Cancer is responsible for substantial burden on communities and more specifically on less developed countries. The incidence of cancer is on the rise due to population growth and aging, also due to increment of the risk factors such as smoking, increasing weight, low physical activity associated with adoption of western lifestyle. Around 14 million cases of new cancer and 8 million deaths from cancer is estimated to occur by 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Baghdad from June 2016 to October 2016. Participants were selected according to our inclusion criteria, namely aged between 18 to 40 years and not being diagnosed with any chronic diseases. Those who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were 700 participants who completed the questionnaire. Results showed that most of our participants had low perceived susceptibility to cancer risk (62.4%), low perceived severity (59.8%), but good perceived benefits of screening (56.6%). Hierarchal linear regression analysis showed that sociodemographic factors of gender, marital status, and education level were statistically significant. Moreover, factors of health behaviour such as practice towards health and preventive behaviour were associated with the outcome. Finally, treatment control and emotional factors were mostly predicting the outcome. Perceived susceptibility to cancer along with its psychological factors and behaviour were important contributors to self-perceived health in this study. Hence there is association between perception and future morbidity and mortality, thus it is crucial for public health policy. Comprehensive health programs that include health promotion campaigns and proper health care services that deals with secondary prevention.
Objective: Epidemiological studies have reported the close relationship between risk for lung cancers and air pollution in particular, for non-smoking related lung cancers. However, most studies used residential address as proxies which may not estimate accurately an individual’s air pollution exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify risk factors such as occupation and mode of transportation associated with lung cancer diagnosis and death. Methods: Subjects with lung cancer (n=514) were evaluated both by chart reviews for clinical data and interviews to determine residential address for ten years, main occupation and main mode of transportation. Annual particulate matter with diameter size less than 2.5 micrometre (PM2.5) concentration were calculated based on particulate matter with diameter size less than 10 micrometre (PM10) data recorded by Malaysian Department of Environment. Logistic regression analysis, cluster analysis and the Cox regression analysis were performed to the studied variables. Results: This study concurred with previous studies that lung adenocarcinoma were diagnosed in predominantly younger, female non-smokers compared to the other types of lung cancers. Lung adenocarcinoma subjects had annual PM2.5 that was almost twice higher than squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma and other histological subtypes (p=0.024). Independent of smoking, the κ -means cluster analysis revealed two clusters in which the high risk cluster involves occupation risk with air pollution of more than four hours per day, main transportation involving motorcycle and trucks and mean annual PM2.5 concentration of more than 30 based on residential address for more than ten years. The increased risk for the high-risk cluster was more than five times for the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma (OR=5.69, 95% CI=3.14-7.21, p<0.001). The hazard ratio for the high-risk cluster was 3.89 (95% CI=2.12-4.56, p=0.02) for lung adenocarcinoma mortality at 1 year. Conclusion: High-risk cluster including PM2.5, occupation risk and mode of transportation as surrogates for air-pollution exposure was identified and highly associated with lung adenocarcinoma diagnosis and 1-year mortality.
Background: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a multifunctional cytokine with both immunosuppressive and antiangiogenicfunctions and may have both tumor-promoting and -inhibiting properties. We examined the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in IL-10 -1082G/A (rs1800896) in Sudanese acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and to assess the association between polymorphisms in IL-10 -1082G/A (rs1800896) and the hematological profile in Sudanese patients with AML. Methods: A total of 30 patients with acute myeloid leukemia and 30 control subjects were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were collected from all patients in EDTA containing tubes. Genomic DNA was extracted from all blood samples using salting out method. The genotypic variants of IL-10 (-1082G/A) polymorphism were detected by allele specific-PCR. Results: We found that (36.7%) of patients have homogenous GG genotype, (43.3%) have heterogeneous GA genotype and (20.0%) have AA genotype. GA genotype was significantly associated with higher risk of AML compared with the homozygous Genotypes (GG and AA), there is no association between IL-10 (-1082G/A) polymorphism and AML sub-type, gender, age group, mean of hematological parameters. Conclusion: Our study concluded that GA genotype of IL-10 -1082G/A (rs1800896) polymorphism is a risk factor for AML and G allele is insignificantly higher than A allele in AML patient. No association between IL-10 (-1082G/A) polymorphism and AML sub-type, gender, age group, mean of hematological parameters.
Controlled release delivery system of chemotherapeutic agents at the site of colon endorses modern drug-entrapped delivery tools, which release the entrappedagents at a controlled rate for anextended period providing patient compliance and additional protection from the degradinggastric environment. Thus, the present study was aimed to develop and optimize a novel polymeric microsphere of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) using natural gum katira to obtain an optimal therapeutic response at the colon. Due course of experimentation, in-vivo safety profile of the gum katira in an animal model was established. Modified solvent extraction/evaporation technique wasemployed to encapsulate 5-FU in the natural polymeric microsphere and was characterized using in-vitro studies to investigate particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency and release of the drug from developed formulation. Formulated and optimized polymeric microsphere of 5-FU using gum katira polymer own optimal physicochemical characteristics with a fine spherical particle with size ranged from 210.37±7.50 to 314.45±7.80 μm.Targeted microsphere exhibited good cytotoxicity and also has high drug entrapment efficiency, and satisfactory release pattern of the drug within a time frame of 12 h. Finally, we foresee that the optimized polymeric gum katiramicrosphere of 5-FU could be a promising micro-carrier for efficient colon drug targeting delivery tool with improved chemotherapeutic efficacy against colon cancer.
Objective: Assess and analyse the awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of university students regarding HPV and its vaccine. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed with questionnaire serving as the research instrument. A total of 425 university students were recruited voluntarily. Thirteen assessable questions were analysed to reveal the mean total knowledge score of HPV and its vaccine. Both descriptive and statistical approach were employed to analyse the research outcomes. Results: Students were moderately aware as 59.8% and 49.6% have heard about HPV and its vaccine, respectively. The mean total knowledge score was 5.26 ± 3.10 out of 13 which was found to be moderately knowledgeable. Female (N= 235) have a significantly higher mean knowledge score in comparison to male (N= 190) at 5.58 ± 2.80 versus 4.87 ± 3.40, respectively (p<0.05), likely due to the disease profiles favouring female. As hypothesised, health-related school students (N= 171) outperformed other schools (N= 254) at 7.00 ± 2.95 versus 4.10 ± 2.62, respectively (p<0.001). In general, the score depends on participant’s gender and educational background (χ2= 25.426, p<0.01 and χ2= 105.337, p<0.001, respectively). Despite low vaccination uptakes (28.5%), students accept the vaccine following physician’s recommendation and reject due to its cost. A positive attitude was seen as majority (88.7%) wished to know more about HPV. Conclusion: Moderation in awareness, knowledge and attitudes reflect the lifestyle of an urbanised population where information is accessible. Healthcare professionals, media campaign, and educational talk refinement are therefore essential in controlling the disease by spreading awareness.
Objective: This report focuses on a private medical centre cancer care performance as measured by patient survival outcome for up to 5 years. Methods: All patients with nasopharyngeal cancer treated at SJMC between 2008 and 2012 were enrolled for this observational cohort study. Mortality outcome was ascertained through record linkage with national death register, linkage with hospital registration system and finally through direct contact by phone. Result: 266 patients treated between 2008 and 2012 were included for survival analysis. 31% of patients were diagnosed with Early NPC Cancer (Stage I or II), another 44% with Locally Advanced Cancer (Stage III) and 25% with late stage IV metastatic cancer. 2%, 27% and 67% had WHO Class I, II and III NPC respectively. The overall survival at 5 years was 100% for patients with Stage I disease, 91% for Stage II disease, 72% for Stage III disease, and decreasing to 44% for Stage IV disease. Overall survival at 5 years for all stages was 73%. Conclusion: SJMC is among the first hospitals in Malaysia to embark on routine measurement of the performance of its cancer care services and its results are comparable to any leading centers in developed countries.
AIM: To investigate the frequencies and association of polymorphic genotypes of IL-8 -251 T>A, TNF-α -308 G>A, ICAM-1 K469E, ICAM-1 R241G, IL-6 -174 G>C, and PPAR-γ 34 C>G in modulating susceptibility risk in Malaysian colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Methods: In this case-control study, peripheral blood samples of 560 study subjects (280 CRC patients and 280 controls) were collected, DNA extracted and genotyped using PCR-RFLP and Allele Specific PCR. The association between polymorphic genotype and CRC susceptibility risk was determined using Logistic Regression analysis deriving Odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Results: On comparing the frequencies of genotypes of all single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs ) in patients and controls, the homozygous variant genotypes IL-8 -251 AA and TNF-α -308 AA and variant A alleles were significantly higher in CRC patients. Investigation on the association of the variant alleles and genotypes singly, with susceptibility risk showed the homozygous variant A alleles and genotypes IL-8 -251 AA and TNF-α -308 AA to be at higher risk for CRC predisposition. Analysis based on age, gender and smoking habits showed that the polymorphisms IL8 -251 T>A and TNF – α 308 G>A contribute to a significantly higher risk among male and female who are more than 50 years and for smokers in this population. Conclusion: We observed an association between variant allele and genotypes of IL-8-251 T>A and TNF-α-308 G>A polymorphisms and CRC susceptibility risk in Malaysian patients. These two SNPs in inflammatory response genes which undoubtedly contribute to individual risks to CRC susceptibility may be considered as potential genetic predisposition factors for CRC in Malaysian population.
Each year, many countries from developed world publishes reports on early cancer detection; which is absolutely absent in most developing countries like Bangladesh.Very limited evidence is found on the role and acceptance of Pap test among the women of Bangladesh in determining cervical cancer. More research and updates are needed relating Pap test in early detection of cervical cancer. Thus the purpose of this study is set to assess the opinions of Bangladeshiurban womentowardsthe Pap test. A questionnaire-based survey of 400 Bangladeshi urban women was evaluated by on their socio-demographic characteristics, knowledgeand attitudes towards Pap testing. In general, the findings reveal that respondents havea good understanding of thepurpose of Pap test screening with 3.92 (Mean score). With 3.54 Mean score,the respondents believed that Pap tests are recommended to women who are married and with 3.45 mean score women believed that Pap tests arerecommended only to those who have children. Generally, respondents possess good knowledge of Pap test and its purpose. These findings can be used in identifying prospect cervical cancer screening significance populations and trend for future intrusion.
Objective: The most frequent acquired molecular abnormalities and important prognostic indicators in patients with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) are fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 gene (FLT3) and nucleophosmin-1 (NPM1) mutations. Our study aims to develop a cost effective and comprehensive in-house conventional PCR method for detection of FLT3-ITD, FLT3-D835 and NPM1 mutations and to evaluate the frequency of these mutations in patients with cytogenetically normal (CN) AML in our population. Methods: A total of 199 samples from AML patients (95 women, 104 men) were included in the study. Mutation analyses were performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing. Result: Sixty-eight patients were positive for the mutations. FLT3-ITD mutations were detected in 32 patients (16.1%), followed by FLT3-D835 in 5 (2.5%) and NPM1 in 54 (27.1%). Double mutations of NPM1 and FLT3-ITD were detected in 23 cases (11.6%). Assays validation were performed using Sanger sequencing and showed 100% concordance with in house method. Conclusion: The optimized in-house PCR assays for the detection of FLT3-ITD, FLT3-D835 and NPM1 mutations in AML patients were robust, less labour intensive and cost effective. These assays can be used as diagnostic tools for mutation detection in AML patients since identification of these mutations are important for prognostication and optimization of patient care.
Background: Breast cancer (BC) awareness is relatively poor among Malaysian women indicated by the presence of BC at a late stage and the low rate of mammography screening. Only a few theoretically based studies have been conducted on Malaysian women’s participation in mammography. Therefore, the objective of this study is to use health belief model (HBM) and stage of change model (SCM) to determine the relationship between health beliefs on the behavioral adoption of mammography amongst women in Kuantan, Pahang. Methods: Five hundred and twenty women were randomly selected to complete the survey. Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression (MLR) to ascertain the multivariate relationships between health beliefs and stage of mammography behavioral adoption. Results: The MLR test indicates that there is no significant difference in perceived severity, benefits, motivator factors and cues to action between participants in the action stage and the maintenance stage. However, significant differences existed in perceived severity, susceptibility, motivator factors and self-efficacy between the pre-contemplation, relapse and contemplation stage to that of the referenced (maintenance) stage of mammography adoption. Conclusion: Women in the action stage are more likely to progress towards maintenance stage as they perceived breast cancer as a disease that leads to death and that mammogram screening is beneficial in detecting the disease at an early stage. However, women in the pre-contemplation, relapse and contemplation stage are found unlikely to move towards the maintenance stage as they perceived their risk of getting breast cancer is low.
Objective: This study aimed at exploring the association of TP53 72Arg/Pro polymorphism and Risk of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and to assess the correlation between TP53 72Arg/Pro polymorphism and clinical parameter, hematological profile and some biological prognostic markers among Sudanese patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Khartoum state, Sudan, during the period from April 2017 to April 2018, involved 110 B-CLL patients and 80 healthy volunteers as a control group. Physical examination, Complete Blood Count and Immunophenotype were performed in all patients to confirm the diagnosis. Clinical staging such as Rai and Binet were studied. CD38 and ZAP70 were performed by Flow Cytometry. Blood samples were collected from all participants; DNA was extracted by using ANALYTIKJENA Blood DNA Extraction Kit (Germany) and analyzed TP53 codon 72Arg/Pro Polymorphism by using AS-PCR. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 23.0 software (Chicago, IL, USA). Results: the Arg/Pro was the most frequent genotype in B-CLL patients(50%), followed by Arg/Arg (25.5%) and Pro/Pro (24.5%), whereas in healthy control group Arg/Pro was the most frequent (47.5%), followed by Arg/Arg (45%) and Pro/Pro (7.5%). Our data indicate a higher frequency of homozygous Pro/ Pro in the B-CLL patients as compared to controls with an OR of 4.01 for the Pro/Pro genotype and lower frequency of Arg/Arg genotype in CLL patients as compared to controls with an OR of .42 for the Arg/Arg genotype. Also, the Pro allele showed higher risk than Arg allele (P value=0.000, OR 2.23, 95% CI=1.45-3.41). No significant association between gender, clinical staging systems (Rai, Binet), biological prognostic markers (CD38 expression or ZAP70 expression), and TP53 codon 72Arg/Pro polymorphisms, except Arg/Arg genotype tended to be associated with younger age (P =0.04). Conclusion: Our data suggested that Pro/Pro genotype contribute to increased susceptibility to B-Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia risk in our population tenfold higher than those had Arg/Arg genotype.
Background: The incident of malignant cancer due to smoking habit becomes a public health problem especially in the developing countries. Active smokers neglect to stop smoking even though various studies proved that smoking increases the risk of cancer. While, previous studies have assessed the incident risk of cancer but have not performed the validity of the measurement. The aim of this study is to know the number of cigarettes that contribute to the incidence of malignant cancer.
Methods: A study with retrospective cohort design has been conducted by using a set of public data of Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS) in 2007 and 2014. All active smokers (n= 748) who were in good health condition in 2007, were traced in 2014 and then being diagnosed with cancer with considering age, gender, healthy eating habit, and regular physical activity. Data has been analysed by using logistic regression by performing Adjusted Risk Ratio (ARR) and the result of validity measurement.
Results: The incident of malignant cancer in 2014 were skin, liver, stomach and oral cavity. Smoking 21-30 per day in 2007 were significantly increased risk of having malignant cancer in 2014 at ARR: 6.88; SE:6.13 with the accuracy were 93.8%. The risk and accuracy were higher if smoke >30 cigarettes per day (ARR:7.523; SE:7.019; accuracy 95.5%). This study also found that the risk of cancer was significantly increase with age (99% CI; ARR: 1.065; SE: 0.026).
Conclusions: Cigarette smoking behaviour increased the risk any types incident of cancer. Total number >20 cigarettes smoked per day contributes to the incidence of malignant cancer.
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. According to National Cancer Registry, the incidence of colorectal cancer in Peninsular Malaysia increases with age. The incidence is highest among Chinese population but lower among Indians and Malays. Many reviews have suggested that obesity may be associated with a higher risk (>50%) of colorectal cancer.
METHODS: This study collects a comprehensive data from the literature review available from respective journals on dietary intervention and the chemo-protective mechanisms of a few natural resources in obesity -associated colon cancer based on previous and current studies.
RESULTS: In obesity-associated colon cancer, the genes of interest and pathways that are mainly involved include NFκB, P13K/Akt, and MAPK pathways, and FTO, leptin, Cyclin D, MMPs, and STAT3 genes. Dietary modification is one of the alternative steps in early prevention of colon cancer. It has been proposed that the components present in certain foods may have the ability to protect against many diseases including the prevention of cancer.
CONCLUSION: There are many factors that lead to obesity-associated colon cancer and the mechanisms behind it is still undergoing intensive research. This review aims to scrutinize research as well as reviews that have been previously reported on obesity associated colorectal cancer and the beneficial effects of including antioxidants-rich foods such as vegetables and fruits in the diet to reduce the risk of obesity associated colorectal cancer.
KEYWORDS: Obesity; colon cancer; pathways; natural phytochemicals
Objective: This study aims to investigate the public pattern in seeking breast cancer screening information in Malaysia using Google Trends. Methods: The Google Trends database was evaluated for the relative Internet search popularity of breast cancer and screening-related search terms from 2007 to 2018. Results: Result showed downward trends in breast cancer search, whereas mammogram and tomosynthesis search fluctuated consistently. A significant increment was found during Pink October month. Breast cancer search term achieved the highest popularity in the east coast of Malaysia with [x2 (5, N=661) = 110.93, P<0.05], whereas mammogram attained the highest search volume in central Malaysia [x2 (4, N=67) = 18.90, P<0.05]. The cross-correlation for breast cancer was moderate among northern Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak (0.3 ≤ rs ≤ 0.7). Conclusion: Public interest trend in breast cancer screening is strongly correlated with the breast cancer awareness campaign, Pink October. Breast cancer screening should be promoted in the rural areas in Malaysia.
Objective: This study examined the quality of life (QOL) of caregivers for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients, and associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at three referral hospitals in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A total of 323 pairs of patients and caregivers from the oncology units of these hospitals completed questionnaires in Malay. The QOL of caregivers was measured using The Malay Caregiver Quality of Life questionnaire. The independent variables were caregiver and patient factors, care-related factors, the Caregiver Strain Index-Malay, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support-Malay. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the factors associated with the QOL. Variables with p < 0.05 were considered significant in the multiple analyses. Results: Female caregivers were 68.1% of the total, and 46.4% caregivers were spouses to cancer patients. Their mean age was 44.50 (13.29) years old. About 51.7% were of Malay ethnicity. The mean score for QOL was 80.17 (21.58). Being a male caregiver (beta = 5.165, p = 0.011) and of Indian ethnicity (beta = -9.163, p = 0.001) were strongly associated with caregiver QOL. Male patients contributed higher QOL scores for the caregivers compared to female patients. There was an inverse relationship among caregiving strain, duration of caregiving, and caregiver QOL. Conclusion: The identification of factors that affect QOL will allow healthcare providers to develop appropriate interventions. It is important that caregivers be in good health so as not to compromise the care they provide to their patients.
Background: Cervical cancer is a preventable disease caused by human papillomaviruses. It is the third most common cancer to occur in women of reproductive age. The ADAM9 protein plays a role in basement membrane degradation and tumour metastasis in certain types of tumour. Thus, it has the potential to become a new targeted therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate ADAM9 expression in cervical cancer and to determine the factors associated with ADAM9-positive expression. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) Kelantan, Malaysia from December 2010 to December 2012. Histological slides obtained from 95 cervical cancer cases diagnosed and/or treated in HUSM from 2000 to 2010 were analysed. The ADAM9 immunostain was then performed on the paraffin blocks. The statistical data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 18.0. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with ADAM9-positive expression. Result: Of the 95 cervical cancer patients included in the study, 72 (75.8%) patients showed positive ADAM9 expression. The mean age of the patients was 53.89 (10.83) years old. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common type of cervical cancer (n = 67, 70.5%). Factors that showed a statistically significant association with ADAM9-positive expression were tumour size (adjusted odds ratio [adj. OR]: 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02, 1.13; p = 0.004), distant metastasis (adj. OR: 12.82; 95% CI: 1.91, 86.13; p = 0.009) and the histological type of cervical cancer (i.e. squamous cell carcinoma) (adj. OR: 7.39; 95% CI: 1.42, 38.51; p = 0.017). Conclusion: The ADAM9 immunostain was consistently positive in malignant cells. Thus, ADAM9 expression can be used as a prognostic/therapeutic indicator in aiding clinician decision-making regarding patient treatment (targeted therapy).
Background: Interleukin-10 (IL10) genotypes have been closely correlated to the susceptibility for oral squamous cell carcinoma. More than half of oral cancers in the world occur in Asia with estimated 168,850 new cases were diagnosed in this geographical region alone. Considering the rising numbers of oral cancer cases in Malaysia, association of IL10 A1082G gene polymorphism was correlated. Methodology: 41 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cases and 48 healthy controls of comparable age, gender, and with habits like smoking, alcohol consumption and betel quid chewing were selected. In this case-control study, samples were collected from the Oral Cancer Research and Coordinating Centre (OCRCC), Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Malaysia. Genotyping conditions were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The PCR products were subjected to digestion by MnlI enzyme (NEB, UK) to screen for the IL10 A-1082G. Digested DNA products were analyzed by electrophoresis on 4% (w/v) agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide and imaged under UV illumination. Chi-square test and Fisher’s Exact test were used in statistical analysis. Results: AG genotypes were present in 81.3% and 86.0% of healthy control and OSCC cases respectively (OR=0.468, 95% CI=0.133-1.653). No significant association was found between IL10 A1082G polymorphism with risk habits, clinico-pathological parameters and 5-years overall survival. The findings also show no significant correlation between the IL10 genotype and features of OSCC within the case group as measured by tumor size, lymph node involvement, stage, invasive front, grading, depth, pattern of invasion. Conclusion: This study suggests that functional polymorphism AG of IL10 A1082G may have no influence with OSCC susceptibility. However, further investigation with larger sample sizes can be conducted to provide additional evidence to support the lack of association of IL10 A1082G polymorphism in oral cancer.
Aim: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a member of genus Avulavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae. Interest of using NDV as an anticancer agent has arisen from its ability to kill tumor cells with limited toxicity to normal cells. Methods: In this investigation, the proliferation of brain tumor cell line, glioblastoma multiform (DBTRG.05MG) induced by NDV strain AF2240 was evaluated in-vitro, by using MTT proliferation assay. Furthermore, Cytological observations were studied using fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, DNA laddering in agarose gel electrophoresis assay used to detect the mode of cell death and analysis of the cellular DNA content by flowcytometery. Results: MTT proliferation assay, Cytological observations using fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy show the anti-proliferation effect and apoptogenic features of NDV on DBTRG.05MG. Furthermore, analysis of the cellular DNA content showed that there was a loss of treated cells in all cell cycle phases (G1, S and G2/M) accompanied with increasing in sub-G1 region (apoptosis peak). Conclusion: It could be concluded that NDV strain AF2240 is a potent antitumor agent that induce apoptosis and its cytotoxicity increasing while increasing of time and virus titer.
Introduction: Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a hallmark of defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) of genes especially MLH1 and MSH2. It is frequently involved in the carcinogenesis of various tumours including gastric cancer (GC). However, MSI in GCs have not been reported in Malaysia before. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the microsatellite instability (MSI) status in gastric cancer by microsatellite analysis, sequencing, its association with MLH1 and MSH2 protein expression and H.pylori infection by immunohistochemistry. Method: A total of 60 gastric cancer cases were retrieved. DNA was extracted from paired normal and tumour tissues while MLH1 and MSH2 protein expression as well as H. pylori status were determined by IHC staining. For microsatellite analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for paired tissue samples using a panel of five microsatellite markers. MSI-positive results were subjected for DNA sequencing to assess mutations in the MLH1 and MSH2 genes. Results: Microsatellite analysis identified ten MSI positive cases (16.7%), out of which only six cases (10.3%) showed absence of MLH1 (n=3) or MSH2 (n=3) protein expression by IHC. The most frequent microsatellite marker in MSI positive cases was BAT26 (90%). Nine of ten MSI positive cases were intestinal type with one diffuse and all were located distally. H. pylori infection was detected in 13 of 60 cases (21.7%) including in three MSI positive cases. All these results however were not statistically significant. Our sequencing data displayed novel mutations. However these data were not statistically correlated with expression levels of MLH1 and MSH2 proteins by IHC. This may be due to small sample size to detect small or moderately sized effects. Conclusion: The frequency of MSI in this study was comparable with published results. Determination of affected MMR genes by more than two antibodies may increase the sensitivity of IHC to that of MSI analysis.