Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 166 in total

  1. Zaleha MI, Osman A, Iskandar ZA, Sazali S, Ali MM, Roslan I, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 1998 Jun;7(2):138-50.
    PMID: 24393641
    In order to study the effect of levothyroxine in the treatment of endemic goitre, a longitudinal study was conducted among the Aborigines in Lanai Post and Sinderut Post, situated in an iodine-deficient area located in the district of Kuala Lipis, Pahang. All subjects in the treatment group (Lanai Post) were given 100 µg of levothyroxine per day and were followed for 1 1/2 years. A total of 311 subjects were examined at baseline, 323 on the first, 256 on the second, 239 on the third and 184 on the fourth visit following levothyroxine supplementation. Goitre prevalence, thyroid hormones, thyroid volume, nutritional status, urinary iodine levels, arterial blood pressure and mental performance were determined. Following the intervention, goitre prevalence was significantly reduced in the treatment group (baseline 42.8% vs final visit 13.0%, p<0.0001); however, no significant difference was noted in the control group. Total T4 levels were increased in the treatment group (p<0.0001), while a significant reduction was noted in the control group (p<0.0001). Thyroid-stimulating hormone levels increased significantly in the treatment group following 1 year of intervention, while no significant changes were observed in the control group. As for the thyroid volume, both groups showed a significant increment following the intervention (p<0.0001). With respect to the nutritional status, the treatment group showed a significant increase in body weight following the intervention (p<0.05). In addition, the mid-arm circumference and body mass index also increased after 1 year of intervention. However, the control group showed a reduction in the waist-hip ratio (p<0.0001). Although there was no statistical difference in the waist-hip ratio in the treatment group, there has been a significant reduction observed after 1 year of intervention. At 1 year, a reduction in skinfold thickness was noted in the treatment group while only the triceps and subscapular were increased in the control group. The body fat was decreased in the treatment group following 1 year of intervention (p<0.0001). No particular trend was noted in the urinary iodine excretion in the treatment group, but surprisingly, the levels were increased in the control group (p<0.0001). A significant increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures was observed in the treatment group following 1 year of intervention, but the controls showed a reduction in the systolic blood pressure (p<0.0001). Both groups showed a remarkable increase in mental performance, with a more pronounced effect in the treatment group (p<0.05). The correction of iodine deficiency by levothyroxine supplementation has a short-term beneficial effect in reducing the prevalence of goitre and improving the mental ability among the Aborigines in endemic areas; however, proper monitoring and close supervision are needed to maintain compliance.
  2. Zaiton Z, Merican Z, Khalid BA, Mohamed JB, Baharom S
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 1997 Jun;6(2):116-8.
    PMID: 24394713
    The soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats were used to investigate the effect of palm olein oil and soya bean oil on the production of lipid peroxidation products. It was found that palm olein oil but not soya bean oil significantly decreased malonaldehyde and conjugated diene levels of the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats. These findings suggest that palm olein per se produces less lipid peroxidation products than soya bean oil. Such an assay method gives a composite net picture of the propensity of an oil to produce lipid peroxidation products.
  3. Yusoff K
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2002;11 Suppl 7:S443-7.
    PMID: 12492632
    Cardiovascular disease, in particular coronary artery disease (CAD), remains the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and, in the near future, more so in the developing world. Atherosclerotic plaque formation is the underlying basis for CAD. Growth of the plaque leads to coronary stenosis, causing a progressive decrease in blood flow that results in angina pectoris. Acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina were recently recognised as related to plaque rupture, not progressive coronary stenosis. Acute thrombus formation causes an abrupt coronary occlusion. The characteristics of the fibrin cap, contents of the plaque, rheological factors and active inflammation within the plaque contribute to plaque rupture. Oxidative processes are important in plaque formation. Oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDL) but not unoxidized LDL is engulfed by resident intimal macrophages, transforming them into foam cells which develop into fatty streaks, the precursors of the atherosclerotic plaque. Inflammation is important both in plaque formation and rupture. Animal studies have shown that antioxidants reduce plaque formation and lead to plaque stabilisation. In humans, high intakes of antioxidants are associated with lower incidence of CAD, despite high serum cholesterol levels. This observation suggests a role for inflammation in CAD and that reducing inflammation using antioxidants may ameliorate these processes. Men and women with high intakes of vitamin E were found to have less CAD. Vitamin E supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events in the incidence of recurrent myocardial infarction. In the hierarchy of evidence in evidence-based medicine, data from large placebo-controlled clinical trials is considered necessary. Results from various mega-trials have not shown benefits (nor adverse effects) conferred by vitamin E supplementation, suggesting that vitamin E has no role in the treatment of CAD. These results do not seem to confirm, at the clinical level, the effect of antioxidants against active inflammation during plaque rupture. However, a closer examination of these studies showed a number of limitations, rendering them inconclusive in addressing the role of vitamin E in CAD prevention and treatment. Further studies that specifically address the issue of vitamin E in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and in the treatment of CAD need be performed. These studies should use the more potent antioxidant property of alpha-tocotrienol vitamin E.
  4. Yusof RM, Haque F, Ismail M, Hassan Z
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2000 Jun;9(2):130-5.
    PMID: 24394399
    Probiotic organism Bifidobacteria was isolated from the faeces of breast-fed infants at Universiti Putra Malaysia. Trypticase phytone peptone yeast extract agar (TPY) was used as a selective media for the isolation. Morphological examination of the isolates indicated that Bifidobacteria was Gram-positive rods in nature, curved with characteristics of V and Y shapes. The organisms were non-catalase producing, non-nitrate reducing, non-motile, had an absence of indole and were unable to liquify gelatin. The ratios of acetic and lactic acids were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using carbohydrate fermentation profile test API-CH-50 kits, 20 Bifidobacteria strains had been identified: they were the species of Bifidobacteria infantis and two different sub-species, mainly infantis and lacentis. Based on a wide zone of inhibition, three suitable strains of B. infantis, Bifi-11, Bifi-19 and Bifi-20, were tested in weaning foods for antimicrobial activity towards two human pathogens: E. coli-0157 (World Health Organization) and Salmonella typhimurium S-285. The pH, titratable acidity of weaning foods and total colony count for Bifidobacteria, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and S. typhimurium were recorded at 3-h intervals for 30 h. It was found that after 9 h of incubation of weaning foods, the pH declined to < 3.6 from pH 6.0, whereas titratable acidity increased from 0.026 to 0.08%. It was indicated that Bifidobacteria inhibited E. coli better than did S typhimurium due to low pH. After 24 h of incubation, approximately 98% of E. coli was inhibited by Bifidobacteria. It is suggested that the inhibitory effect of Bifidobacteria strains in weaning foods towards the growth of enteropathogenic E. coli and S. typhimurium was solely due to low pH and the production of volatile acid components by the organism.
  5. Yusof HM, Ching TS, Ibrahim R, Lola S
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2007;16(1):49-55.
    PMID: 17215180
    A nutritional status survey of Orang Asli (Aboriginal) adults in Lembah Belum, Grik, has been conducted involving a total of 138 subjects. Jahai (58.7%) was the main ethnic group as compared to that of Temiar (41.3%). Based on the Body Mass Index (BMI) characteristics, the majority (63.2%) of the respondents were normal, 26.7% underweight and 10.1% were either overweight or obese. However, by using two different indices of waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, 1.6% and 10.8% of the total respondents revealed abdominal obesity, respectively. Measurement of mid upper arm muscle circumference (MUAMC) indicated that about 40% showed nutritional insufficiency whereas 0.8% showed over-nutrition. Body fat classification revealed that 53.4% of the respondents were thin, 45.8% at normal level and only 0.8% were obese. Student's t-test revealed a significant difference in anthropometric indices of body weight, height, MUAMC, triceps, sub-scapular, supra-iliac and body fat according to gender. Meanwhile, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences in body weight, waist circumference, WHR and body fat according to different age categories. It was also found that those who smoked had lower BMI compared with non-smokers. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher BMI and WHR among the respondents. Pearson's correlation test between anthropometric measurements and socio-economic and demographic factors showed that ethnic group was the strongest variable.
  6. Yeo WZ, Lim SP, Say YH
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2017 12 10;27(1):99-106.
    PMID: 29222886 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.032017.14
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The counts of cariogenic bacteria lactobacilli and mutans streptococci have been studied and correlated with sugar intake. This study was to investigate the association between salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts with sweet food eating behavior and sweet sensitivity among 120 Malaysian women (101 ethnic Chinese, 19 ethnic Indians), while taking into account anthropometric and menstruation variables.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Demographics, anthropometric measurements and menstrual history were taken. Hedonic preference, intake frequency of a list of sweet foods, intensity perception and pleasantness ratings of sweet stimuli were assessed. Saliva was collected for lactobacilli and mutans streptococci culture.

    RESULTS: We found that centrally obese subjects (high waist circumference and waist-hip ratio) had significantly higher salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts (all p<0.05), while overweight and high total body fat subjects had significantly higher salivary mutans streptococci counts (p<0.001). The sweetness intensity perception of chocolate malt drinks was significantly lower in women who were in their pre-menstrual (post-ovulation) phase. However, menstruation variables (menstrual phases, regularity and pre-menstrual syndromes) did not play a role in determining compulsive eating, sweets/chocolate craving and salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts.

    CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts of the Malaysian women are associated with central obesity, but not sweet food eating behaviour, sweet sensitivity and menstruation variables. Salivary microbiome analysis could be useful as a potential diagnostic indicator of diseases such as obesity.

  7. Yen WC, Shariff ZM, Adznam SN, Sulaiman N, Siew CY
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2018 7 27;27(4):886-892.
    PMID: 30045435 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.072017.02
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Information on the growth status of indigenous children is useful for developing intervention strategies, but the data are limited. This study determined the prevalence of undernutrition among under-five indigenous children (Orang Asli) and tracked the growth status of Orang Asli children aged 0-3 years.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This study had two phases: a cross-sectional growth study of under-five Orang Asli children (N=304; Phase 1) and a 2-year prospective cohort growth study of Orang Asli children aged 0-3 years (N=214; Phase 2) in the Temerloh district of Pahang, Malaysia. Weight-for-age, length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and body mass index-for-age were determined.

    RESULTS: The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, wasting, and thinness in under-five Orang Asli children (Phase 1) were 64%, 49%, 14%, and 12%, respectively. In the cohort of 214 children (Phase 2), weight-for-age was initially documented and maintained closely at -1.50 standard deviations (SD) in the first 6 months, but it declined to approximately -2.00 SD at 15 months and remained close to -2.00 SD thereafter. Length/height-for-age declined rapidly to approximately -2.50 SD at 18 months and fluctuated between -2.30 and -2.50 SD thereafter. Weight-for-length/height increased sharply to -0.40 SD at 2-3 months, declined gradually to less than -1.00 SD at 12 months, and plateaued between -1.00 and -1.30 SD thereafter.

    CONCLUSIONS: Undernutrition is prevalent among Orang Asli children, with length rather than weight faltering being more pronounced in the first 2 years of life. Identifying the causes of early growth retardation in this population is required to inform future preventive strategies.

  8. Yap RW, Shidoji Y, Hon WM, Masaki M
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2012;21(2):302-11.
    PMID: 22507619
    Dietary pattern and genetic predisposition of each population have different impacts on lifestyle-related chronic diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the association and interaction between dietary patterns and VEGFR2 or KDR gene polymorphisms on physical and biochemical risk factors of cardiovascular disease in two Asian populations (179 Chinese Malaysian and 136 Japanese adults).
  9. Yahya NFS, Teng NIMF, Das S, Juliana N
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2021 Dec;30(4):662-674.
    PMID: 34967195 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.202112_30(4).0013
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Globally, there is a high prevalence of postpartum depression (17.7%) reported in a recent study among mothers during the postpartum period. It contributes to poor health and well-being among newly delivered women. We reviewed the published effect of nutrition and physical activity interventions on improving and treating postpartum depression.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The scoping review was performed using Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework. The systematic search was conducted using Scopus, Pubmed, EBSCOHost and Google Scholar in April 2020, updated in March 2021. Only literature published between January 2010 until February 2021 was searched.

    RESULTS: A total of 25 articles were included, of which 23 were randomised controlled trials , and 2 were quasi-experimental studies. Some of studies found improvements in depression (76% out of all studies). On this basis, nutrition or physical activity intervention probably improves postpartum depression. Moreover, the integration of nutrition and physical activity appears to improve depression in the more thorough follow-up of participants . Active involvement of the participant in the interventions was contributory to effectiveness.

    CONCLUSIONS: Nutrition and physical activity interventions with appropriate strategy and delivery are promising options for the management of postpartum maternal mental health. More definitive investigation of non-pharmacological interventions to ameliorate depression among postpartum women is warranted.

  10. Widodo Y, Sandjaja S, Sumedi E, Khouw I, Deurenberg P
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2016;25(2):356-67.
    PMID: 27222420 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.09
    To study the associations between nutrient intake, dairy intake and socioeconomic variables.
  11. Wan Nazaimoona WM, Osman A, Ng ML, Tan TT, Wu LL, Sakinah O, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 1992 Dec;1(4):207-10.
    PMID: 24323236
    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)and fasting growth hormone levels were measured in a group of 255 children (163 males and 92 females. age ranged 6-17 years) of varying pubertal development and body mass index (BMI); well-nourished (BMI> 18). mildly-malnourished (BMI = 15-18) and moderately-malnourished (BMI<15). In well-nourished children IGF-I levels increased significantly (P = 0.02) with pubertal development. where girls at Tanner 5 had significantly higher (p = 0.03) IGF-I levels than the boys. Whilst there was no change in fasting GH levels with nutritional status, IGF-I levels of prepubertal boys and girls decreased significantly with BMI (P<0.001 and P = 0.01 respectively). Hence. measurement of IGF-I levels is a sensitive biochemical index in the assessment of mild and moderate form of malnutrition in prepubertal children.
  12. Wan Nazaimoon WM, Musa KI, Md Khir AS, Ismail AA, Ismail IS, Khalid BAK, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2011;20(1):35-41.
    PMID: 21393108
    A total of 4428 adults (>18 years old) from 5 different selected regions in Peninsular and East Malaysia participated in this health survey. Using World Health Organization recommendations for body mass index (BMI), the prevalence of overweight and obesity were found to be 33.6% (95% CI= 32.2, 35.0) and 19.5% (95% CI= 18.3, 20.7) respectively. There were more females who were obese (22.5%, 95% CI=20.9, 24.0) compared to males (14.1%, 95% CI=12.3, 15.9). Highest prevalence of obesity were among the Indians (24.6%, 95% CI=20.3, 29.3), followed closely by the Malays (23.2%, 95% CI=21.6, 24.8%) and lowest prevalence was among the Chinese subjects (8.2%, 95% CI=6.2, 10.6). More than 43% of the 531 younger subjects (<30 years old) were either overweight (20%, 95% CI=16.6, 23.6) or obese (13.9%, 95% CI=11.1, 17.2%). All subjects who claimed to be non-diabetes were required to undergo 75 g glucose tolerance test. Compared to subjects with normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), there was a 3- and 2-folds increase in the prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance respectively, among obese subjects (BMI>30 kg/m2) who initially claimed to have no diabetes. This study highlights a need for more active, inter-sectoral participation advocating a health-promoting environment in order to combat obesity in this country.
  13. Wai TN, Lin KG, Siong TE, Hashim N
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2000 Jun;9(2):115-21.
    PMID: 24394397
    The present study is unique in the Malaysian context on two counts; first, it employs for the first time a functional group approach (groups based on occupational or economic activity) in the assessment of community nutritional status. Second, the study provides on a nationwide-sampling basis, information on total blood cholesterol (TC) levels in rural children (7.0-12.9 years; n = 1921) and adolescents (13.0-17.9 years; n = 753) which were hitherto unavailable. Total blood cholesterol measurements were performed on 7184 subjects ranging from 7 to 75-years-old (males = 3151; females = 4033) from households in 69 rural villages and seven estates in peninsular Malaysia, which were based on selected multistage random sampling according to the household's involvement in the following economic activities: rice farming, rubber smallholding, coconut smallholding, fishing and employment in estates. In all functional groups, TC values increased with age and there was a distinct gender effect, namely females had higher TC values than males throughout the age spectrum analyzed. Mean TC levels for children and adolescents were in the range 3.85-4.37 mmol/L, rising markedly during adulthood to an overall mean of 4.91 ± 1.13 mmol/L for men and 5.17 ± 1.11 mmol/L for women. In adults (>= 18.0 years), there was marked disparity in mean TC values among the functional groups; males and females from rice households had the lowest mean TC values (4.58 and 4.99 mmol/L, respectively). Individuals at 'high risk' (TC > 6.20 mmol/L) averaged 16.0% in women and 11.6% in men, with women from the fishing, rubber and coconut households particularly affected (17.1-21.1%). When compared to earlier rural TC data reported for closely similar rural communities in the peninsula, the present findings suggest a 'hypercholesterolemic shift' approximating 0.39 mmol/L (15 mg/dL) in the adult population; however, this was not apparent in the children and adolescents from these rural communities.
  14. Visvanathan R, Ahmad Z
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2006;15(3):400-5.
    PMID: 16837433
    A low body mass index in older people has been associated with increased mortality. The main objective of this study was to identify factors associated with low body mass indices [ BMIs] (< 18.5 kg/m2) in older residents of shelter care facilities in Peninsular Malaysia. 1081 elderly people (59% M) over the age of 60 years were surveyed using questionnaires determining baseline demographics, nutritional and cognitive status, physical function and psychological well being. Body mass index was also determined. Subjects were recruited from publicly funded shelter homes in Peninsular Malaysia. 14.3% of residents had BMIs < 18.5 kg/m2. Multivariate analyses (adjusted for age and sex) revealed that having no family (RR 1.98[95%CI 1.40-2.82], p<0.001) and negative responses to statement 3 [I eat few fruits or vegetables or milk products] (RR 0.62 [95% CI 0.42-0.90]; P= 0.013) and statement 5 [I have tooth or mouth problems that make it hard for me to eat] (RR 0.69 [95%CI 0.50-0.96]; P= 0.023) of the ' Determine Your Nutritional Health Checklist' were independently associated with low BMIs (<18.5 kg/m2). Older people with no family support were at risk of becoming underweight. Older people who consumed fruits, vegetables or milk or had good oral health were less likely to be underweight. Nutrient intake, oral health and social support were important in ensuring healthy body weight in older Malaysians.
  15. Venugopal Y, Hatta SFWM, Musa N, Rahman SA, Ratnasingam J, Paramasivam SS, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2017 May;26(3):412-420.
    PMID: 28429905 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.042016.10
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) dose required to maintain sufficiency in non- Caucasian women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) inthe tropics has not been well studied. Some guidelines mandate 800-1000 IU vitamin D/day but the Endocrine Society (US) advocates 1500-2000 IU/day to maintain 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) concentration at >75 nmol/L. We aimed to establish oral cholecalciferol dose required to maintain 25(OH)D concentration at >75 nmol/L in PMO Chinese Malaysian women, postulating lower dose requirements amongst light-skinned subjects in the tropics.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: 90 Chinese Malaysian PMO women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2°30'N) with baseline serum 25(OH)D levels >=50 nmol/L were recruited. Prior vitamin D supplements were discontinued and subjects randomized to oral cholecalciferol 25,000 IU/4-weekly (Group-A) or 50,000 IU/4-weekly (Group- B) for 16 weeks, administered under direct observation. Serum 25(OH)D, PTH, serum/urinary calcium were measured at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks.

    RESULTS: Baseline characteristics, including osteoporosis severity, sun exposure (~3 hours/week), and serum 25(OH)D did not differ between treatment arms. After 16 weeks, 91% of women sufficient at baseline, remained sufficient on 25,000 IU/4-weekly compared with 97% on 50,000 IU/4-weekly with mean serum 25(OH)D 108.1±20.4 and 114.7±18.4 SD nmol/L respectively (p=0.273). At trial's end, 39% and 80% of insufficient women at baseline attained sufficiency in Group A and Group B (p=0.057). Neither dose was associated with hyperparathyroidism or toxicity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite pretrial vitamin D supplementation and adequate sun exposure, 25.6% Chinese Malaysian PMO women were vitamin D insufficient indicating sunshine alone cannot ensure sufficiency in the tropics. Both ~900 IU/day and ~1800 IU/day cholecalciferol can safely maintain vitamin D sufficiency in >90% of Chinese Malaysian PMO women. Higher doses are required with baseline concentration <75 nmol/L.
  16. Vanoh D, Shahar S, Mahmood NR
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2015;24(4):610-9.
    PMID: 26693745 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2015.24.4.11
    This was a cross-sectional study that investigated the relationship between nutrient intake and psychosocial factors with the overall rate of weight loss after bariatric surgery among patients who had undergone sleeve gastrectomy in University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). Forty-three subjects (15 men and 28 women) were recruited for this study. Subjects completed assessment questionnaires including the Binge Eating Scale (BES), Beck Depression Inventory (BECK), Family Support Questionnaires, and the Index of Peer Relation (IPR). Results showed that the median overall rate of weight loss was 4.3±5.5 kg/month, which was lower when compared to the rate of weight loss at three months which was 5.0±5.6 kg/month. Pre-operative weight was the predictor of overall rate of weight loss (p<0.05, R²=0.52). Binge eating disorder (BED) and depression were also closely associated with each other after bariatric surgery (p<0.001, R²=0.46). Subjects with good compliance to dietary advice had lower scores on the binge eating scale. The mean caloric and protein intake was very low, only 562±310 kcal/day and 29.6±16.1 g/day. The intake of vitamin A, B-1, B-2, B-3, B-12, C, folate, and iron met the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). However, the RNI for calcium, zinc, selenium, vitamin D, and vitamin E was not met. In conclusion, although bariatric surgery had many health benefits, several factors hindered weight loss after bariatric surgery. Health care professionals should closely monitor patients after bariatric surgery.
  17. Teo BW, Toh QC, Chan XW, Xu H, Li JL, Lee EJ
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2014;23(4):619-25.
    PMID: 25516320 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.01
    Clinical practice guidelines recommend objective nutritional assessments in managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients but were developed while referencing to a North-American population. Specific recommendations for assessing muscle mass were suggested (mid-arm circumference, MAC; corrected mid-arm muscle area, cAMA; mid-arm muscle circumference, MAMC). This study aimed to assess correlation and association of these assessments with dietary protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population of healthy and CKD patients.
  18. Tee ES
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2011;20(3):455-61.
    PMID: 21859667
    Development and promotion of dietary guidelines is one of the key activities outlined in the National Plan of Action for Nutrition of Malaysia for the prevention of nutrition-related disorders. The first official Malaysian Dietary Guidelines (MDG) was published in 1999 and was thoroughly reviewed and launched on 25 March 2010. The new MDG 2010 is a compilation of science-based nutrition and physical activity recommendations. These guidelines form the basis of consistent and scientifically sound nutrition messages for the public. There are 14 key messages and 55 recommendations, covering the whole range of food and nutrition issues, from importance of consuming a variety of foods to guidance on specific food groups, messages to encourage physical activities, consuming safe food and beverages and making effective use of nutrition information on food labels. The MDG also has an updated food pyramid. Various efforts have been made to ensure that the revised MDG is disseminated to all stakeholders. The Ministry of Health has organised a series of workshops for nutritionists and other health care professionals, and the food industry. In collaboration with other professional bodies and the private sector, the Nutrition Society of Malaysia has been promoting the dissemination and usage of the MDG to the public through a variety of formats and channels. These include the publication of a series of leaflets, educational press articles, educational booklets, as well as through educational activities for children. It is imperative to monitor the usage and evaluation of these dietary messages.
  19. Tee ES, Tamin S, Ilyas R, Ramos A, Tan WL, Lai DK, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2002;11(2):S80-6.
    PMID: 12074192
    This review includes the situation of nutrition labelling and claims in six countries in South-East Asia: Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. With the exception of Malaysia, there is no mandatory nutrition labelling requirements for foods in these countries except for special categories of foods and when nutritional claims are made for fortified or enriched foods. Nevertheless, several food manufacturers, especially multinationals, do voluntarily label the nutritional content of a number of food products. There is, therefore, increasing interest among authorities in countries in the region to start formulating regulations for nutrition labelling for a wider variety of foods. Malaysia has proposed new regulations to make it mandatory to label a number of foodstuffs with the four core nutrients, protein, carbohydrate, fat and energy. Other countries have preferred to start with voluntary labelling by the manufacturers, but have spelt out the requirements for this voluntary labelling. The format and requirements for nutrition labelling differ widely for countries in the region. Some countries, such as Malaysia, closely follow the Codex guidelines on nutrition labelling in terms of format, components to be included and mode of expression. Other countries, such as the Philippines and Thailand, have drafted nutrition labelling regulations very similar to those of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) of the United States. Nutrition and health claims are also not specifically permitted under food regulations that were enacted before 1998. However, various food products on the market have been carrying a variety of nutrition and health claims. There is concern that without proper regulations, the food industry may not be certain as to what claims can be made. Excessive and misleading claims made by irresponsible manufacturers would only serve to confuse and mislead the consumer. In recent years, there has been efforts in countries in the region to enact regulations on nutrition claims. Recently enacted regulations or amendments to existing regulations of almost all the countries reviewed have included provisions for nutrition claims. Malaysia is in the process of gazetting regulations to clearly stipulate the permitted nutrition claims and the conditions required to make these claims along the guidelines of Codex Alimentarius Commission. Only two countries in the region permit health claims to be made - Indonesia and Philippines. Other countries in the region are following developments in Codex and examining the need for allowing these claims. There are more differences than similarities in the regulations on nutrition labelling and claims among countries in the South-East Asian region as no previous efforts have been made to address these. Hopefully, through this first regional meeting, countries can initiate closer interaction, with a view to working towards greater harmonization of nutrition labelling and health claims in the region.
  20. Tee ES, Nurliyana AR, Norimah AK, Mohamed HJBJ, Tan SY, Appukutty M, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2018 2 1;27(2):421-432.
    PMID: 29384332 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.062017.12
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the relationship between breakfast consumption and body weight status among primary and secondary school children in Malaysia.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This nationwide cross-sectional study involved 5,332 primary school children aged 6 to 12 years and 3,000 secondary school children aged 13 to 17 years. Height and weight were measured and BMI-for-age was determined. Socio-demographic backgrounds, breakfast habits and physical activity levels were assessed using questionnaires. Breakfast frequency was defined as follows: breakfast skippers (ate breakfast 0-2 days/week), irregular breakfast eaters (ate breakfast 3-4 days/week) and regular breakfast eaters (ate breakfast ≥5 days/week).

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of breakfast skippers and irregular breakfast eaters was 11.7% and 12.7% respectively. Breakfast skipping was related to age, sex, ethnicity, income and physical activity level. Among primary school boys and secondary school girls, the proportion of overweight/obesity was higher among breakfast skippers (boys: 43.9%, girls: 30.5%) than regular breakfast eaters (boys: 31.2%, girls: 22.7%). Among primary school children, only boys who skipped breakfast had a higher mean BMI-for-age z-score than regular breakfast eaters. Among secondary school boys and girls, BMI-for-age z-score was higher among breakfast skippers than regular breakfast eaters. Compared to regular breakfast eaters, primary school boys who skipped breakfast were 1.71 times (95% CI=1.26-2.32, p=0.001) more likely to be overweight/obese, while the risk was lower in primary school girls (OR=1.36, 95% CI=1.02-1.81, p=0.039) and secondary school girls (OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.01-1.90, p=0.044).

    CONCLUSION: Regular breakfast consumption was associated with a healthier body weight status and is a dietary behaviour which should be encouraged.

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