METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Demographics, anthropometric measurements and menstrual history were taken. Hedonic preference, intake frequency of a list of sweet foods, intensity perception and pleasantness ratings of sweet stimuli were assessed. Saliva was collected for lactobacilli and mutans streptococci culture.
RESULTS: We found that centrally obese subjects (high waist circumference and waist-hip ratio) had significantly higher salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts (all p<0.05), while overweight and high total body fat subjects had significantly higher salivary mutans streptococci counts (p<0.001). The sweetness intensity perception of chocolate malt drinks was significantly lower in women who were in their pre-menstrual (post-ovulation) phase. However, menstruation variables (menstrual phases, regularity and pre-menstrual syndromes) did not play a role in determining compulsive eating, sweets/chocolate craving and salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts of the Malaysian women are associated with central obesity, but not sweet food eating behaviour, sweet sensitivity and menstruation variables. Salivary microbiome analysis could be useful as a potential diagnostic indicator of diseases such as obesity.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This study had two phases: a cross-sectional growth study of under-five Orang Asli children (N=304; Phase 1) and a 2-year prospective cohort growth study of Orang Asli children aged 0-3 years (N=214; Phase 2) in the Temerloh district of Pahang, Malaysia. Weight-for-age, length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and body mass index-for-age were determined.
RESULTS: The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, wasting, and thinness in under-five Orang Asli children (Phase 1) were 64%, 49%, 14%, and 12%, respectively. In the cohort of 214 children (Phase 2), weight-for-age was initially documented and maintained closely at -1.50 standard deviations (SD) in the first 6 months, but it declined to approximately -2.00 SD at 15 months and remained close to -2.00 SD thereafter. Length/height-for-age declined rapidly to approximately -2.50 SD at 18 months and fluctuated between -2.30 and -2.50 SD thereafter. Weight-for-length/height increased sharply to -0.40 SD at 2-3 months, declined gradually to less than -1.00 SD at 12 months, and plateaued between -1.00 and -1.30 SD thereafter.
CONCLUSIONS: Undernutrition is prevalent among Orang Asli children, with length rather than weight faltering being more pronounced in the first 2 years of life. Identifying the causes of early growth retardation in this population is required to inform future preventive strategies.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The scoping review was performed using Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework. The systematic search was conducted using Scopus, Pubmed, EBSCOHost and Google Scholar in April 2020, updated in March 2021. Only literature published between January 2010 until February 2021 was searched.
RESULTS: A total of 25 articles were included, of which 23 were randomised controlled trials , and 2 were quasi-experimental studies. Some of studies found improvements in depression (76% out of all studies). On this basis, nutrition or physical activity intervention probably improves postpartum depression. Moreover, the integration of nutrition and physical activity appears to improve depression in the more thorough follow-up of participants . Active involvement of the participant in the interventions was contributory to effectiveness.
CONCLUSIONS: Nutrition and physical activity interventions with appropriate strategy and delivery are promising options for the management of postpartum maternal mental health. More definitive investigation of non-pharmacological interventions to ameliorate depression among postpartum women is warranted.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This nationwide cross-sectional study involved 5,332 primary school children aged 6 to 12 years and 3,000 secondary school children aged 13 to 17 years. Height and weight were measured and BMI-for-age was determined. Socio-demographic backgrounds, breakfast habits and physical activity levels were assessed using questionnaires. Breakfast frequency was defined as follows: breakfast skippers (ate breakfast 0-2 days/week), irregular breakfast eaters (ate breakfast 3-4 days/week) and regular breakfast eaters (ate breakfast ≥5 days/week).
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of breakfast skippers and irregular breakfast eaters was 11.7% and 12.7% respectively. Breakfast skipping was related to age, sex, ethnicity, income and physical activity level. Among primary school boys and secondary school girls, the proportion of overweight/obesity was higher among breakfast skippers (boys: 43.9%, girls: 30.5%) than regular breakfast eaters (boys: 31.2%, girls: 22.7%). Among primary school children, only boys who skipped breakfast had a higher mean BMI-for-age z-score than regular breakfast eaters. Among secondary school boys and girls, BMI-for-age z-score was higher among breakfast skippers than regular breakfast eaters. Compared to regular breakfast eaters, primary school boys who skipped breakfast were 1.71 times (95% CI=1.26-2.32, p=0.001) more likely to be overweight/obese, while the risk was lower in primary school girls (OR=1.36, 95% CI=1.02-1.81, p=0.039) and secondary school girls (OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.01-1.90, p=0.044).
CONCLUSION: Regular breakfast consumption was associated with a healthier body weight status and is a dietary behaviour which should be encouraged.