female. Death within 30 days after surgery occurred in 266 patients (1.2%; 95% CI, 1.1%-1.4%). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that compared with the reference group (peak hsTnT <5 ng/L), peak postoperative hsTnT levels of 20 to less than 65 ng/L, 65 to less than 1000 ng/L, and 1000 ng/L or higher had 30-day mortality rates of 3.0% (123/4049; 95% CI, 2.6%-3.6%), 9.1% (102/1118; 95% CI, 7.6%-11.0%), and 29.6% (16/54; 95% CI, 19.1%-42.8%), with corresponding adjusted HRs of 23.63 (95% CI, 10.32-54.09), 70.34 (95% CI, 30.60-161.71), and 227.01 (95% CI, 87.35-589.92), respectively. An absolute hsTnT change of 5 ng/L or higher was associated with an increased risk of 30-day mortality (adjusted HR, 4.69; 95% CI, 3.52-6.25). An elevated postoperative hsTnT (ie, 20 to <65 ng/L with an absolute change ≥5 ng/L or hsTnT ≥65 ng/L) without an ischemic feature was associated with 30-day mortality (adjusted HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 2.37-4.32). Among the 3904 patients (17.9%; 95% CI, 17.4%-18.4%) with MINS, 3633 (93.1%; 95% CI, 92.2%-93.8%) did not experience an ischemic symptom.

    Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, peak postoperative hsTnT during the first 3 days after surgery was significantly associated with 30-day mortality. Elevated postoperative hsTnT without an ischemic feature was also associated with 30-day mortality.

  11. Chan MTV, Wang CY, Seet E, Tam S, Lai HY, Chew EFF, et al.
    JAMA, 2019 05 14;321(18):1788-1798.
    PMID: 31087023 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2019.4783
    Importance: Unrecognized obstructive sleep apnea increases cardiovascular risks in the general population, but whether obstructive sleep apnea poses a similar risk in the perioperative period remains uncertain.

    Objectives: To determine the association between obstructive sleep apnea and 30-day risk of cardiovascular complications after major noncardiac surgery.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study involving adult at-risk patients without prior diagnosis of sleep apnea and undergoing major noncardiac surgery from 8 hospitals in 5 countries between January 2012 and July 2017, with follow-up until August 2017. Postoperative monitoring included nocturnal pulse oximetry and measurement of cardiac troponin concentrations.

    Exposures: Obstructive sleep apnea was classified as mild (respiratory event index [REI] 5-14.9 events/h), moderate (REI 15-30), and severe (REI >30), based on preoperative portable sleep monitoring.

    Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of myocardial injury, cardiac death, heart failure, thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation, and stroke within 30 days of surgery. Proportional-hazards analysis was used to determine the association between obstructive sleep apnea and postoperative cardiovascular complications.

    Results: Among a total of 1364 patients recruited for the study, 1218 patients (mean age, 67 [SD, 9] years; 40.2% women) were included in the analyses. At 30 days after surgery, rates of the primary outcome were 30.1% (41/136) for patients with severe OSA, 22.1% (52/235) for patients with moderate OSA, 19.0% (86/452) for patients with mild OSA, and 14.2% (56/395) for patients with no OSA. OSA was associated with higher risk for the primary outcome (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49 [95% CI, 1.19-2.01]; P = .01); however, the association was significant only among patients with severe OSA (adjusted HR, 2.23 [95% CI, 1.49-3.34]; P = .001) and not among those with moderate OSA (adjusted HR, 1.47 [95% CI, 0.98-2.09]; P = .07) or mild OSA (adjusted HR, 1.36 [95% CI, 0.97-1.91]; P = .08) (P = .01 for interaction). The mean cumulative duration of oxyhemoglobin desaturation less than 80% during the first 3 postoperative nights in patients with cardiovascular complications (23.1 [95% CI, 15.5-27.7] minutes) was longer than in those without (10.2 [95% CI, 7.8-10.9] minutes) (P 

  12. Ng KT, Lee ZX, Ang E, Teoh WY, Wang CY
    J Clin Anesth, 2020 Jun;62:109731.
    PMID: 31986433 DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2020.109731
    OBJECTIVES: The repetitive hypoxic and hypercapnia events of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are believed to adversely affect cardiopulmonary function, which make them vulnerable to a higher incidence of postoperative complications. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the association of OSA and the composite endpoints of postoperative cardiac or cerebrovascular complications in adult undergoing non-cardiac surgery.

    DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL were systematically searched from its inception until May 2019.

    REVIEW METHODS: All observational studies were included.

    RESULTS: Twenty-two studies (n = 3,033,814; 184,968 OSA vs 2,848,846 non-OSA) were included for quantitative meta-analysis. In non-cardiac surgery, OSA was significantly associated with a higher incidence of the composite endpoints of postoperative cardiac or cerebrovascular complications (odd ratio: 1.44, 95%CI: 1.17 to 1.78, ρ = 0.007, trial sequential analysis = conclusive; certainty of evidence = very low). In comparison to non-OSA, OSA patients were reported to have nearly 2.5-fold risk of developing pulmonary complications (odd ratio: 2.52, 95%CI: 1.92 to 3.31, ρ 

  13. Tsan SEH, Lim SM, Abidin MFZ, Ganesh S, Wang CY
    Anesth. Analg., 2020 07;131(1):210-219.
    PMID: 31348051 DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000004349
    BACKGROUND: Approximately half of all difficult tracheal intubations (DTIs) are unanticipated; hence, proper positioning during intubation is critical to increase the likelihood of success. The bed-up-head-elevated (BUHE) intubation position has been shown to improve laryngeal view, reduce airway complications, and prolong safe apneic time during intubation. In this study, we sought to determine whether the BUHE intubation position is noninferior to Glidescope (GLSC)-assisted intubation with regard to laryngeal exposure.

    METHODS: A total of 138 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I to III patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups and underwent baseline laryngoscopy in the sniffing position. Group BUHE patients (n = 69) were then intubated in the BUHE position, while group GLSC patients (n = 69) were intubated using GLSC laryngoscopy. Laryngeal exposure was measured using Percentage of Glottic Opening (POGO) score and Cormack-Lehane (CL) grading, and noninferiority will be declared if the difference in mean POGO scores between both groups do not exceed -15% at the lower limit of a 98% confidence interval (CI). Secondary outcomes measured included time required for intubation (TRI), number of intubation attempts, use of airway adjuncts, effort during laryngoscopy, and complications during intubation.

    RESULTS: Mean POGO score in group BUHE was 80.14% ± 22.03%, while in group GLSC it was 86.45% ± 18.83%, with a mean difference of -6.3% (98% CI, -13.2% to 0.6%). In both groups, there was a significant improvement in mean POGO scores when compared to baseline laryngoscopy in the sniffing position (group BUHE, 25.8% ± 4.7%; group GLSC, 30.7% ± 6.8%) (P < .0001). The mean TRI was 36.23 ± 14.41 seconds in group BUHE, while group GLSC had a mean TRI of 44.33 ± 11.53 seconds (P < .0001). In patients with baseline CL 3 grading, there was no significant difference between mean POGO scores in both groups (group BUHE, 49.2% ± 19.6% versus group GLSC, 70.5% ± 29.7%; P = .054).

    CONCLUSIONS: In the general population, BUHE intubation position provides a noninferior laryngeal view to GLSC intubation. The laryngeal views obtained in both approaches were superior to the laryngeal view obtained in the sniffing position. In view of the many advantages of the BUHE position for intubation, the lack of proven adverse effects, the simplicity, and the cost-effectiveness, we propose that clinicians should consider the BUHE position as the standard intubation position for the general population.

  14. Chiu CL, Jaais F, Wang CY
    Br J Anaesth, 1999 May;82(5):757-60.
    PMID: 10536557
    We have compared the effect of rocuronium and succinylcholine on intraocular pressure (IOP) during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia using propofol and fentanyl, in a randomized double-blind study. We studied 30 adult patients, allocated to one of two groups. Anaesthesia was induced with fentanyl 2 micrograms kg-1 and propofol until loss of verbal response. This was followed by succinylcholine 1.5 mg kg-1 (group S; n = 15) or rocuronium 0.9 mg kg-1 (group R; n = 15). Laryngoscopy was performed 60 s later. IOP, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before induction, immediately before intubation and every minute after intubation for 5 min. A Keeler Pulsair air impulse tonometer was used to measure IOP and the mean of two readings obtained in the right eye at each measurement time was recorded. Intubating conditions were evaluated according to a simple scoring system. IOP in the succinylcholine group was significantly greater than that in the rocuronium group (mean 21.6 (SEM 1.4) mm Hg vs 13.3 (1.4) mm Hg; P < 0.001). Intubating conditions were equally good in both groups. We conclude that with rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia using propofol and fentanyl, rocuronium did not cause as great an increase in IOP as succinylcholine and may be an alternative in open eye injury cases.
  15. Shariffuddin II, Teoh WH, Wahab S, Wang CY
    BMC Anesthesiol, 2018 01 05;18(1):3.
    PMID: 29304735 DOI: 10.1186/s12871-017-0464-6
    BACKGROUND: Ambulatory surgery has recently gain popularity, as it is a good method of optimizinghospital resources utilization. To support ambulatory surgery, anaesthetic goals nowrevolve around patients' early recovery with minimal pain and nausea, expedientdischarge home and prompt resumption of activities of daily living. In this study, weevaluated the effect of a single pre-induction dose of dexmedetomidine on anaestheticrequirements, postoperative pain and clinical recovery after ambulatory ureteroscopy andureteric stenting under general anaesthesia.

    METHODS: Sixty patients were randomised to receive IV dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg.kg-1 (Group DEX, n = 30) or IV saline (Group P, n = 30). General anaesthesia was maintained with Sevoflurane: oxygen: air, titrated to BIS 40-60. Pain intensity, sedation, rescue analgesics, nausea/vomiting and resumption of daily activities were recorded at 1 h, and postoperative day (POD) 1-5.

    RESULTS: Group DEX patients had significant reduction in sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), mean (SD) DEX vs. Placebo 0.6 (0.2) vs. 0.9 (0.1), p = 0.037; reduced postoperative resting pain at 1 h (VAS 0-10) (mean (SD) 1.00 (1.84) vs. 2.63 (2.78), p = 0.004), POD 1 (mean (SD) 1.50 (1.48) vs. 2.87 (2.72), p = 0.002), POD 2 (0.53 (0.97) vs. 1.73 (1.96), p = 0.001) and POD 3 (0.30 (0.75) vs. 0.89 (1.49), p = 0.001). DEX patients also had less pain on movement POD 1 (3.00 (2.12) vs. 4.30 (3.10), p = 0.043) and POD 2 (2.10 (1.98) vs. 3.10 (2.46), p = 0.040), with higher resumption of daily activities by 48 h compared to placebo, 87% vs. 63%, p = 0.04.

    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that a single dose of dexmedetomidine was a useful adjuvant in reducing MAC and postoperative pain (at 1 h and POD 1-3), facilitating faster return to daily activities by 48 h.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), ACTRN12617001120369 , 31st July 2017, retrospectively registered.

  16. Borges FK, Devereaux PJ, Cuerden M, Bhandari M, Guerra-Farfán E, Patel A, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2019 09 24;9(9):e033150.
    PMID: 31551393 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033150
    INTRODUCTION: Inflammation, dehydration, hypotension and bleeding may all contribute to the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). Accelerated surgery after a hip fracture can decrease the exposure time to such contributors and may reduce the risk of AKI.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Hip fracture Accelerated surgical TreaTment And Care tracK (HIP ATTACK) is a multicentre, international, parallel-group randomised controlled trial (RCT). Patients who suffer a hip fracture are randomly allocated to either accelerated medical assessment and surgical repair with a goal of surgery within 6 hours of diagnosis or standard care where a repair typically occurs 24 to 48 hours after diagnosis. The primary outcome of this substudy is the development of AKI within 7 days of randomisation. We anticipate at least 1998 patients will participate in this substudy.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We obtained ethics approval for additional serum creatinine recordings in consecutive patients enrolled at 70 participating centres. All patients provide consent before randomisation. We anticipate reporting substudy results by 2021.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02027896; Pre-results.

  17. Wang CY, Ong GS, Delilkan AE
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1994 Sep;49(3):269-74.
    PMID: 7845278
    Thirty-one healthy women who underwent Caesarean section were studied in a double-blind trial to compare the effectiveness of epidural 0.5% bupivacaine plain, 0.5% bupivacaine plus 100 micrograms fentanyl and 0.5% bupivacaine plus 50 micrograms fentanyl in the prevention of intraoperative pain. There was no difference in the quality of analgesia between the three groups. The incidence of complications was significantly higher in the 0.5% bupivacaine plus 100 micrograms fentanyl group compared with the other two groups.
  18. Tan AS, Wang CY
    Anaesth Intensive Care, 2010 Jan;38(1):65-9.
    PMID: 20191779
    The aim of this randomised, controlled trial was to determine the optimum dose of fentanyl in combination with propofol 2.5 mg x kg(-1) when inserting the Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway. Seventy-five ASA I or II patients were randomly assigned to five groups of fentanyl dosage: 0 microg x kg(-1) (placebo), 0.5 microg x kg(-1), 1.0 microg x kg(-1), 1.5 microg x kg(-1) and 2.0 microg x kg(-1). Anaesthesia was induced by first injecting the study drug over 10 seconds. Three minutes after the study drug was injected, propofol (2.5 mg x kg(-1)) was injected over 10 seconds. The Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway was inserted four minutes and 30 seconds after injection of the study drug. Insertion conditions were evaluated using a four-category score. Thirty-nine males and 36 females aged 19 to 59 years were studied. The incidence of prolonged apnoea increased as fentanyl dose increased. We found that there was a high rate of successful first attempt at insertion with 1 microg x kg(-1) and 1.5 microg x kg(-1), 93% and 87% respectively, compared to 87% in the 2.0 microg x kg(-1) group. The 1.0 microg x kg(-1) group also achieved an 80% optimal insertion conditions score of 4, compared to 73% in the 1.5 microg x kg(-1) group and 80% in the 2 microg x kg(-1) group. Therefore we recommend 1.0 microg x kg(-1) as the optimal dose of fentanyl when used in addition to propofol 2.5 mg/kg for the insertion of the Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway.
  19. Tan I, Wang CY
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1993 Jun;48(2):200-6.
    PMID: 8350796
    Fibreoptic intubation has been established as a major advance in the management of difficult or failed intubation in the awake patient. If necessary, it may be performed under general anaesthesia with either spontaneous or controlled ventilation. This should be considered early in the management of failed intubation, before multiple attempts with other techniques lead to haemorrhage and oedema in the airway. We describe here selected case reports to illustrate this in 8 different situations. This is followed by a brief review of the technique and indications of fibreoptic intubation.
  20. Uyama Y, Yamazaki E, Clark K, Wang CY, Woro E, Tong FY, et al.
    Ther Innov Regul Sci, 2015 Mar;49(2):249-253.
    PMID: 30222411 DOI: 10.1177/2168479014551646
    In response to the globalization of drug development, regulatory inspection of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) has recently been conducted not only by International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) regions but also non-ICH regions. To promote the international implementation of GCP, consistent understanding and interpretation of its concept among regions are important. This article summarizes the background and past activities of the E6 Discussion Group, established under the Regulators Forum.
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