Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) plays an important role in the treatment outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Poor adherence would result in failure to prevent viral replication as well as an increased risk of developing drug resistance. Adherence to a life long treatment such as antiretroviral therapy is usually a complicated issue that requires careful and continuous collaboration of patient, family and healthcare provider. The objective of this study was to assess adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its associated factors among people living with HIV. This is a health facility-based cross sectional study conducted among adults’ people living with HIV in Omdurman HIV/AIDS centre, Sudan. Data was collected through direct interview using semi-structured questionnaire. There were only 144/846 (17.02%) who adhered to antiretroviral therapy as prescribed by their doctors. The remaining 51.18% were taking the therapy but not regularly, 31.21% were taking it but currently not and 0.59% stated that they have never taken any antiretroviral therapy. Factors associated with poor adherence that have been identified include female gender (Adj. OR = 3.46 (95%CI: 1.46-8.21), P = 0.005), younger age (Adj. OR = 1.14 (95%CI: 1.02-1.28), P = 0.022), being unemployed (Adj. OR = 5.94 (95%CI: 1.51-23.40), P = 0.011), those who were divorced, separated or widowed (Adj. OR = 11.35 (95%CI: 1.74-73.96), P = 0.011) and respondents who perceived that their health status is poor (Adj. OR = 5.21 (95%CI: 1.44-18.81), P = 0.012) or very poor (Adj. OR = 4.04 (95%CI: 1.27-12.81), P = 0.018). Educational level and social support against HIV-related stigma and discrimination were not significantly associated with adherence. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among the respondents is very poor. Urgent interventions based on modifiable factors and mainly targeting females and younger age group are needed to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV.
Falls are the most common injury causing death or long term disability particularly among children. This study aimed to identify the risk factors of the unintentional injuries due to falls in children aged less than five years in Yemen. This cross sectional study enrolled a total of 439 children under five years old from the emergency department of 6 hospitals in Sana'a city. Multistage sampling was used to select six hospitals from public and private sectors in Sana'a city. Face to face interviews were conducted by using a structured questionnaire. Simple logistic regression and multiple logistic regression were used in the analysis. The prevalence of falls among children under five years old was 21.2%. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with falls among children were young mother (aOR= 0.9, 95% CI 0.81-0.91), working of mother (aOR= 4.5 95% CI 2.40-7.65), frequent family social gatherings (aOR= 2.7, 95% CI 1.54-4.61), number of children at home (aOR= 2.6, 95% CI 1.43-4.64), chewing khat by father (aOR= 2.4, 95% CI 1.38-4.10), presence of staircase in the house (aOR= 2.1, 95% CI 1.24-3.70), number of rooms at home (aOR= 2.2, 95% CI 1.17-3.99) and disabled children (aOR= 3.3, 95% CI 1.20-9.27). In the study, socio-economic and cultural factors such as family gathering and chewing khat were associated with home fall injury among children under 5 years old in Yemen. Health promotion program should take place to reduce the occurrence of fall injury.