Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 516 in total

  1. Assayaghi RM, Alabsi AM, Swethadri G, Ali AM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 Oct 01;20(10):3071-3075.
    PMID: 31653156 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.10.3071
    BACKGROUND: Treatment of cancer with chemo-radiotherapy causes severe side effects due to cytotoxic effects towards normal tissues which often results in morbidity. Therefore, developing anticancer agents which can selectively target the cancer cells and cause less side effects are the main objectives of the new therapeutic strategies for treatment advanced or metastatic cancers. Newcastle disease virus strains AF2240 and V4-UPM were shown to be cytolytic against various cancer cells in-vitro and very effective as antileukemicagents.

    METHODS: 45 rats at 6 weeks of age, were randomly assigned to nine groups with 5 rats in each group, both azoxymethane (AOM) and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) were given to rats according to the body weight. NDV virus strains (AF2240 and V4-UPM) doses were determined to rats according to CD50 resulted from MTT assay. After 8 doses of NDV strians and 5-FU, tissue sections preparations and histopathological study of rats' organs were done.

    RESULTS: In this article morphological changes of rats' organs, especially in livers, after treatment with a colon carcinogen (azoxymethane) and Newcastle disease virus strains have been recorded. We observed liver damage caused by AOM evidenced by morphological changes and enzymatic elevation were protected by the oncolytic viruses sections. Also we found that combination treatment NDV with 5-FU had greater antitumor efficacy than treatment with NDV or 5-FU alone.

    CONCLUSION: We noted morphological changes in liver and other rats' organs due to a chemical carcinogen and their protection by NDV AF2240 and NDV V4-UPM seems to be most protective.

  2. Kaur G, Balasubramaniam SD, Lee YJ, Balakrishnan V, Oon CE
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 Oct 01;20(10):3043-3049.
    PMID: 31653153 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.10.3043
    OBJECTIVE: Minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM) proteins are essential for the process of DNA replication and cell division. This study aimed to evaluate MCM genes expression profiles and MCM2 protein in HPV-associated cervical carcinogenesis.

    METHODOLOGY: MCM2, 4, 5 and 7 genes expression profiles were evaluated in three cervical tissue samples each of normal cervix, human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), using Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 and validated by nCounter® PanCancer Pathway NanoString Array. Immunohistochemical expression of MCM2 protein was semi-quantitatively assessed by histoscore in tissue microarrays containing 9 cases of normal cervix, 10 LSIL, 10 HSIL and 42 cases of SCC.

    RESULTS: MCM2, 4, 5 and 7 genes expressions were upregulated with increasing fold change during the progression from LSIL to HSIL and the highest in SCC. MCM2 gene had the highest fold change in SCC compared to normal cervix. Immunohistochemically, MCM2 protein was localised in the nuclei of basal cells of normal cervical epithelium and dysplastic-neoplastic cells of CIN and SCC. There was a significant difference in MCM2 protein expression between the histological groups (P = 0.039), and histoscore was the highest in HSIL compared to normal cervix (P = 0.010).

    CONCLUSION: The upregulation of MCM genes expressions in cervical carcinogenesis reaffirms MCM as a proliferative marker in DNA replication pathway, whereby proliferation of dysplastic and cancer cells become increasingly dysregulated and uncontrolled. A strong expression of MCM2 protein in HSIL may aid as a concatenated screening tool in detecting pre-cancerous cervical lesions.

  3. Che Mohamed N, Moey SF, Lim BC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 09 01;20(9):2865-2873.
    PMID: 31554389 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.9.2865
    Background: Early detection of breast cancer is essential in improving overall women’s health. The researchers
    sought to develop a comprehensive measure that combined the basic components of the health belief model (HBM)
    with a focus on breast self-examination (BSE) and screening mammogram amongst women. Methods: Questionnaire
    items were developed following a review of relevant literature of HBM on BSE and screening mammogram. The
    sampling frame for the study was Malaysian women aged 35 to 70 years old, living in Kuantan, Pahang and able to
    read or write in Bahasa Malaysia or English. As such, 103 women were randomly selected to participate in the study.
    Tests of validity using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and reliability were subsequently performed to determine the
    psychometric properties of the questionnaire. Results: The EFA revealed nine factors (self-efficacy of mammogram,
    perceived barriers of BSE and mammogram, perceived susceptibility of breast cancer, perceived severity of breast
    cancer, cues to action for mammogram screening, perceived benefits of BSE, health motivation, perceived benefits
    of mammogram and self-efficacy of BSE) containing 54 items that jointly accounted for 74.2% of the observed
    variance. All nine factors have good internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha ≥ 0.8. Fifty-four items remained in
    the final questionnaire after deleting 13 problematic items. The scale also showed good convergent and discriminant
    validity. Conclusion: The findings showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable instrument for the
    study involving women in Kuantan, Pahang. The instrument can help to assess women’s beliefs on BSE adoption and
    mammogram screening in health care practice and research.
  4. Sharif Nia H, Rezapour M, Allen KA, Pahlevan Sharif S, Jafari A, Torkmandi H, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 09 01;20(9):2803-2809.
    PMID: 31554380 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.9.2803
    Objectives: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was specifically created to assess
    depression in cancer patients. However, to date, the CES-D has not been validated in Farsi. Therefore, this study aimed to
    assess the psychometric properties of the CES-D in Iranian cancer patients. Methods: During a three-month period
    (October to December, 2015), a total of 380 cancer patients completed a Farsi version of the CES-D. The construct
    validity of the scale was evaluated by exploratory factor analysis. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha
    and McDonald Omega. All of the statistical procedure were run by SPSS 22 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results:
    The construct validity of the CES-D determined three factors (somatic affect, negative affect, and positive affect),
    which explained 65.60% of the total variance. The internal consistency was greater than 0.70. Conclusion: Findings
    revealed that the Farsi version of the CES-D has acceptable validity and reliability, which can be used to measure
    depression in Iranian cancer patients.
  5. Alaa H, Shah SA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 08 01;20(8):2339-2343.
    PMID: 31450904 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.8.2339
    Cancer is responsible for substantial burden on communities and more specifically on less developed countries. The
    incidence of cancer is on the rise due to population growth and aging, also due to increment of the risk factors such
    as smoking, increasing weight, low physical activity associated with adoption of western lifestyle. Around 14 million
    cases of new cancer and 8 million deaths from cancer is estimated to occur by 2012. This cross-sectional study was
    conducted in Baghdad from June 2016 to October 2016. Participants were selected according to our inclusion criteria,
    namely aged between 18 to 40 years and not being diagnosed with any chronic diseases. Those who fulfilled the
    inclusion criteria were 700 participants who completed the questionnaire. Results showed that most of our participants
    had low perceived susceptibility to cancer risk (62.4%), low perceived severity (59.8%), but good perceived benefits
    of screening (56.6%). Hierarchal linear regression analysis showed that sociodemographic factors of gender, marital
    status, and education level were statistically significant. Moreover, factors of health behaviour such as practice towards
    health and preventive behaviour were associated with the outcome. Finally, treatment control and emotional factors were
    mostly predicting the outcome. Perceived susceptibility to cancer along with its psychological factors and behaviour
    were important contributors to self-perceived health in this study. Hence there is association between perception and
    future morbidity and mortality, thus it is crucial for public health policy. Comprehensive health programs that include
    health promotion campaigns and proper health care services that deals with secondary prevention.
  6. Abdul Wahab S, Hassan A, Latif MT, Vadiveel Y, Jeyabalan T, Soo CI, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 07 01;20(7):1959-1965.
    PMID: 31350951 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.7.1959
    Objective: Epidemiological studies have reported the close relationship between risk for lung cancers and air pollution
    in particular, for non-smoking related lung cancers. However, most studies used residential address as proxies which may
    not estimate accurately an individual’s air pollution exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify risk factors
    such as occupation and mode of transportation associated with lung cancer diagnosis and death. Methods: Subjects
    with lung cancer (n=514) were evaluated both by chart reviews for clinical data and interviews to determine residential
    address for ten years, main occupation and main mode of transportation. Annual particulate matter with diameter size
    less than 2.5 micrometre (PM2.5) concentration were calculated based on particulate matter with diameter size less than
    10 micrometre (PM10) data recorded by Malaysian Department of Environment. Logistic regression analysis, cluster
    analysis and the Cox regression analysis were performed to the studied variables. Results: This study concurred with
    previous studies that lung adenocarcinoma were diagnosed in predominantly younger, female non-smokers compared
    to the other types of lung cancers. Lung adenocarcinoma subjects had annual PM2.5 that was almost twice higher than
    squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma and other histological subtypes (p=0.024). Independent of smoking,
    the κ -means cluster analysis revealed two clusters in which the high risk cluster involves occupation risk with air
    pollution of more than four hours per day, main transportation involving motorcycle and trucks and mean annual PM2.5
    concentration of more than 30 based on residential address for more than ten years. The increased risk for the high-risk
    cluster was more than five times for the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma (OR=5.69, 95% CI=3.14-7.21, p<0.001).
    The hazard ratio for the high-risk cluster was 3.89 (95% CI=2.12-4.56, p=0.02) for lung adenocarcinoma mortality at
    1 year. Conclusion: High-risk cluster including PM2.5, occupation risk and mode of transportation as surrogates for
    air-pollution exposure was identified and highly associated with lung adenocarcinoma diagnosis and 1-year mortality.
  7. Sharif OM, Hassan R, Mohammed Basbaeen AA, Mohmed AH, Ibrahim IK
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 07 01;20(7):1939-1943.
    PMID: 31350948 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.7.1939
    Background: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a multifunctional cytokine with both immunosuppressive and antiangiogenicfunctions
    and may have both tumor-promoting and -inhibiting properties. We examined the association
    between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in IL-10 -1082G/A (rs1800896) in Sudanese acute myeloid leukemia
    (AML) patients and to assess the association between polymorphisms in IL-10 -1082G/A (rs1800896) and the
    hematological profile in Sudanese patients with AML. Methods: A total of 30 patients with acute myeloid leukemia
    and 30 control subjects were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were collected from all patients in EDTA containing
    tubes. Genomic DNA was extracted from all blood samples using salting out method. The genotypic variants of
    IL-10 (-1082G/A) polymorphism were detected by allele specific-PCR. Results: We found that (36.7%) of patients have
    homogenous GG genotype, (43.3%) have heterogeneous GA genotype and (20.0%) have AA genotype. GA genotype
    was significantly associated with higher risk of AML compared with the homozygous Genotypes (GG and AA), there is
    no association between IL-10 (-1082G/A) polymorphism and AML sub-type, gender, age group, mean of hematological
    parameters. Conclusion: Our study concluded that GA genotype of IL-10 -1082G/A (rs1800896) polymorphism is a
    risk factor for AML and G allele is insignificantly higher than A allele in AML patient. No association between IL-10
    (-1082G/A) polymorphism and AML sub-type, gender, age group, mean of hematological parameters.
  8. Widjaja VN
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 07 01;20(7):2045-2050.
    PMID: 31350964 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.7.2045
    Objective: Assess and analyse the awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of university students regarding HPV and
    its vaccine. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed with questionnaire serving as the research instrument.
    A total of 425 university students were recruited voluntarily. Thirteen assessable questions were analysed to reveal
    the mean total knowledge score of HPV and its vaccine. Both descriptive and statistical approach were employed
    to analyse the research outcomes. Results: Students were moderately aware as 59.8% and 49.6% have heard about
    HPV and its vaccine, respectively. The mean total knowledge score was 5.26 ± 3.10 out of 13 which was found to be
    moderately knowledgeable. Female (N= 235) have a significantly higher mean knowledge score in comparison to male
    (N= 190) at 5.58 ± 2.80 versus 4.87 ± 3.40, respectively (p<0.05), likely due to the disease profiles favouring female.
    As hypothesised, health-related school students (N= 171) outperformed other schools (N= 254) at 7.00 ± 2.95 versus
    4.10 ± 2.62, respectively (p<0.001). In general, the score depends on participant’s gender and educational background
    (χ2= 25.426, p<0.01 and χ2= 105.337, p<0.001, respectively). Despite low vaccination uptakes (28.5%), students accept
    the vaccine following physician’s recommendation and reject due to its cost. A positive attitude was seen as majority
    (88.7%) wished to know more about HPV. Conclusion: Moderation in awareness, knowledge and attitudes reflect the
    lifestyle of an urbanised population where information is accessible. Healthcare professionals, media campaign, and
    educational talk refinement are therefore essential in controlling the disease by spreading awareness.
  9. Karan S, Choudhury H, Chakra BK, Chatterjee TK
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 07 01;20(7):2181-2194.
    PMID: 31350983 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.7.2181
    Controlled release delivery system of chemotherapeutic agents at the site of colon endorses modern drug-entrapped
    delivery tools, which release the entrappedagents at a controlled rate for anextended period providing patient compliance
    and additional protection from the degradinggastric environment. Thus, the present study was aimed to develop
    and optimize a novel polymeric microsphere of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) using natural gum katira to obtain an optimal
    therapeutic response at the colon. Due course of experimentation, in-vivo safety profile of the gum katira in an animal
    model was established. Modified solvent extraction/evaporation technique wasemployed to encapsulate 5-FU in the
    natural polymeric microsphere and was characterized using in-vitro studies to investigate particle size, morphology,
    encapsulation efficiency and release of the drug from developed formulation. Formulated and optimized polymeric
    microsphere of 5-FU using gum katira polymer own optimal physicochemical characteristics with a fine spherical particle
    with size ranged from 210.37±7.50 to 314.45±7.80 μm.Targeted microsphere exhibited good cytotoxicity and also has
    high drug entrapment efficiency, and satisfactory release pattern of the drug within a time frame of 12 h. Finally, we
    foresee that the optimized polymeric gum katiramicrosphere of 5-FU could be a promising micro-carrier for efficient
    colon drug targeting delivery tool with improved chemotherapeutic efficacy against colon cancer.
  10. Ramli HA, Moey SF, Abdul Mutalib AM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 06 01;20(6):1913-1920.
    PMID: 31244318 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.6.1913
    Background: Breast cancer (BC) awareness is relatively poor among Malaysian women indicated by the presence
    of BC at a late stage and the low rate of mammography screening. Only a few theoretically based studies have been
    conducted on Malaysian women’s participation in mammography. Therefore, the objective of this study is to use health
    belief model (HBM) and stage of change model (SCM) to determine the relationship between health beliefs on the
    behavioral adoption of mammography amongst women in Kuantan, Pahang. Methods: Five hundred and twenty women
    were randomly selected to complete the survey. Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression (MLR) to
    ascertain the multivariate relationships between health beliefs and stage of mammography behavioral adoption. Results:
    The MLR test indicates that there is no significant difference in perceived severity, benefits, motivator factors and cues
    to action between participants in the action stage and the maintenance stage. However, significant differences existed
    in perceived severity, susceptibility, motivator factors and self-efficacy between the pre-contemplation, relapse and
    contemplation stage to that of the referenced (maintenance) stage of mammography adoption. Conclusion: Women in
    the action stage are more likely to progress towards maintenance stage as they perceived breast cancer as a disease that
    leads to death and that mammogram screening is beneficial in detecting the disease at an early stage. However, women
    in the pre-contemplation, relapse and contemplation stage are found unlikely to move towards the maintenance stage
    as they perceived their risk of getting breast cancer is low.
  11. Abdullah MM, Foo YC, Yap BK, Lee CML, Hoo LP, Lim TO
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 06 01;20(6):1701-1708.
    PMID: 31244290 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.6.1701
    Objective: This report focuses on a private medical centre cancer care performance as measured by patient survival
    outcome for up to 5 years. Methods: All patients with nasopharyngeal cancer treated at SJMC between 2008 and 2012
    were enrolled for this observational cohort study. Mortality outcome was ascertained through record linkage with
    national death register, linkage with hospital registration system and finally through direct contact by phone. Result:
    266 patients treated between 2008 and 2012 were included for survival analysis. 31% of patients were diagnosed with
    Early NPC Cancer (Stage I or II), another 44% with Locally Advanced Cancer (Stage III) and 25% with late stage IV
    metastatic cancer. 2%, 27% and 67% had WHO Class I, II and III NPC respectively. The overall survival at 5 years
    was 100% for patients with Stage I disease, 91% for Stage II disease, 72% for Stage III disease, and decreasing to
    44% for Stage IV disease. Overall survival at 5 years for all stages was 73%. Conclusion: SJMC is among the first
    hospitals in Malaysia to embark on routine measurement of the performance of its cancer care services and its results
    are comparable to any leading centers in developed countries.
  12. Ankathil R, Mustapha MA, Abdul Aziz AA, Mohd Shahpudin SN, Zakaria AD, Abu Hassan MR, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 06 01;20(6):1621-1632.
    PMID: 31244280 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.6.1621
    AIM: To investigate the frequencies and association of polymorphic genotypes of IL-8 -251 T>A, TNF-α -308
    G>A, ICAM-1 K469E, ICAM-1 R241G, IL-6 -174 G>C, and PPAR-γ 34 C>G in modulating susceptibility risk in
    Malaysian colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Methods: In this case-control study, peripheral blood samples of 560
    study subjects (280 CRC patients and 280 controls) were collected, DNA extracted and genotyped using PCR-RFLP
    and Allele Specific PCR. The association between polymorphic genotype and CRC susceptibility risk was determined
    using Logistic Regression analysis deriving Odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Results: On comparing the frequencies of
    genotypes of all single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs ) in patients and controls, the homozygous variant genotypes
    IL-8 -251 AA and TNF-α -308 AA and variant A alleles were significantly higher in CRC patients. Investigation on
    the association of the variant alleles and genotypes singly, with susceptibility risk showed the homozygous variant A
    alleles and genotypes IL-8 -251 AA and TNF-α -308 AA to be at higher risk for CRC predisposition. Analysis based
    on age, gender and smoking habits showed that the polymorphisms IL8 -251 T>A and TNF – α 308 G>A contribute
    to a significantly higher risk among male and female who are more than 50 years and for smokers in this population.
    Conclusion: We observed an association between variant allele and genotypes of IL-8-251 T>A and TNF-α-308
    G>A polymorphisms and CRC susceptibility risk in Malaysian patients. These two SNPs in inflammatory response
    genes which undoubtedly contribute to individual risks to CRC susceptibility may be considered as potential genetic
    predisposition factors for CRC in Malaysian population.
  13. Mustari S, Hossain B, Diah NM, Kar S
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 06 01;20(6):1613-1620.
    PMID: 31244279 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.6.1613
    Each year, many countries from developed world publishes reports on early cancer detection; which is absolutely
    absent in most developing countries like Bangladesh.Very limited evidence is found on the role and acceptance of Pap
    test among the women of Bangladesh in determining cervical cancer. More research and updates are needed relating Pap
    test in early detection of cervical cancer. Thus the purpose of this study is set to assess the opinions of Bangladeshiurban
    womentowardsthe Pap test. A questionnaire-based survey of 400 Bangladeshi urban women was evaluated by on their
    socio-demographic characteristics, knowledgeand attitudes towards Pap testing. In general, the findings reveal that
    respondents havea good understanding of thepurpose of Pap test screening with 3.92 (Mean score). With 3.54 Mean
    score,the respondents believed that Pap tests are recommended to women who are married and with 3.45 mean score
    women believed that Pap tests arerecommended only to those who have children. Generally, respondents possess good
    knowledge of Pap test and its purpose. These findings can be used in identifying prospect cervical cancer screening
    significance populations and trend for future intrusion.
  14. Mat Yusoff Y, Abu Seman Z, Othman N, Kamaluddin NR, Esa E, Zulkiply NA, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 06 01;20(6):1749-1755.
    PMID: 31244296 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.6.1749
    Objective: The most frequent acquired molecular abnormalities and important prognostic indicators in patients
    with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) are fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 gene (FLT3) and nucleophosmin-1 (NPM1)
    mutations. Our study aims to develop a cost effective and comprehensive in-house conventional PCR method for
    detection of FLT3-ITD, FLT3-D835 and NPM1 mutations and to evaluate the frequency of these mutations in patients
    with cytogenetically normal (CN) AML in our population. Methods: A total of 199 samples from AML patients (95
    women, 104 men) were included in the study. Mutation analyses were performed using polymerase chain reaction
    (PCR) and gene sequencing. Result: Sixty-eight patients were positive for the mutations. FLT3-ITD mutations were
    detected in 32 patients (16.1%), followed by FLT3-D835 in 5 (2.5%) and NPM1 in 54 (27.1%). Double mutations of
    NPM1 and FLT3-ITD were detected in 23 cases (11.6%). Assays validation were performed using Sanger sequencing
    and showed 100% concordance with in house method. Conclusion: The optimized in-house PCR assays for the
    detection of FLT3-ITD, FLT3-D835 and NPM1 mutations in AML patients were robust, less labour intensive and cost
    effective. These assays can be used as diagnostic tools for mutation detection in AML patients since identification of
    these mutations are important for prognostication and optimization of patient care.
  15. Mohammed Basabaeen AA, Abdelgader EA, Babekir EA, Abdelrahim SO, Eltayeb NH, Altayeb OA, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 May 25;20(5):1579-1585.
    PMID: 31128065
    Objective: This study aimed at exploring the association of TP53 72Arg/Pro polymorphism and Risk of Chronic
    Lymphocytic Leukemia and to assess the correlation between TP53 72Arg/Pro polymorphism and clinical parameter,
    hematological profile and some biological prognostic markers among Sudanese patients with chronic lymphocytic
    leukemia. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Khartoum state, Sudan, during the period from April 2017 to
    April 2018, involved 110 B-CLL patients and 80 healthy volunteers as a control group. Physical examination, Complete
    Blood Count and Immunophenotype were performed in all patients to confirm the diagnosis. Clinical staging such as
    Rai and Binet were studied. CD38 and ZAP70 were performed by Flow Cytometry. Blood samples were collected from
    all participants; DNA was extracted by using ANALYTIKJENA Blood DNA Extraction Kit (Germany) and analyzed
    TP53 codon 72Arg/Pro Polymorphism by using AS-PCR. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version
    23.0 software (Chicago, IL, USA). Results: the Arg/Pro was the most frequent genotype in B-CLL patients(50%),
    followed by Arg/Arg (25.5%) and Pro/Pro (24.5%), whereas in healthy control group Arg/Pro was the most frequent
    (47.5%), followed by Arg/Arg (45%) and Pro/Pro (7.5%). Our data indicate a higher frequency of homozygous Pro/
    Pro in the B-CLL patients as compared to controls with an OR of 4.01 for the Pro/Pro genotype and lower frequency
    of Arg/Arg genotype in CLL patients as compared to controls with an OR of .42 for the Arg/Arg genotype. Also, the
    Pro allele showed higher risk than Arg allele (P value=0.000, OR 2.23, 95% CI=1.45-3.41). No significant association
    between gender, clinical staging systems (Rai, Binet), biological prognostic markers (CD38 expression or ZAP70
    expression), and TP53 codon 72Arg/Pro polymorphisms, except Arg/Arg genotype tended to be associated with younger
    age (P =0.04). Conclusion: Our data suggested that Pro/Pro genotype contribute to increased susceptibility to B-Chronic
    Lymphocytic Leukemia risk in our population tenfold higher than those had Arg/Arg genotype.
  16. Hartono RK, Hamid SA, Hafizurrachman M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 May 25;20(5):1403-1408.
    PMID: 31127899
    Background: The incident of malignant cancer due to smoking habit becomes a public health problem especially in the developing countries. Active smokers neglect to stop smoking even though various studies proved that smoking increases the risk of cancer. While, previous studies have assessed the incident risk of cancer but have not performed the validity of the measurement. The aim of this study is to know the number of cigarettes that contribute to the incidence of malignant cancer.
    Methods: A study with retrospective cohort design has been conducted by using a set of public data of Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS) in 2007 and 2014. All active smokers (n= 748) who were in good health condition in 2007, were traced in 2014 and then being diagnosed with cancer with considering age, gender, healthy eating habit, and regular physical activity. Data has been analysed by using logistic regression by performing Adjusted Risk Ratio (ARR) and the result of validity measurement.
    Results: The incident of malignant cancer in 2014 were skin, liver, stomach and oral cavity. Smoking 21-30 per day in 2007 were significantly increased risk of having malignant cancer in 2014 at ARR: 6.88; SE:6.13 with the accuracy were 93.8%. The risk and accuracy were higher if smoke >30 cigarettes per day (ARR:7.523; SE:7.019; accuracy 95.5%). This study also found that the risk of cancer was significantly increase with age (99% CI; ARR: 1.065; SE: 0.026).
    Conclusions: Cigarette smoking behaviour increased the risk any types incident of cancer. Total number >20 cigarettes smoked per day contributes to the incidence of malignant cancer.
  17. Roslan NH, Makpol S, Mohd Yusof YA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 May 25;20(5):1309-1319.
    PMID: 31127882
    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. According to National Cancer Registry, the incidence of colorectal cancer in Peninsular Malaysia increases with age. The incidence is highest among Chinese population but lower among Indians and Malays. Many reviews have suggested that obesity may be associated with a higher risk (>50%) of colorectal cancer.
    METHODS: This study collects a comprehensive data from the literature review available from respective journals on dietary intervention and the chemo-protective mechanisms of a few natural resources in obesity -associated colon cancer based on previous and current studies.
    RESULTS: In obesity-associated colon cancer, the genes of interest and pathways that are mainly involved include NFκB, P13K/Akt, and MAPK pathways, and FTO, leptin, Cyclin D, MMPs, and STAT3 genes. Dietary modification is one of the alternative steps in early prevention of colon cancer. It has been proposed that the components present in certain foods may have the ability to protect against many diseases including the prevention of cancer.
    CONCLUSION: There are many factors that lead to obesity-associated colon cancer and the mechanisms behind it is still undergoing intensive research. This review aims to scrutinize research as well as reviews that have been previously reported on obesity associated colorectal cancer and the beneficial effects of including antioxidants-rich foods such as vegetables and fruits in the diet to reduce the risk of obesity associated colorectal cancer.
    KEYWORDS: Obesity; colon cancer; pathways; natural phytochemicals
  18. Mohamad M, Kok HS
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 May 25;20(5):1427-1432.
    PMID: 31127903
    Objective: This study aims to investigate the public pattern in seeking breast cancer screening information in
    Malaysia using Google Trends. Methods: The Google Trends database was evaluated for the relative Internet search
    popularity of breast cancer and screening-related search terms from 2007 to 2018. Results: Result showed downward
    trends in breast cancer search, whereas mammogram and tomosynthesis search fluctuated consistently. A significant
    increment was found during Pink October month. Breast cancer search term achieved the highest popularity in the east
    coast of Malaysia with [x2 (5, N=661) = 110.93, P<0.05], whereas mammogram attained the highest search volume in
    central Malaysia [x2 (4, N=67) = 18.90, P<0.05]. The cross-correlation for breast cancer was moderate among northern
    Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak (0.3 ≤ rs ≤ 0.7). Conclusion: Public interest trend in breast cancer screening is strongly
    correlated with the breast cancer awareness campaign, Pink October. Breast cancer screening should be promoted in
    the rural areas in Malaysia.
  19. Abdullah NN, Idris IB, Shamsuddin K, Abdullah NMA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 Apr 29;20(4):1191-1197.
    PMID: 31030494
    Objective: This study examined the quality of life (QOL) of caregivers for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients, and
    associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at three referral hospitals in Klang Valley, Malaysia.
    A total of 323 pairs of patients and caregivers from the oncology units of these hospitals completed questionnaires
    in Malay. The QOL of caregivers was measured using The Malay Caregiver Quality of Life questionnaire. The
    independent variables were caregiver and patient factors, care-related factors, the Caregiver Strain Index-Malay, and
    the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support-Malay. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were
    performed to determine the factors associated with the QOL. Variables with p < 0.05 were considered significant in the
    multiple analyses. Results: Female caregivers were 68.1% of the total, and 46.4% caregivers were spouses to cancer
    patients. Their mean age was 44.50 (13.29) years old. About 51.7% were of Malay ethnicity. The mean score for QOL
    was 80.17 (21.58). Being a male caregiver (beta = 5.165, p = 0.011) and of Indian ethnicity (beta = -9.163, p = 0.001)
    were strongly associated with caregiver QOL. Male patients contributed higher QOL scores for the caregivers compared
    to female patients. There was an inverse relationship among caregiving strain, duration of caregiving, and caregiver
    QOL. Conclusion: The identification of factors that affect QOL will allow healthcare providers to develop appropriate
    interventions. It is important that caregivers be in good health so as not to compromise the care they provide to their
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