METHOD: Literature search was performed within the PubMed, ScienceDirect.com and Google Scholar.
RESULTS: The presence of proline at the C-terminal tripeptide of ACE inhibitor can competitively inhibit the ACE activity. The effects of other amino acids are less studied leading to difficulties in predicting potent peptide sequences. The broad specificity of the enzyme may be due to the dual active sites observed on the somatic ACE. The inhibitors may not necessarily competitively inhibit the enzyme which explains why some reported inhibitors do not have the common ACE inhibitor characteristics. Finally, the in vivo assay has to be carried out before the peptides as the antihypertensive agents can be claimed. The peptides must be absorbed into circulation without being degraded, which will affect their bioavailability and potency. Thus, peptides with strong in vitro IC50 values do not necessarily have the same effect in vivo and vice versa.
CONCLUSION: The relationship between peptide amino acid sequence and inhibitory activity, in vivo studies of the active peptides and bioavailability must be studied before the peptides as antihypertensive agents can be claimed.
METHODS: Gallic acid (1), and methyl gallate (2), were isolated via bioassay-directed isolation, and they exhibited anticancer properties towards several cancer cell lines, examined using MTT cell viability assay. Pyrogallol (3) was examined against the same cancer cell lines to deduce the bioactive functional group of the phenolic compounds.
RESULTS: The results showed that the phenolic compounds could exhibit moderate to weak cytotoxicity towards certain cell lines (GI50 30 - 86 µM), but were inactive towards DU145 prostate cancer cell (GI50 > 100 µM).
CONCLUSION: It was observed that pyrogallol moiety was one of the essential functional structures of the phenolic compounds in exhibiting anticancer activity. Also, the carboxyl group of compound 1 was also important in anticancer activity. Examination of the PC-3 cells treated with compound 1 using fluorescence microscopy showed that PC-3 cells were killed by apoptosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n=6 rats per group) as Control, KA, Propolis and KA+Propolis. The control group and KA group have received vehicle and saline. Propolis group and propolis + KA group were orally administered with propolis (150 mg/kg body weight), five times every 12 hours. KA group and propolis +KA group were injected subcutaneously with kainic acid (15 mg/kg body weight) and were sacrificed after 2 hrs. CC, CB and BS were separated, homogenized and used for estimation of NOS, caspase-3, NO and TNF-α by commercial kits. Results were analyzed by one way ANOVA, reported as mean + SD (n=6 rats), and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: The concentration of NO, TNF-α, NOS and caspase-3 activity were increased significantly (p<0.001) in all the three brain regions tested in KA group compared to the control. Propolis supplementation significantly (p<0.001) prevented the increase in NOS, NO, TNF-α and caspase-3 due to KA.
CONCLUSION: Results of this study clearly demonstrated that the propolis supplementation attenuated the NOS, caspase-3 activities, NO, and TNF-α concentration and in KA mediated excitotoxicity. Hence propolis can be a possible potential protective agent against excitotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups; Control group and KA group received vehicle and saline. Propolis group and propolis + KA group were orally administered with propolis (150mg/kg body weight), five times every 12 hours. KA group and propolis + KA group were injected subcutaneously with kainic acid (15mg/kg body weight) and were sacrificed after 2 hrs and CC, CB and BS were separated homogenized and used for estimation of GS activity, NO, TBARS, and TAS concentrations by colorimetric methods. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, reported as mean + SD from 6 animals, and p<0.05 considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: NO was increased (p< 0.001) and GS activity was decreased (p< 0.001) in KA treated group compared to control group as well as propolis + KA treated group. TBARS was decreased and TAS was increased (p< 0.001) in propolis + KA treated group compared KA treated group.
CONCLUSION: This study clearly demonstrated the restoration of GS activity, NO levels and decreased oxidative stress by propolis in kainic acid mediated excitotoxicity. Hence the propolis can be a possible potential candidate (protective agent) against excitotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seaweeds were extracted with ethanol and further fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate and water. The extracts were tested for mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity in human epidermal melanocyte (HEM), and Chang cells. Extracts with potent melanocytotoxicity were formulated into cosmetic cream and tested on guinea pigs in dermal irritation tests and de-pigmentation assessments.
RESULTS: Both Sargassum polycystum and Padina tenuis seaweeds showed significant inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase in the concentration tested. SPEt showed most potent cytotoxicity on HEM (IC50 of 36µg/ml), followed by SPHF (65µg/ml), and PTHF (78.5µg/ml). SPHF and SPEt reduced melanin content in skin of guinea pigs when assessed histologically.
CONCLUSION: SPEt, SPHF and PTHF were able to inhibit HEM proliferation in vitro, with SPHF being most potent and did not cause any dermal irritation in guinea pigs. The results obtained indicate that SPHF is a promising pharmacological or cosmetic agent.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In hepatoprotective activity, liver damage was induced by treating rats with 1.0 mL carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)/kg and MEA extract was administered at a dose of 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg 24 h before intoxication with CCl4. Cytotoxicity study was performed on MCF-7 (human breast cancer), DBTRG (human glioblastoma), PC-3 (human prostate cancer) and U2OS (human osteosarcoma) cell lines. (1)H, (13)C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), and IR (infrared) spectral analyses were also conducted for MEA extract.
RESULTS: In hepatoprotective activity evaluation, MEA extract at a higher dose level of 500 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.05) potency. In cytotoxicity study, MEA extract was more toxic towards MCF-7 and DBTRG cell lines causing 78.7% and 64.3% cell death, respectively. MEA extract in (1)H, (13)C-NMR, and IR spectra exhibited bands, signals and J (coupling constant) values representing aromatic/phenolic constituents.
CONCLUSIONS: From the results, it could be concluded that MEA extract has potency to inhibit hepatotoxicity and MCF-7 and DBTRG cancer cell lines which might be due to the phenolic compounds depicted from NMR and IR spectra.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The well-diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) techniques were employed to investigate the putative antibacterial activity of Malaysian monofloral honey from Koompassia excelsa (Becc.) Taub (Tualang), Melaleuca cajuputi Powell (Gelam) and Durio zibethinus Murr. (Durian). Honey samples were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6518 and ATCC25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC12228, Enterococcus faecium LMG16192, Enterococcus faecalis LMG16216 and ATCC29212, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC14028 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC13883.
RESULTS: Marked variations were observed in the antibacterial activity of these honey samples. Durian honey failed to produce substantial antibacterial activity, whereas Tualang and Gelam honey showed a spectrum of antibacterial activity with their growth inhibitory effects against all of the tested bacterial species including vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).
CONCLUSION: Present findings suggested Gelam honey possesses highest antibacterial effect among the tested Malaysian honey samples.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methanol was used as the extraction solvent, 2,2 - diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) for free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Phenolic compounds were measured using Total flavonoid, Phenolic acid and Polyphenols content assay to evaluate the quality of the antioxidant capacity of the rhizomes and vitamin C as positive control.
RESULTS: The results obtained revealed that Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale had the highest free radical scavenging capacity of 270.07mg/TE/g DW and 266.95mg/TE/g DW and FRAP assay, Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale also gave the highest ferric reducing power of 231.73mg/TE/g DW and 176.26mg/TE/g DW respectively. For Phenolic compounds, Curcuma longa and Curcuma xanthorrhiza gave the highest values of flavonoid (741.36mg/NGN/g DW and 220.53mg/NGN/g DW), phenolic acid (42.71mg/GAE/g DW and 22.03mg/GAE/g DW) and polyphenols (39.38mg/GAE/g DW and 38.01mg/GAE/g DW) respectively. Significant and positive linear correlations were found between Total antioxidant capacity and Phenolic compounds (R = 0.65 - 0.96).
CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that extracts of Zingiberaceae (Ginger) rhizomes are a potential source of natural antioxidants and could serve as basis for future drugs and food supplements.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five rats were randomly divided into five different groups of five animals in each group; (1) Control. (2) Received H2O2 (0.5%) with drinking water. (3), and (4) received H2O2 and C. citratus (100 mg·kg(-1) b wt), vitamin C (250 mg·kg(-1) b wt) respectively. (5), was given C. citratus alone. The treatments were administered for 30 days. Blood samples were collected and serum was used for biochemical assay including liver enzymes activities, total protein, total bilirubin and malonaldehyde, glutathione in serum and liver homogenates. Liver was excised and routinely processed for histological examinations.
RESULTS: C. citratus attenuated liver damage due to H2O2 administration as indicated by the significant reduction (p<0.05), in the elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, TB, and MDA in serum and liver homogenates; increase in TP and GSH levels in serum and liver homogenates; and improvement of liver histo-pathological changes. These effects of the extract were similar to that of vitamin C which used as antioxidant reference.
CONCLUSION: C. citratus could effectively ameliorate H2O2-induced oxidative stress and prevent liver injury in male rats.
METHODS: The reported data/information was retrieved mainly from the online databases of PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE and Botanical Survey of India.
RESULTS: The present review elaborated the phytochemical, pharmacological and biological properties of the selected five Tragia species obtained from recent literature.
CONCLUSION: This review provides a basis for future investigation of Tragia species and, especially for those species that have not been explored for biological and pharmacological activities.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antinociceptive activity of ethanol pomegranate extract was examined using three models of pain: the writhing test, the hot tail flick test and the plantar test. The ethanolic extract of pomegranate was administered by oral gavages in doses of (100,150 and 200mg/kg, p.o (orally)), for all the tests and compared with aspirin (100mg/kg, p.o.) which was considered as the standard drug. Phytochemical screening and HPLC analysis of the plant species was carried out.
RESULTS: In the writhing test, the index of pain inhibition (IPI) was 37% for ethanolic extract of pomegranate (200mg/kg, p.o.), and 59% for aspirin. In the hot tail flick test, the ethanolic extract of pomegranate (200mg/kg, p.o.), has shown significant analgesia reaching its peak at 60 min maximum possible analgesia (MPA), was 24.1% as compared with aspirin 37.5%. Hyperalgesia was successfully induced by the plantar test and the ethanol extract of pomegranate (100,150,200mg/kg, p.o.), reduced the hyperalgesia in a dose dependent manner comparable to aspirin at (100mg/kg, p.o.). HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid, ellagic acid and Punicalagins A&B.
CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that ethanol pomegranate extract has an antinociceptive effect that may be related to the presence of identified phytochemicals.