DESIGN: A multicenter, retrospective, descriptive cohort study.
SETTING: Ten multidisciplinary PICUs in Asia.
PATIENTS: All mechanically ventilated children meeting the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference criteria for PARDS between 2009 and 2015.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data on epidemiology, ventilation, adjunct therapies, and clinical outcomes were collected. Patients were followed for 100 days post diagnosis of PARDS. A total of 373 patients were included. There were 89 (23.9%), 149 (39.9%), and 135 (36.2%) patients with mild, moderate, and severe PARDS, respectively. The most common risk factor for PARDS was pneumonia/lower respiratory tract infection (309 [82.8%]). Higher category of severity of PARDS was associated with lower ventilator-free days (22 [17-25], 16 [0-23], 6 [0-19]; p < 0.001 for mild, moderate, and severe, respectively) and PICU free days (19 [11-24], 15 [0-22], 5 [0-20]; p < 0.001 for mild, moderate, and severe, respectively). Overall PICU mortality for PARDS was 113 of 373 (30.3%), and 100-day mortality was 126 of 317 (39.7%). After adjusting for site, presence of comorbidities and severity of illness in the multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model, patients with moderate (hazard ratio, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.03-3.45]; p = 0.039) and severe PARDS (hazard ratio, 3.18 [95% CI, 1.68, 6.02]; p < 0.001) had higher risk of mortality compared with those with mild PARDS.
CONCLUSIONS: Mortality from PARDS is high in Asia. The Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference definition of PARDS is a useful tool for risk stratification.