Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 330 in total

  1. Wang J, Sung V, Carew P, Burt RA, Liu M, Wang Y, et al.
    Acad Pediatr, 2019 07;19(5):504-514.
    PMID: 30872125 DOI: 10.1016/j.acap.2019.01.010
    BACKGROUND: Better epidemiologic information on childhood hearing loss would inform research priorities and efforts to prevent its progression.

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence and secular trends in children's hearing loss.

    DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE and Embase from January 1996 to August 2017.

    STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included epidemiologic studies in English reporting hearing loss prevalence.

    STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: The modified Leboeuf-Yde and Lauritsen tool was used to assess methodological quality. Meta-analyses combined study-specific estimates using random-effects models.

    PARTICIPANTS: Children 0 to 18 years of age.

    RESULTS: Among 88 eligible studies, 43.2% included audiometric measurement of speech frequencies. In meta-analyses, pooled prevalence estimates of slight or worse bilateral speech frequency losses >15 decibels hearing level (dB HL) were 13.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.0-17.0). Using progressively more stringent cutpoints, pooled prevalence estimates were 8.1% (95% CI, 1.3-19.8) with >20 dB HL, 2.2% (95% CI, 1.4-3.0) with >25 dB HL, 1.8% (95% CI, 0.4-4.1) with >30 dB HL, and 0.9% (95% CI, 0.1-2.6) with >40 dB HL. Also, 8.9% (95% CI, 6.4-12.3) had likely sensorineural losses >15 dB HL in 1 or both ears, and 1.2% (95% CI, 0.5-2.1) had self-reported hearing loss. From 1990 to 2010, the prevalence of losses >15 dB HL in 1 or both ears rose substantially (all P for trend

  2. Oviedo-Trespalacios O, Çelik AK, Marti-Belda A, Włodarczyk A, Demant D, Nguyen-Phuoc DQ, et al.
    Accid Anal Prev, 2021 Sep;159:106212.
    PMID: 34098429 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106212
    Alcohol is a global risk factor for road trauma. Although drink driving has received most of the scholarly attention, there is growing evidence of the risks of alcohol-impaired walking. Alcohol-impaired pedestrians are over-represented in fatal crashes compared to non-impaired pedestrians. Additionally, empirical evidence shows that alcohol intoxication impairs road-crossing judgements. Besides some limited early research, much is unknown about the global prevalence and determinants of alcohol-impaired walking. Understanding alcohol-impaired walking will support health promotion initiatives and injury prevention. The present investigation has three aims: (1) compare the prevalence of alcohol-impaired walking across countries; (2) identify international groups of pedestrians based on psychosocial factors (i.e., Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and perceptions of risk); and (3) investigate how segments of pedestrians form their intention for alcohol-impaired walking using the extended TPB (i.e. subjective norm, attitudes, perceived control, and perceived risk). A cross-sectional design was applied. The target behaviour question was "have you been a pedestrian when your thinking or physical ability (balance/strength) is affected by alcohol?" to ensure comparability across countries. Cluster analysis based on the extended TPB was used to identify groups of countries. Finally, regressions were used to predict pedestrians' intentions per group. A total of 6,166 respondents (Age M(SD) = 29.4 (14.2); Males = 39.2%) completed the questionnaire, ranging from 12.6% from Russia to 2.2% from Finland. The proportion of participants who reported never engaging in alcohol-impaired walking in the last three months ranged from 30.1% (Spain) to 83.1% (Turkey). Four groups of countries were identified: group-1 (Czech Republic, Spain, and Australia), group-2 (Russia and Finland), group-3 (Japan), and group-4 (final ten countries including Colombia, China, and Romania). Pedestrian intentions to engage in alcohol- impaired walking are predicted by perceptions of risk and TPB-psychosocial factors in group-1 and group-4. Favourable TPB-beliefs and low perceived risk increased alcohol-impaired walking intentions. Conversely, subjective norms were not significant in group-2 and only perceived risk predicted intention in group-3. The willingness of pedestrians to walk when alcohol-impaired differs significantly across the countries in this study. Perceived risk was the only common predictor among the 16 countries.
  3. Ghafar MHA, Mohamed H, Mohammad NMY, Mohammad ZW, Madiadipoera T, Wang Y, et al.
    Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp (Engl Ed), 2019 08 07;71(3):147-153.
    PMID: 31400807 DOI: 10.1016/j.otorri.2019.04.004
    INTRODUCTION: The use of mometasone furoate (MF) intranasal spray in treating adenoid hypertrophy (AH) has a variable outcome due the different methods of adenoid size evaluation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of MF intranasal spray in children and adolescents with AH using a reliable and consistent endoscopic evaluation.

    MATERIAL AND METHOD: A prospective interventional study was conducted. Evaluation took place during the first visit (week 0) and second visit (week 12). Symptoms of nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea, cough and snoring were assessed, and an overall total symptoms score was obtained. A rigid nasoendoscopic examination using a four-grading system of adenoid size from 1 to 4 was performed. Patients were treated with MF intranasal spray for 12 weeks. Patients' aged 7-11-years old used 1 spray in each nostril once daily, while patients aged 12-17 used two sprays in each nostril once daily. Reassessment was carried out during the second visit (week 12).

    RESULTS: A total of 74 patients was recruited. There were significant improvements from week 0 to week 12 in the symptoms' score for nose obstruction, rhinorrhoea, cough, snoring including the total nasal symptoms' score (p<0.001). AH significantly reduced in size from week 0 (2.89±.87) to week 12 (1.88±.83) (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: MF intranasal spray is effective in improving the symptoms attributed to AH as well as reducing the adenoid size. MF intranasal spray is advocated as a treatment option before adenoidectomy is considered.

  4. Bousquet J, Jutel M, Akdis CA, Klimek L, Pfaar O, Nadeau KC, et al.
    Allergy, 2021 03;76(3):689-697.
    PMID: 32588922 DOI: 10.1111/all.14471
  5. Pfaar O, Klimek L, Jutel M, Akdis CA, Bousquet J, Breiteneder H, et al.
    Allergy, 2021 03;76(3):648-676.
    PMID: 32531110 DOI: 10.1111/all.14453
    BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has evolved into a pandemic infectious disease transmitted by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Allergists and other healthcare providers (HCPs) in the field of allergies and associated airway diseases are on the front line, taking care of patients potentially infected with SARS-CoV-2. Hence, strategies and practices to minimize risks of infection for both HCPs and treated patients have to be developed and followed by allergy clinics.

    METHOD: The scientific information on COVID-19 was analysed by a literature search in MEDLINE, PubMed, the National and International Guidelines from the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the Cochrane Library, and the internet.

    RESULTS: Based on the diagnostic and treatment standards developed by EAACI, on international information regarding COVID-19, on guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other international organizations, and on previous experience, a panel of experts including clinicians, psychologists, IT experts, and basic scientists along with EAACI and the "Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA)" initiative have developed recommendations for the optimal management of allergy clinics during the current COVID-19 pandemic. These recommendations are grouped into nine sections on different relevant aspects for the care of patients with allergies.

    CONCLUSIONS: This international Position Paper provides recommendations on operational plans and procedures to maintain high standards in the daily clinical care of allergic patients while ensuring the necessary safety measures in the current COVID-19 pandemic.

  6. Wang Y, Cheng C, Zhang Z, Wang J, Wang Y, Li X, et al.
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet, 2018 12;177(8):709-716.
    PMID: 30350918 DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32675
    No biologically based diagnostic criteria are in clinical use today for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder (MDD), which are defined with reference to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual clinical symptoms alone. However, these disorders cannot always be well distinguished on clinical grounds and may also be comorbid. A biological blood-based dynamic genomic signature that can differentiate among OCD, MDD, and schizophrenia would therefore be of great utility. This study enrolled 77 patients with OCD, 67 controls with no psychiatric illness, 39 patients with MDD, and 40 with schizophrenia. An OCD-specific gene signature was identified using blood gene expression analysis to construct a predictive model of OCD that can differentiate this disorder from healthy controls, MDD, and schizophrenia using a logistic regression algorithm. To verify that the genes selected were not derived as a result of chance, the algorithm was tested twice. First, the algorithm was used to predict the cohort with true disease/control status and second, the algorithm predicted the cohort with disease/control status randomly reassigned (null set). A six-gene panel (COPS7A, FKBP1A, FIBP, TP73-AS1, SDF4, and GOLGA8A) discriminated patients with OCD from healthy controls, MDD, and schizophrenia in the training set (with an area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve of 0.938; accuracy, 86%; sensitivity, 88%; and specificity, 85%). Our findings indicate that a blood transcriptomic signature can distinguish OCD from healthy controls, MDD, and schizophrenia. This finding further confirms the feasibility of using dynamic blood-based genomic signatures in psychiatric disorders and may provide a useful tool for clinical staff engaged in OCD diagnosis and decision making.
  7. Mac Aogáin M, Tiew PY, Lim AYH, Low TB, Tan GL, Hassan T, et al.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2019 04 01;199(7):842-853.
    PMID: 30265843 DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201807-1355OC
    RATIONALE: Allergic sensitization is associated with poor clinical outcomes in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis; however, its presence, frequency, and clinical significance in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis remain unclear.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and geographic variability that exists in a sensitization pattern to common and specific allergens, including house dust mite and fungi, and to correlate such patterns to airway immune-inflammatory status and clinical outcomes in bronchiectasis.

    METHODS: Patients with bronchiectasis were recruited in Asia (Singapore and Malaysia) and the United Kingdom (Scotland) (n = 238), forming the Cohort of Asian and Matched European Bronchiectasis, which matched recruited patients on age, sex, and bronchiectasis severity. Specific IgE response against a range of common allergens was determined, combined with airway immune-inflammatory status and correlated to clinical outcomes. Clinically relevant patient clusters, based on sensitization pattern and airway immune profiles ("immunoallertypes"), were determined.

    MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A high frequency of sensitization to multiple allergens was detected in bronchiectasis, exceeding that in a comparator cohort with allergic rhinitis (n = 149). Sensitization was associated with poor clinical outcomes, including decreased pulmonary function and more severe disease. "Sensitized bronchiectasis" was classified into two immunoallertypes: one fungal driven and proinflammatory, the other house dust mite driven and chemokine dominant, with the former demonstrating poorer clinical outcome.

    CONCLUSIONS: Allergic sensitization occurs at high frequency in patients with bronchiectasis recruited from different global centers. Improving endophenotyping of sensitized bronchiectasis, a clinically significant state, and a "treatable trait" permits therapeutic intervention in appropriate patients, and may allow improved stratification in future bronchiectasis research and clinical trials.

  8. Saniasiaya J, Abdullah B, Husain S, Wang Y, Wan Mohammad Z
    Am J Rhinol Allergy, 2017 Sep 01;31(5):328-333.
    PMID: 28859711 DOI: 10.2500/ajra.2017.31.4464
    BACKGROUND: Epiphora secondary to nasolacrimal duct obstruction is common in the pediatric age group. The mainstay treatment among these young patients has been conservative. Once epiphora becomes recalcitrant, however, an external or an endonasal approach is considered.

    OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EDCR) entails creating an opening from the lacrimal sac directly into the nasal cavity to counteract nasolacrimal duct obstruction. We reviewed the literature to determine the effectiveness and the safety of primary EDCR to treat pediatric nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

    METHOD: A literature search was conducted by using a number of medical literature data bases for the period from 1995 to 2016. The following search words were used either individually or in combination: epiphora, nasolacrimal duct obstruction, endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, laser-assisted endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, children, congenital, acquired, presaccal obstruction, and postsaccal obstruction. In addition, a few articles were identified based on the experience and information provided by the senior authors (B.A., S.H., D.Y.W.). The search was conducted over a 1-month period (January 2017). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions were followed when possible.

    RESULTS: Only 10 original clinical research articles were selected based on our objectives and selection criteria. All the studies were at level of evidence III: nonrandomized and noncomparative prospective or retrospective case series. Altogether, 313 patients with ages that ranged from 4 months to 18 years were enrolled. A total of 352 EDCRs were performed that were either single sided (n = 313) or bilateral (n = 39). The most common causes of the obstruction were classified as congenital, followed by idiopathic, and then acquired. A meta-analysis was not performed because of the heterogeneity of the patient groups and variability of the methods used to measure outcomes.

    CONCLUSION: Analysis of the results indicated that EDCR was an effective, safe therapeutic approach to treating nasolacrimal duct obstruction in pediatric patients. It should be considered as an alternative procedure to external dacryocystorhinostomy after a failed conservative treatment.

  9. Cheng PH, Liang JB, Wu YB, Wang Y, Tufarelli V, Laudadio V, et al.
    Anim Sci J, 2017 Aug;88(8):1141-1148.
    PMID: 28026141 DOI: 10.1111/asj.12723
    Native Lantang and commercial Duroc pigs were used as animal models to evaluate the differences existing in dietary fiber utilization ability between breeds. Animals were fed the same diet from weaning (4 weeks) to 4 months of age. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from wheat bran (as substrate) and fecal samples from the two breeds (as inoculum) were used in an in vitro gas production trial. Results showed that cumulative and maximum gas productions were higher in inocula from Lantang than those from the Duroc breed (P 
  10. Xiao SS, Mi JD, Mei L, Liang J, Feng KX, Wu YB, et al.
    Animals (Basel), 2021 Mar 16;11(3).
    PMID: 33809729 DOI: 10.3390/ani11030840
    The intestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized as an important component of host health, metabolism and immunity. Early gut colonizers are pivotal in the establishment of microbial community structures affecting the health and growth performance of chickens. White Lohmann layer is a common commercial breed. Therefore, this breed was selected to study the pattern of changes of microbiota with age. In this study, the duodenum, caecum and colorectum contents of white Lohmann layer chickens from same environment control farm were collected and analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing to explore the spatial and temporal variations in intestinal microbiota. The results showed that the diversity of the microbial community structure in the duodenum, caecum and colorectum increased with age and tended to be stable when the layer chickens reached 50 days of age and the distinct succession patterns of the intestinal microbiota between the duodenum and large intestine (caecum and colorectum). On day 0, the diversity of microbes in the duodenum was higher than that in the caecum and colorectum, but the compositions of intestinal microbes were relatively similar, with facultative anaerobic Proteobacteria as the main microbes. However, the relative abundance of facultative anaerobic bacteria (Escherichia) gradually decreased and was replaced by anaerobic bacteria (Bacteroides and Ruminococcaceae). By day 50, the structure of intestinal microbes had gradually become stable, and Lactobacillus was the dominant bacteria in the duodenum (41.1%). The compositions of dominant microbes in the caecum and colorectum were more complex, but there were certain similarities. Bacteroides, Odoribacter and Clostridiales vadin BB60 group were dominant. The results of this study provide evidence that time and spatial factors are important factors affecting the intestinal microbiota composition. This study provides new knowledge of the intestinal microbiota colonization pattern of layer chickens in early life to improve the intestinal health of layer chickens.
  11. Chia SE, Wang YT, Chan OY, Poh SC
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1993 Nov;22(6):878-84.
    PMID: 8129348
    Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), single-breath diffusion capacity measurements (effective alveolar volume (VA), carbon monoxide transfer factor (DLCO) and transfer coefficient (KCO)) were determined in 452 healthy Singaporean adults (277 males and 175 females) aged 20-70 years. The ratio of Chinese, Malay and Indian subjects was 5:2:3 in both sexes. Age, height and weight in the males were all significantly correlated with FEV1, FVC, DLCO, VA and PEFR. However, for females, only age and height were significantly correlated with the studied lung function parameters. Significant ethnic differences were observed for most of the pulmonary functions (except KCO and PEFR) among the Chinese, Malays and Indians for both males and females. The predicted FEV1 and FVC values (specific age and height) for both sexes were highest among the Chinese followed by the Malays than Indians, in that order. Regression equations, with age and height as independent variables, were derived for males and females in each ethnic group to predict normal pulmonary function for the Singapore Chinese, Malay and Indian populations. The predicted values of various pulmonary function measurements obtained from these regression equations for subjects of specified age (30 years) and height (165 cm for men, 155 cm for women) were compared with those reported in other studies. Differences were observed among the different races.
  12. Li D, Faiza M, Ali S, Wang W, Tan CP, Yang B, et al.
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2018 Apr;184(4):1061-1072.
    PMID: 28948493 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2594-1
    A highly efficient process for reducing the fatty acid (FA) content of high-acid rice bran oil (RBO) was developed by immobilized partial glycerides-selective lipase SMG1-F278N-catalyzed esterification/transesterification using methanol as a novel acyl acceptor. Molecular docking simulation indicated that methanol was much closer to the catalytic serine (Ser-171) compared with ethanol and glycerol, which might be one of the reasons for its high efficiency in the deacidification of high-acid RBO. Additionally, the reaction parameters were optimized to minimize the FA content of high-acid RBO. Under the optimal conditions (substrate molar ratio of methanol to FAs of 1.8:1, enzyme loading of 40 U/g, and at 30 °C), FA content decreased from 25.14 to 0.03% after 6 h of reaction. Immobilized SMG1-F278N exhibited excellent methanol tolerance and retained almost 100% of its initial activity after being used for ten batches. After purification by molecular distillation, the final product contained 97.86% triacylglycerol, 2.10% diacylglycerol, and 0.04% FA. The acid value of the final product was 0.09 mg KOH/g, which reached the grade one standard of edible oil. Overall, methanol was a superior acyl acceptor for the deacidification of high-acid RBO and the high reusability of immobilized SMG1-F278N indicates an economically attractive process.
  13. Tsai IH, Chen YH, Wang YM, Liau MY, Lu PJ
    Arch Biochem Biophys, 2001 Mar 15;387(2):257-64.
    PMID: 11370849
    To investigate the geographic variations in venoms of two medically important pitvipers, we have purified and characterized the phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) from the pooled venoms of Calloselasma rhodostoma from Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam, as well as the individual venom of Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus collected from both North and South Taiwan. Enzymatic and pharmacological activities of the purified PLA2s were also investigated. The complete amino acid sequences of the purified PLA2s were determined by sequencing the corresponding cDNAs from the venom gland and shown to be consistent with their molecular weight data and the N-terminal sequences. All the geographic venom samples of C. rhodostoma contain a major noncatalytic basic PLA2-homolog and two or three acidic PLA2s in different proportions. These acidic PLA2s contain Glu6-substitutions and show distinct inhibiting specificities toward the platelets from human and rabbit. We also found that the T. mucrosquamatus venoms from North Taiwan but not those from South Taiwan contain an Arg6-PLA2 designated as TmPL-III. Its amino acid sequence is reported for the first time. This enzyme is structurally almost identical to the low- or nonexpressed Arg6-PLA2 from C. rhodostoma venom gland, and thus appears to be a regressing venom component in both of the Asian pitvipers.
  14. Qian L, Su W, Wang Y, Dang M, Zhang W, Wang C
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2019 Dec;47(1):1173-1180.
    PMID: 30942109 DOI: 10.1080/21691401.2018.1549064
    Cervical cancer is the third most common highest mortality in women worldwide. The use of standard chemotherapeutic drugs against cervical cancer patients received several side effects. Therefore, we focused phytoconsituents-mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) considered as greatest attention in the treatment of cervical cancer. In this present study, we reported that green synthesis of AuNPs by using with Alternanthera Sessilis aqueous extract. Synthesis of AuNPs were characterized by UV visible spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), selected area diffraction pattern (SAED), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and atomic force microscope. Synthesized AuNPs confirmed by the UV absorption maximum at 535 and crystal structure of gold AuNPs was further confirmed by EDX and SAED. TEM and atomic force microscopy images show the size and morphological distribution of nanoparticles. FTIR analysis was confirmed the hydroxyl groups, amine and alkaline groups of biomolecules are present in the AuNPs. Moreover, AuNPs induce cytotoxicity in cervical cancer cells and also induce apoptosis through modulating intrinsic apoptotic mechanisms in cervical cancer cells. This green synthesis of AuNPs from Alternanthera sessilis approach was easy, large scaled up and eco-friendly.
  15. Ebrahimkhani S, Jaward MH, Cicuttini FM, Dharmaratne A, Wang Y, de Herrera AGS
    Artif Intell Med, 2020 06;106:101851.
    PMID: 32593389 DOI: 10.1016/j.artmed.2020.101851
    In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art approaches for knee articular cartilage segmentation from conventional techniques to deep learning (DL) based techniques. Knee articular cartilage segmentation on magnetic resonance (MR) images is of great importance in early diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA). Besides, segmentation allows estimating the articular cartilage loss rate which is utilised in clinical practice for assessing the disease progression and morphological changes. It has been traditionally applied in quantifying longitudinal knee OA progression pattern to detect and assess the articular cartilage thickness and volume. Topics covered include various image processing algorithms and major features of different segmentation techniques, feature computations and the performance evaluation metrics. This paper is intended to provide researchers with a broad overview of the currently existing methods in the field, as well as to highlight the shortcomings and potential considerations in the application at clinical practice. The survey showed that state-of-the-art techniques based on DL outperform the other segmentation methods. The analysis of the existing methods reveals that integration of DL-based algorithms with other traditional model-based approaches has achieved the best results (mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) between 85.8% and 90%).
  16. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
  17. Klionsky DJ, Abdel-Aziz AK, Abdelfatah S, Abdellatif M, Abdoli A, Abel S, et al.
    Autophagy, 2021 Jan;17(1):1-382.
    PMID: 33634751 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280
    In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
  18. Abdullah B, Chuen CS, Husain S, Snidvongs K, Wang Y
    PMID: 30061792 DOI: 10.1186/s12901-018-0060-5
    Background: The orbital floor is considered as an important intraoperative reference point in endoscopic sinonasal surgery. The aim of this review is to evaluate its reliability and usefulness as a surgical landmark in endoscopic endonasal surgery.

    Methods: A literature search was performed on electronic databases, namely PUBMED. The following keywords were used either individually or in combination: orbital floor; maxillary sinus roof; endoscopic skull base surgery; endoscopic sinus surgery. Studies that used orbital floor as a landmark for endoscopic endonasal surgery were included in the analysis. In addition, relevant articles were identified from the references of articles that had been retrieved. The search was conducted over a period of 6 months between 1st June 2017 and 16th December 2017.

    Results: One thousand seven hundred forty-three articles were retrieved from the electronic databases. Only 5 articles that met the review criteria were selected. Five studies of the orbital floor (or the maxillary sinus roof) were reviewed, one was a cadaveric study while another 4 were computed tomographic study of the paranasal sinuses. All studies were of level III evidence and consists of a total number of 948 nostrils. All studies showed the orbital floor was below the anterior skull base irrespective of the populations. The orbital floor serves as a guide for safe entry into posterior ethmoids and sphenoid sinus.

    Conclusions: The orbital floor is a reliable and useful surgical landmark in endoscopic endonasal surgery. In revision cases or advanced disease, the normal landmarks can be distorted or absent and the orbital floor serves as a reference point for surgeons to avoid any unintentional injury to the skull base, the internal carotid artery and other critical structures.

  19. Huang CB, Xiao L, Xing SC, Chen JY, Yang YW, Zhou Y, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2019 Oct 23;20(1):770.
    PMID: 31646963 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-019-6115-1
    BACKGROUND: Host genotype plays a crucial role in microbial composition of laying hens, which may lead to dissimilar odor gas production. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship among layer breed, microbial structure and odor production.

    RESULTS: Thirty Hy-Line Gray and thirty Lohmann Pink laying hens were used in this study to determine the impact of cecal microbial structure on odor production of laying hens. The hens were managed under the same husbandry and dietary regimes. Results of in vivo experiments showed a lower hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production from Hy-Line hens and a lower concentration of soluble sulfide (S2-) but a higher concentration of butyrate in the cecal content of the Hy-Line hens compared to Lohmann Pink hens (P  0.05). Significant microbial structural differences existed between the two breed groups. The relative abundance of some butyrate producers (including Butyricicoccus, Butyricimonas and Roseburia) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (including Mailhella and Lawsonia) were found to be significantly correlated with odor production and were shown to be different in the 16S rRNA and PCR data between two breed groups. Furthermore, some bacterial metabolism pathways associated with energy extraction and carbohydrate utilization (oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate metabolism, energy metabolism, two component system and secretion system) were overrepresented in the Hy-Line hens, while several amino acid metabolism-associated pathways (amino acid related enzymes, arginine and proline metabolism, and alanine-aspartate and glutamate metabolism) were more prevalent in the Lohmann hens.

    CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that genotype of laying hens influence cecal microbiota, which in turn modulates their odor production. Our study provides references for breeding and enteric manipulation for defined microbiota to reduce odor gas emission.

  20. Li L, Su Y, Li F, Wang Y, Ma Z, Li Z, et al.
    BMC Microbiol, 2020 03 24;20(1):65.
    PMID: 32209070 DOI: 10.1186/s12866-020-01754-2
    BACKGROUND: It has recently been reported that intermittent fasting shapes the gut microbiota to benefit health, but this effect may be influenced to the exact fasting protocols. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of different daily fasting hours on shaping the gut microbiota in mice. Healthy C57BL/6 J male mice were subjected to 12, 16 or 20 h fasting per day for 1 month, and then fed ad libitum for an extended month. Gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing and food intake was recorded as well.

    RESULTS: We found that cumulative food intake was not changed in the group with 12 h daily fasting, but significantly decreased in the 16 and 20 h fasting groups. The composition of gut microbiota was altered by all these types of intermittent fasting. At genus level, 16 h fasting led to increased level of Akkermansia and decreased level of Alistipes, but these effects disappeared after the cessation of fasting. No taxonomic differences were identified in the other two groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: These data indicated that intermittent fasting shapes gut microbiota in healthy mice, and the length of daily fasting interval may influence the outcome of intermittent fasting.

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