Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 512 in total

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  1. Tan GH, Azrif M, Shamsul AS, Ho CC, Praveen S, Goh EH, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(10):2727-30.
    PMID: 22320982
    INTRODUCTION: Testicular cancer mainly affects young men worldwide. There is lack of published data on patients with this malignant condition from the Southeast Asian region. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the clinicopathologic features of testicular cancer patients treated in a Southeast Asian university hospital and their overall survival rate.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of testicular cancer patients treated between January 2001 and February 2011. Their epidemiological data, clinical presentation, pathologic diagnosis, stage of disease and treatment were gathered and the overall survival rate of this cohort was analyzed.

    RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were included in this study. The majority of them were of Malay ethnicity. The average age at presentation was 33.7 years. The commonest testicular cancer was non-seminomatous germ cell tumour, followed by seminoma, lymphoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. More than half of all testicular germ cell tumour (GCT) patients had some form of metastasis at diagnosis. All the patients were treated with radical orchidectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to those with metastatic disease. Four seminoma patients received radiotherapy to the para-aortic lymph nodes. The 5-year survival rate for all testicular cancers in this cohort was 83.9%. The survival rate was 88.9% in 5 years when GCT were analyzed separately.

    CONCLUSION: GCT affects patients in their third and fourth decades of life while lymphoma patients are generally older. Most of the patients treated for GCT are of Malay ethnicity. The majority have late presentation for treatment. The survival rate of GCT patients treated here is comparable to other published series in other parts of the world.

  2. Chee Chean D, Kuo Zang W, Lim M, Zulkefle N
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016 12 01;17(12):5121-5126.
    PMID: 28122444
    Objective: To investigate the impact of chemotherapy on quality of life (QoL) among breast cancer patients and to evaluate the relationship with age, cancer stage and presence of any comorbidity. Methods: A prospective study was conducted among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in Hospital Melaka from 1st January 2014 to 31st July 2014. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) was given to patients to fill in prior chemotherapy (baseline) and after the third cycle of chemotherapy. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Result: Respondents were 32 female patients [mean age (SD): 49.7(9.93) years]. They reported a significant lower global health status (P < 0.01) and significant higher symptoms of nausea and vomiting (P < 0.01), loss of appetite (P = 0.028) and diarrhea (P = 0.026) after the third cycle of chemotherapy as compared to baseline. Compare to, this study showed significant better emotional functioning (P < 0.01) and social functioning (P < 0.01) than the EORTC QLQ-C30 Reference Values 2008 for breast cancer cases. Under symptom scales higher scores were noted for appetite loss (P = 0.017), nausea and vomiting (P < 0.01). Age, stage and comorbidity had no clear associations with global health status in our patients (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Chemotherapy did reduce the QoL of breast cancer patients. Management of chemotherapy-induced loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting should be improved for a better outcome.
  3. Mat Zin AA, Zulkarnain S
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 Feb 26;20(2):321-325.
    PMID: 30803189
    Glioma is the commonest primary intracranial tumour and it has been the most predominant tumour in many studies.
    It accounts for 24.7% of all primary brain tumour and 74.6% of malignant brain tumour. Intraoperative diagnosis
    plays a crucial role in determining the patient management. Frozen section has been the established technique in
    providing rapid and accurate intraoperative diagnosis. However due to some disadvantages like ice crystal artefact,
    high expenditure and requirement of skilled technician, there is increase usage of cytology smear either replacing or
    supplementing frozen section technique. The aim of this review is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of cytology
    smear and frozen section in glioma and to see whether there is significant difference between those techniques. The
    overall diagnostic accuracy for frozen section in glioma ranging from 78.4% to 95% while for cytology smear, the
    diagnostic accuracy ranging from 50% to 100%. Based on certain literatures, no statistically difference was observed
    in diagnostic accuracy of cytology smear and frozen section. Thus, cytology smear provides an alternative method in
    establishing intraoperative diagnosis. Both cytology smear and frozen section are complimentary to each other. It is
    recommended to use both techniques to improve the diagnostic accuracy in addition with adequate knowledge, clinical
    history, neuroimaging and intraoperative findings.
  4. Othman NH, Zin AA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2008 Oct-Dec;9(4):747-51.
    PMID: 19256771
    OBJECTIVE: Kelantan in Malaysia has a high prevalence of diabetes and colorectal cancer is also on the rise. This study is to determine the association of metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes type 2 [DM2] and hypertension, with colorectal cancer patients in our population.

    METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted on all colorectal carcinomas in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in Kelantan from ythe ears 2001-2006. The data were retrieved from the Registry in Pathology laboratory and the clinical details from the patients' clinical records and analyzed using SSPS Version 12.0, with a value of p<0.05 taken to be statistically significant.

    RESULTS: 138 CRC cases with complete clinical records were included. The age ranged from 16.0 to 88.0 years, with a mean of 56.9 -/+ SD 15.4. The male 90(65%) to female 48(35%) ratio was 1.7:1.0 and 47.8% were suffering from metabolic diseases; 18(13.0%) with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2(DM2), and 48(34.8%) with hypertension (HT). Diabetes Type 2 and hypertension also demonstrated significant association (p<0.05) with the stage and the site of the cancer. Patients with diabetes type 2 88.8%(16/18) and Hypertension 85.4% (41/48) were strongly associated with cancers located in the distal to transverse colon (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: There is a high proportion of metabolic diseases; hypertension and diabetes type 2 among colorectal carcinomas seen in Kelantan population. In this preliminary study we noted a strong association of metabolic diseases with the stage and site of the cancer. To reduce CRC incidence, the high prevalence of DM2 in Kelantan needs to be addressed.
  5. Osman HA, Hasan H, Suppian R, Bahar N, Hussin NS, Rahim AA, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(13):5245-7.
    PMID: 25040982
    BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most important causes of dyspepsia and gastric cancer and diagnosis can be made by invasive or non-invasive methods. The Atlas Helicobacter pylori antigen test is a new rapid non-invasive method which is simple to conduct. The aim of this study was to determine its sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted between July 2012 and December 2013. Stool samples of 59 dyspeptic patients who underwent upper endoscopy were evaluated for H. pylori stool antigen.

    RESULTS: From the 59 patients who participated in this study, there were 36 (61%) males and 23 (39%) females. H. pylori was diagnosed in 24 (40.7%) gastric biopsies, 22 (91.7 %) of these being positive for the Atlas H. pylori antigen test. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 91.7%, 100%, 100%, 94.6% and 96.6% respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Atlas H. pylori antigen test is a new non-invasive method which is simple to perform and avails reliable results in a few minutes. Thus it can be the best option for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection due to its high sensitivity and specificity.

  6. Wan Juhari WK, Wan Abdul Rahman WF, Mohd Sidek AS, Abu Hassan MR, Ahmad Amin Noordin KB, Zakaria AD, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(9):3767-71.
    PMID: 25987035
    BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited predisposition to colorectal, endometrial (uterine) and other cancers. Although most cancers are not inherited, about 5 percent (%) of people who have colorectal or endometrial cancer have the Lynch syndrome. It involves the alteration of mismatch repair (MMR) genes; MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. In this study, we analyzed the expression of MMR proteins in colorectal cancer in a Malay cohort by immunohistochemistry.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 17 patients were selected fulfilling one of the Bethesda criteria: colorectal cancer diagnosed in a patient aged less than 50 years old, having synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer or with a strong family history. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin embedded tumour tissue samples using four antibodies: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2.

    RESULTS: Twelve out of 17 patients (70.6%) were noted to have a family history. A total of 41% (n=7) of the patients had abnormal immunohistochemical staining with one or more of the four antibodies. Loss of expression were noted in 13 tumour tissues with a negative staining score <4. Of 13 tumour tissues, four showed loss expression of MLH1. For PMS2, loss of expression were noted in five cases. Both MSH2 and MSH6 showed loss of expression in two tumour tissues respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Revised Bethesda criteria and immunohistochemical analysis constituted a convenient approach and is recommended to be a first-line screening for Lynch syndrome in Malay cohorts.

  7. Yasin SM, Taib KM, Zaki RA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1439-43.
    PMID: 22126478
    The transtheoretical model (TTM) has been used as one of the major constructs in developing effective cognitive behavioural interventions for smoking cessation and relapse prevention, in Western societies. This study aimed to examine the reliability and construct validity of the translated Bahasa Malaysia version of TTM questionnaire among adult smokers in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The sample consisted of 40 smokers from four different worksites in Klang Valley. A 26-item TTM questionnaire was administered, and a similar set one week later. The questionnaire consisted of three measures; decisional balance, temptations and impact of smoking. Construct validity was measured by factor analysis and the reliability by Cronbach' s alpha (internal consistency) and test-retest correlation. Results revealed that Cronbach' s alpha coefficients for the items were: decisional balance (0.84; 0.74) and temptations (0.89; 0.54; 0.85). The values for test retest correlation were all above 0.4. In addition, factor analysis suggested two meaningful common factors for decisional balance and three for temptations. This is consistent with the original construct of the TTM questionnaire. Overall results demonstrated that construct validity and reliability were acceptable for all items. In conclusion, the Bahasa Malaysia version of TTM questionnaire is a reliable and valid tool in ass.
  8. Razak NA, Mn K, Zubairi YZ, Naing NN, Zaki NM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(2):825-8.
    PMID: 23621246
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the five-year survival among patients with cervical cancer treated in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia.

    METHODS: One hundred and twenty cervical cancer patients diagnosed between 1st July 1995 and 30th June 2007 were identified. Data were obtained from medical records. The survival probability was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test was applied to compare the survival distribution between groups.

    RESULTS: The overall five-year survival was 39.7% [95%CI (Confidence Interval): 30.7, 51.3] with a median survival time of 40.8 (95%CI: 34.0, 62.0) months. The log-rank test showed that there were survival differences between the groups for the following variables: stage at diagnosis (p=0.005); and primary treatment (p=0.0242). Patients who were diagnosed at the latest stage (III-IV) were found to have the lowest survival, 18.4% (95%CI: 6.75, 50.1), compared to stage I and II where the five-year survival was 54.7% (95%CI: 38.7, 77.2) and 40.8% (95%CI: 27.7, 60.3), respectively. The five-year survival was higher in patients who received surgery [52.6% (95%CI: 37.5, 73.6)] as a primary treatment compared to the non-surgical group [33.3% (95%CI: 22.9, 48.4)].

    CONCLUSION: The five-year survival of cervical cancer patients in this study was low. The survival of those diagnosed at an advanced stage was low compared to early stages. In addition, those who underwent surgery had higher survival than those who had no surgery for primary treatment.

  9. Mat Yusoff Y, Abu Seman Z, Othman N, Kamaluddin NR, Esa E, Zulkiply NA, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2018 Dec 25;19(12):3317-3320.
    PMID: 30583336
    Objective: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is caused by a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9
    and 22, t(9;22) (q34;q11) which encodes for the BCR-ABL fusion protein. Discovery of Imatinib Mesylate (IM) as
    first line therapy has brought tremendous improvement in the management of CML. However, emergence of point
    mutations within the BCR-ABL gene particularly T315I mutation, affects a common BCR-ABL kinase contact residue
    which impairs drug binding thus contribute to treatment resistance. This study aims to investigate the BCR-ABL T315I
    mutation in Malaysian patients with CML. Methods: A total of 285 patients diagnosed with CML were included in this
    study. Mutation detection was performed using qualitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Results: Fifteen out of 285 samples
    (5.26%) were positive for T315I mutations after amplification with real-time PCR assay. From the total number of
    positive samples, six patients were in accelerated phase (AP), four in chronic phase (CP) and five in blast crisis (BC).
    Conclusion: Mutation testing is recommended for choosing various tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to optimize
    outcomes for both cases of treatment failure or suboptimal response to imatinib. Therefore, detection of T315I mutation
    in CML patients are clinically useful in the selection of appropriate treatment strategies to prevent disease progression.
  10. Mat Yusoff Y, Abu Seman Z, Othman N, Kamaluddin NR, Esa E, Zulkiply NA, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 06 01;20(6):1749-1755.
    PMID: 31244296 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.6.1749
    Objective: The most frequent acquired molecular abnormalities and important prognostic indicators in patients
    with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) are fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 gene (FLT3) and nucleophosmin-1 (NPM1)
    mutations. Our study aims to develop a cost effective and comprehensive in-house conventional PCR method for
    detection of FLT3-ITD, FLT3-D835 and NPM1 mutations and to evaluate the frequency of these mutations in patients
    with cytogenetically normal (CN) AML in our population. Methods: A total of 199 samples from AML patients (95
    women, 104 men) were included in the study. Mutation analyses were performed using polymerase chain reaction
    (PCR) and gene sequencing. Result: Sixty-eight patients were positive for the mutations. FLT3-ITD mutations were
    detected in 32 patients (16.1%), followed by FLT3-D835 in 5 (2.5%) and NPM1 in 54 (27.1%). Double mutations of
    NPM1 and FLT3-ITD were detected in 23 cases (11.6%). Assays validation were performed using Sanger sequencing
    and showed 100% concordance with in house method. Conclusion: The optimized in-house PCR assays for the
    detection of FLT3-ITD, FLT3-D835 and NPM1 mutations in AML patients were robust, less labour intensive and cost
    effective. These assays can be used as diagnostic tools for mutation detection in AML patients since identification of
    these mutations are important for prognostication and optimization of patient care.
  11. Mehde AA, Yusof F, Adel Mehdi W, Zainulabdeen JA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(12):5059-62.
    PMID: 26163641
    BACKGROUND: ALL is an irredeemable disease due to the resistance to treatment. There are several influences which are involved in such resistance to chemotherapy, including oxidative stress as a result of the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and presence of hypodiploid cells. Cluster of differentiation 26 (CD26), also known as dipeptidyl peptidase-4, is a 110 kDa, multifunctional, membrane-bound glycoprotein.

    AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of serum CD26 in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients in the post remission induction phase, as well as the relationship between CD26 activity and the oxidative stress status.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: CD26, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI), in addition to activity of related enzymes myeloperoxidase, glutathione- s-transferase and xanthine oxidase, were analysed in sixty children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the post remission induction phase.

    RESULTS: The study showed significant elevation in CD26, TOS and OSI levels in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the post remission induction phase in comparison to healthy control samples. In contrast, myeloperoxidase, glutathione-s-transferase and xanthine oxidase activities were decreased significantly. A significant correlation between CD26 concentration and some oxidative stress parameters was evident in ALL patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: Serum levels of CD26 appear to be useful as a new biomarker of oxidative stress in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the post remission induction phase, and levels of antioxidants must be regularly estimated during the treatment of children with ALL.

  12. Hee TG, Shah SA, Ann HS, Hemdan SN, Shen LC, Al-Fahmi Abdul Galib N, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(11):6327-30.
    PMID: 24377526
    Haematuria is a common presentation of bladder cancer and requires a full urologic evaluation. This study aimed to develop a scoring system capable of stratifying patients with haematuria into high or low risk groups for having bladder cancer to help clinicians decide which patients need more urgent assessment. This cross- sectional study included all adult patients referred for haematuria and subsequently undergoing full urological evaluation in the years 2001 to 2011. Risk factors with strong association with bladder cancer in the study population were used to design the scoring system. Accuracy was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 325 patients with haematuria were included, out of which 70 (21.5%) were diagnosed to have bladder cancer. Significant risk factors associated with bladder cancer were male gender, a history of cigarette smoking and the presence of gross haematuria. A scoring system using 4 clinical parameters as variables was created. The scores ranged between 6 to 14, and a score of 10 and above indicated high risk for having bladder cancer. It was found to have good accuracy with an area under the ROC curve of 80.4%, while the sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 55.7%, respectively. The scoring system designed in this study has the potential to help clinicians stratify patients who present with haematuria into high or low risk for having bladder cancer. This will enable high-risk patients to undergo urologic assessment earlier.
  13. Shahar S, Shafurah S, Hasan Shaari NS, Rajikan R, Rajab NF, Golkhalkhali B, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(3):605-11.
    PMID: 21627352
    BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of information on risk factors of prostate cancer, especially those related to dietary and lifestyle among Asian populations.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the relationship between dietary intake (macronutrients, fruits, vegetables and lycopene), lifetime physical activity and oxidative DNA damage with prostate cancer.

    DESIGN: A case control study was carried out among 105 subjects (case n=35, control n=70), matched for age and ethnicity. Data on sociodemographic, medical, dietary intake, consumption of lycopene rich food and lifetime physical activity were obtained through an interview based questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height and waist hip circumferences were also carried out on subjects. A total of 3 mL fasting venous blood was drawn to assess lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay.

    RESULTS: Cases had a significantly higher intake of fat (27.7 ± 5.5%) as compared to controls (25.1 ± 5.9%) (p < 0.05). Mean intakes of fruits and vegetables (3.11 ± 1.01 servings/d)(p < 0.05), fruits (1.23 ± 0.59 servings/d) (p<0.05) and vegetables (1.97 ± 0.94 servings/d) were higher in controls than cases (2.53 ± 1.01, 0.91 ∓ 0.69, 1.62 ± 0.82 servings/d). A total of 71% of cases did not met the recommendation of a minimum of three servings of fruits and vegetables daily, as compared to 34% of controls (p < 0.05) (adjusted OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.3-17.8)) (p < 0.05). Estimated lycopene intake among cases (2,339 ∓ 1,312 mcg/d) were lower than controls (3881 ∓ 3120 mcg/d) (p< 0.01). Estimated lycopene intake of less than 2,498 mcg/day (50th percentile) increased risk of prostate cancer by double [Adjusted OR 2.5 (95%CI 0.99-6.31)]. Intake of tomatoes, watermelon, guava, pomelo, papaya, mango, oranges, dragon fruit, carrot, tomato sauce and barbeque sauce were higher in controls compared to cases. Intake of tomato sauce of more than 2.24 g/d (25th percentile), papaya more than 22.7 g/d (50th percentile) and oranges more than 19.1g/h (50th percentile) reduced prostate cancer risk by 7.4 (Adjusted OR 7.4 (95% CI 1.17-46.8)), 2.7 (adjusted OR 2.75 (95% CI 1.03-7.39)) and 2.6 times (adjusted OR = 2.6 (95% CI=1.01-6.67)), respectively (p < 0.05 for all parameters). No oxidative damage was observed among subjects. Past history of not engaging with any physical activities at the age of 45 to 54 years old increased risk of prostate cancer by approximately three folds (Adjusted OR 2.9(95% CI = 0.8-10.8)) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low fat diet, high intake of fruits, vegetables and lycopene rich foods and being physical active at middle age were found to be protective. Thus, it is essential for Malaysian men to consume adequate fruits and vegetables, reduce fat intake and engage in physical activity in order to reduce prostate cancer risk.

  14. Kong CH, Singam P, Hong GE, Cheok LB, Azrif M, Tamil AM, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(1):149-52.
    PMID: 20593947
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinicopathological features of bladder tumours encountered over a five year period in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre.

    METHODS: Medical records of bladder tumour cases from 2005 till 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and tabulated.

    RESULTS: A total of 83 cases were recorded. The incidence was highest among the Chinese (56.6%), followed by Malays (34.9%), Indians (6%) and other races (2.4%). The male-to-female ratio was 9.4:1. The median age was 65 years (range 30-91 years) and median duration of follow up was 17.2 months (range 2-60 months). The main histopathology was transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) (90.4%), followed by adenocarcinoma (6%), squamous cell carcinoma (1.2%), leiomyoma (1.2%) and myeloid sarcoma (1.2%). For the TCCs, 58.6% were superficial while 41.4% were muscle invasive, and 13.3% had nodal metastasis with distant metastasis in 8%. Of the total, 5.3% were papillary urothelial tumours of low malignant potential, 33.3% pTa, 20% pT1, 10.7% pT2, 12.0% pT3 and 18.7% pT4. Of the superficial tumours, 32.5% were high grade tumours. There were ten radical cystectomies performed for transitional cell carcinomas; two had neobladder reconstruction whereas the other eight had ileal conduits. All the adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas were treated by radiotherapy due to the advanced stage of the disease while the myeloid sarcoma received chemotherapy. Mean survival of patients with muscle invasive cancer was 33+/-5 months. By the end of the study, 18.1% of patients had died of their cancer.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of bladder tumours is highest among the Chinese. When compared to other studies, the incidence of muscle invasive and high-grade superficial tumours was greater.

  15. Subahir MN, Shah SA, Zainuddin ZM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2009;10(6):1015-20.
    PMID: 20192575
    INTRODUCTION: In Malaysia, prostate cancer is ranked 6th among male cancer and expected to increase in the future. Several factors have shown to be related to prostate cancer such as sociodemographic, lifestyle, diet, occupational exposure, medical and health status. This is the first time a similar study was conducted in Malaysia to recognize the risk factors for prostate cancer patients who came for treatment at University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC).

    METHODS: Prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 2003 and 2008 which met with the inclusion criteria were included in the study. One hundred and twelfth (112) pairs of cases and controls matched by age and ethnicity were analysed. McNemar Odds Ratios (OR(M)) were calculated using McNemar Calculator software for univariate analysis while conditional logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis, both using SPSS version 12.0.

    RESULTS: Most of the prostate cancer patients (68.8%) that came for treatment in UKMMC were above 70 years old. The majority were Chinese (50.0%) followed by Malay (46.4%) and Indian (3.6%). Multivariate analysis showed cases were more likely to have a first-degree relative with a history of cancer (OR= 3.77, 95% CI= 1.19-11.85), to have been exposed to pesticides (OR= 5.57, 95% CI= 1.75-17.78) and consumed more meat (OR= 12.23, 95% CI= 3.89-39.01). Significantly reduced risks of prostate cancer were noted among those consuming more vegetables (OR= 0.12, 95% CI= 0.02-0.84), more tomatoes (OR= 0.35, 95% CI= 0.13-0.93) and those who had frequent sexual intercourse (OR= 0.44, 95% CI= 0.19-0.96).

    CONCLUSION: Some lifestyle and occupation factors are strong predictors of the occurrence of prostate cancer among patients in UKMMC. More importantly, with the identification of the potentially modifiable risk factors, proper public health intervention can be improved.

  16. Singam P, Ho C, Hong GE, Mohd A, Tamil AM, Cheok LB, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(2):503-6.
    PMID: 20843141
    Renal cancer is rare and its incidence is 1.9 per 100,000 in the Malaysian population, which consists of three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indians). A retrospective study was her conducted to identify clinical characteristics and ethnic background influences on presentation. The study included all renal cancer patients from a single medical institution over ten years, with a total of 75 cases. Seventy-three patients underwent surgery while 2 received only radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The male to female ratio was 2.75:1. Incidence was equal among the Malay (49.3%) and Chinese ethnic groups (45.3%). Mean age of patients were 57.1 (18-93) years old. There were 26 (37.4%) patients with Stage I disease, 14 (18.7%) at Stage II, 23 (30.7%) at Stage III and 12 (16%) at Stage IV. The Chinese race presented at mean older age (p= 0.02) and later stage of disease (p= 0.046). Patients above 40 years old had more advanced stage disease (p= 0.023). Tumour histology were clear cell (72%), urothelial cell (13.3%), sarcomatoid cell and nephroblastoma each contributed 2.7%. The mean tumour size was 8.1 (2-20) cm. There was substantial agreement between the pre and post operative staging (kappa 0.691). In conclusion we observed significant influences of age and race in the clinical presentation of renal cancer in our institution based population. There was larger male to female ratio and mean tumour size as compared to previous epidemiology studies.
  17. Mohd Ridah LJ, A Talib N, Muhammad N, Hussain FA, Zainuddin N
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2017 10 26;18(10):2781-2785.
    PMID: 29072413
    Introduction: p16 gene plays an important role in the normal cell cycle regulation. Methylation of p16 has been reported to be one of the epigenetic events contributing to the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) which occurring at varying frequency. DLBCL is an aggressive and high-grade malignancy which accounts for approximately 30% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. However, little is known regarding the epigenetic alterations of p16 gene in DLBCL cases in Malaysia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the status of p16 methylation in DLBCL. Methods: A total of 88 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded DLBCL tissues retrieved from two hospitals located in the east coast of Malaysia, namely Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA) Pahang and Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) Kelantan, were chosen for this study. DNA specimens were isolated and subsequently subjected to bisulfite treatment prior to methylation specific-PCR. Two pairs of primers were used to amplify methylated and unmethylated regions of p16 gene. The PCR products were then separated using agarose gel electrophoresis and visualised under UV illumination. SPSS version 12.0 was utilised to perform all statistical analysis. Result: p16 methylation was detected in 65 of 88 (74%) samples. There was a significant association between p16 methylation status and patients aged >50 years old (p=0.04). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that methylation of p16 tumor suppressor gene in our DLBCL cases is common and significantly increased among patients aged 50 years and above. Aging is known to be an important risk factor in the development of cancers and we speculate that this might be due to the increased transformation of malignant cells in aging cell population. However, this has yet to be confirmed with further research and correlate the findings with clinicopathological parameters.
  18. Isa MR, Moy FM, Abdul Razack AH, Zainuddin ZM, Zainal NZ
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(4):2237-42.
    PMID: 23725119
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of applied progressive muscle relaxation training on the levels of depression, anxiety and stress among prostate cancer patients.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) over six months. Prostate cancer patients from UMMC received the intervention and patients from UKMMC were taken as controls. The level of depression, anxiety and stress were measured using Depression, Anxiety Stress Scales - 21 (DASS-21).

    RESULTS: A total of 77 patients from the UMMC and 78 patients from the UKMMC participated. At the end of the study, 90.9% and 87.2% of patients from the UMMC and UKMMC groups completed the study respectively. There were significant improvements in anxiety (p<0.001, partial ?2=0.198) and stress (p<0.001, partial ?2=0.103) at the end of the study in those receiving muscle training. However, there was no improvement in depression (p=0.956).

    CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in anxiety and stress showed the potential of APMRT in the management of prostate cancer patients. Future studies should be carried out over a longer duration to provide stronger evidence for the introduction of relaxation therapy among prostate cancer patients as a coping strategy to improve their anxiety and stress.

  19. Isa MR, Ming MF, Abdul Razack AH, Zainuddin ZM, Zainal NZ
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(12):5999-6004.
    PMID: 23464393
    Measurement of quality of life among prostate cancer patients helps the health care providers to understand the impact of the disease in the patients' own perspective. The main aim of this study is to measure the quality of life among prostate cancer patients at University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) and to ascertain the association factors for physical coefficient summary (PCS) and mental coefficient summary (MCS). A hospital based, cross sectional study using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire was conducted over a period of 6 months. A total of 193 respondents were recruited. Their total quality of life score was 70.1± 14.7 and the PCS score was lower compared to MCS. The factors associated for PCS were: age, living partner, renal problem, urinary problem of intermittency, dysuria and hematuria. Factors associated for MCS were: age, living partner, renal problem, presenting prostatic specific antigen and urinary problem of intermittency and dysuria. Our prostate cancer patients had moderate quality of life in the physical health components but their mental health was less affected.
  20. Goud EVSS, Malleedi S, Ramanathan A, Wong GR, Hwei Ern BT, Yean GY, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 Mar 26;20(3):935-941.
    PMID: 30912418
    Background: Interleukin-10 (IL10) genotypes have been closely correlated to the susceptibility for oral squamous cell
    carcinoma. More than half of oral cancers in the world occur in Asia with estimated 168,850 new cases were diagnosed
    in this geographical region alone. Considering the rising numbers of oral cancer cases in Malaysia, association of IL10
    A1082G gene polymorphism was correlated. Methodology: 41 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cases and 48
    healthy controls of comparable age, gender, and with habits like smoking, alcohol consumption and betel quid chewing
    were selected. In this case-control study, samples were collected from the Oral Cancer Research and Coordinating
    Centre (OCRCC), Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Malaysia. Genotyping conditions were evaluated by
    polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The PCR products were subjected
    to digestion by MnlI enzyme (NEB, UK) to screen for the IL10 A-1082G. Digested DNA products were analyzed by
    electrophoresis on 4% (w/v) agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide and imaged under UV illumination. Chi-square
    test and Fisher’s Exact test were used in statistical analysis. Results: AG genotypes were present in 81.3% and 86.0% of
    healthy control and OSCC cases respectively (OR=0.468, 95% CI=0.133-1.653). No significant association was found
    between IL10 A1082G polymorphism with risk habits, clinico-pathological parameters and 5-years overall survival.
    The findings also show no significant correlation between the IL10 genotype and features of OSCC within the case
    group as measured by tumor size, lymph node involvement, stage, invasive front, grading, depth, pattern of invasion.
    Conclusion: This study suggests that functional polymorphism AG of IL10 A1082G may have no influence with OSCC
    susceptibility. However, further investigation with larger sample sizes can be conducted to provide additional evidence
    to support the lack of association of IL10 A1082G polymorphism in oral cancer.
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