Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 617 in total

  1. Heah KG, Hassan MI, Huat SC
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(4):1017-22.
    PMID: 21790244
    INTRODUCTION: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has high local recurrence, partly caused by the lack of clear margin identification on surgical removal of cancerous tissues. Direct visualization by immunostaining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in tissue sections gives more definite information about genetic damage at margins with appropriately selected biomarkers.

    AIMS: To determine the usefulness of immunohistochemical techniques and FISH of the tumour suppressor TP 53 gene to identify microinvasion in marginal tissue sections and to relate the possible correlation between protein expression and genetic aberrations in OSCC cases in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and FISH of TP 53 genes were applied on 26 OSCC formalin fixed paraffin embed (FFEP) blocks selected from two oral cancer referral centers in Malaysia.

    RESULTS: For p53 protein immunohistochemistry, 96% of the 26 OSCC studied showed positive immunostaining at the excision margins. In FISH assay, 48.9±9.7% of the cancerous cells were monoploid for p53 probe signals, 41.0±9.5 % were diploid, and 10.2±7.8 % were polyploid. A correlation between p53 immunostaining and TP53 gene aberrations was noted (p< 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical analysis of p53 protein expression and FISH of TP53 gene could be applied as screening tool for microinvasion of OSCC.

  2. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Teoh KH, Mun KS, Nazarina AR
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2012;13(2):469-72.
    PMID: 22524808
    The present study was conducted to assess utility of p16(INK4a) immunopositivity as a surrogate marker for genomic integration of high-risk human papillomavirus infection (hrHPV). A total of 29 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 27 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) and 53 invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), histologically-diagnosed between 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2008 at the University of Malaya Medical Centre were stained for p16(INK4a) (CINtec Histology Kit (REF 9511, mtm laboratories AG, Heidelberg, Germany). Immunopositvity was defined as diffuse staining of the squamous cell cytoplasm and or nucleus (involving > 75% of the intraepithelial lesions or SCCs). Staining of basal and parabasal layers of intraepithelial lesions was pre-requisite. One (3.4%) LSIL, 24 (88.9%) HSIL and 46 (86.8%) SCC were p16(INK4a) immunopositive. All normal squamous epithelium did not express p16(INK4). p16(INK4a) expression was significantly lower (p<0.05) in LSIL compared with HSIL and SCC with no difference in expression between HSIL and SCC.The increased p16(INK4a) immunopositivity in HSIL and SCC appears in line with the integrated existence of the hrHPV and may provide more insightful information on risk of malignant transformation of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions than mere hrHPV detection.
  3. Mohd Ridah LJ, A Talib N, Muhammad N, Hussain FA, Zainuddin N
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2017 10 26;18(10):2781-2785.
    PMID: 29072413
    Introduction: p16 gene plays an important role in the normal cell cycle regulation. Methylation of p16 has been reported to be one of the epigenetic events contributing to the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) which occurring at varying frequency. DLBCL is an aggressive and high-grade malignancy which accounts for approximately 30% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. However, little is known regarding the epigenetic alterations of p16 gene in DLBCL cases in Malaysia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the status of p16 methylation in DLBCL. Methods: A total of 88 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded DLBCL tissues retrieved from two hospitals located in the east coast of Malaysia, namely Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA) Pahang and Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) Kelantan, were chosen for this study. DNA specimens were isolated and subsequently subjected to bisulfite treatment prior to methylation specific-PCR. Two pairs of primers were used to amplify methylated and unmethylated regions of p16 gene. The PCR products were then separated using agarose gel electrophoresis and visualised under UV illumination. SPSS version 12.0 was utilised to perform all statistical analysis. Result: p16 methylation was detected in 65 of 88 (74%) samples. There was a significant association between p16 methylation status and patients aged >50 years old (p=0.04). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that methylation of p16 tumor suppressor gene in our DLBCL cases is common and significantly increased among patients aged 50 years and above. Aging is known to be an important risk factor in the development of cancers and we speculate that this might be due to the increased transformation of malignant cells in aging cell population. However, this has yet to be confirmed with further research and correlate the findings with clinicopathological parameters.
  4. Nurul-Syakima AM, Learn-Han L, Yoke-Kqueen C
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(21):9071-5.
    PMID: 25422181
    BACKGROUND: microRNAs are small non-coding RNA that control gene expression by mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. These molecules are known to play essential roles in many biological and physiological processes. miR-205 may be differentially expressed in head and neck cancers; however, there are conflicting data and localization of expression has yet to be determined.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: miR-205 expression was investigated in 48 cases of inflammatory, benign and malignant tumor tissue array of the neck, oronasopharynx, larynx and salivary glands by Locked Nucleic Acid in situ hybridization (LNA-ISH) technology.

    RESULTS: miR-205 expression was significantly differentially expressed across all of the inflammatory, benign and malignant tumor tissues of the neck. A significant increase in miR-205 staining intensity (p<0.05) was observed from inflammation to benign and malignant tumors in head and neck tissue array, suggesting that miR-205 could be a biomarker to differentiate between cancer and non-cancer tissues.

    CONCLUSIONS: LNA-ISH revealed that miR-205 exhibited significant differential cytoplasmic and nuclear staining among inflammation, benign and malignant tumors of head and neck. miR-205 was not only exclusively expressed in squamous epithelial malignancy. This study offers information and a basis for a comprehensive study of the role of miR-205 that may be useful as a biomarker and/or therapeutic target in head and neck tumors.

  5. Chaudhry GE, Sohimi NKA, Mohamad H, Zafar MN, Ahmed A, Sung YY, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Feb 01;22(S1):17-24.
    PMID: 33576208 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.S1.17
    OBJECTIVE: Liver cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death, with reduced survival rates. The development of new chemotherapeutic agents is essential to find effective cytotoxic drugs that give minimum side effects to the surrounding healthy tissues. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects and mechanism of cell death induced by the crude and diethyl ether extract of Xylocarpus mouccensis on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    METHODS: The cytotoxicity activity was measured using the MTS assay. The mode of cell death determined by the apoptosis study, DNA fragmentation analysis done by using the TUNEL system. The pathway study or mechanism of apoptosis observed by study caspases 8, 9, 3/7 Glo-caspases method.

    RESULTS: In this study, the methanol extracts prepared from leaf Xylocarpus mouccensis leaf produced cytotoxicity effect with IC50 (72hr) < 30µg/ml. The IC50 value at 72 hours exerted by diethyl ether extract of Xylocarpus moluccensis leaf was 0.22 µg/ml, which was more cytotoxic than to that of crude methanol extract. The results obtained by the colorimetric TUNEL system suggest that methanol crude extract of Xylocarpus moluccensis (leaf), diethyl ether extract of Xylocarpus moluccensis (leaf) and methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum (bark) induced DNA fragmentation in the HepG2 cell line. Besides, the caspase-Glo assay demonstrated that diethyl ether leaf extract of Xylocarpus moluccensis triggered apoptotic cell death via activation of caspases -8, and -3/7 However, no visible activation was noticed for caspase -9. Furthermore, TLC indicates the presence of potential metabolites in an extract of Xylocarpus moluccensis.

    CONCLUSION: Thus, the present study suggests the remarkable potential of active metabolites in the extract of Xylocarpus moluccensis as a future therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer.

  6. Zakaria Z, Othman N, Ismail A, Kamaluddin NR, Esa E, Abdul Rahman EJ, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2017 04 01;18(4):1169-1175.
    PMID: 28548470
    Background: ETV6/RUNX1 gene fusion is the most frequently seen chromosomal abnormality in childhood acute
    lymphobastic leukamia (ALL). However, additional genetic changes are known to be required for the development of
    this type of leukaemia. Therefore, we here aimed to assess the somatic mutational profile of four ALL cases carrying the
    ETV6/RUNX1 fusion gene using whole-exome sequencing. Methods: DNA was isolated from bone marrow samples
    using a QIAmp DNA Blood Mini kit and subsequently sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq system. Results: We
    identified 12,960 to17,601 mutations in each sample, with a total of 16,466 somatic mutations in total. Some 15,533
    variants were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 129 were substitutions, 415 were insertions and 389 were
    deletions. When taking into account the coding region and protein impact, 1,875 variants were synonymous and 1,956
    were non-synonymous SNPs. Among non-synonymous SNPs, 1,862 were missense, 13 nonsense, 35 frameshifts, 11
    nonstop, 3 misstart, 15 splices disrupt and 17 in-frame indels. A total of 86 variants were located in leukaemia-related
    genes of which 32 variants were located in the coding regions of GLI2, SP140, GATA2, SMAD5, KMT2C, CDH17,
    CDX2, FLT3, PML and MOV10L1. Conclusions: Detection and identification of secondary genetic alterations are
    important in identifying new therapeutic targets and developing rationally designed treatment regimens with less
    toxicity in ALL patients.
  7. Ibrahim NI, Dahlui M, Aina EN, Al-Sadat N
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2012;13(5):2213-8.
    PMID: 22901196
    INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, breast cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in women. However, the survival rate varies across regions at averages of 73%and 57% in the developed and developing countries, respectively.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the survival rate of breast cancer among the women of Malaysia and characteristics of the survivors.

    METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on secondary data obtained from the Breast Cancer Registry and medical records of breast cancer patients admitted to Hospital Kuala Lumpur from 2005 to 2009. Survival data were validated with National Birth and Death Registry. Statistical analysis applied logistic regression, the Cox proportional hazard model, the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test.

    RESULTS: A total of 868 women were diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2005 and December 2009, comprising 58%, 25% and 17% Malays, Chinese and Indians, respectively. The overall survival rate was 43.5% (CI 0.573-0.597), with Chinese, Indians and Malays having 5 year survival rates of 48.2% (CI 0.444-0.520), 47.2% (CI 0.432-0.512) and 39.7% (CI 0.373-0.421), respectively (p<0.05). The survival rate was lower as the stages increased, with the late stages were mostly seen among the Malays (46%), followed by Chinese (36%) and Indians (34%). Size of tumor>3.0cm; lymph node involvement, ERPR, and HER 2 status, delayed presentation and involvement of both breasts were among other factors that were associated with poor survival.

    CONCLUSIONS: The overall survival rate of Malaysian women with breast cancer was lower than the western figures with Malays having the lowest because they presented at late stage, after a long duration of symptoms, had larger tumor size, and had more lymph nodes affected. There is an urgent need to conduct studies on why there is delay in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer women in Malaysia.

  8. Al-Naggar RA, Saghir FS
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(11):3041-7.
    PMID: 22393987
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of waterpipe (shisha) smoking and associated factors among Malaysian university students.
    METHODOLOGY: A total of 200 university students from Management and Science University participated in this study. The survey was conducted by simple random sampling by randomly distributing self-administered questionnaires to the library, cafeterias and classes. The protocol of this study was approved by the ethics committee of Management and Science University. Consent forms were obtained from the students before they answered the questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 13. with the Student's t-test for comparison of the mean practice and backward multiple linear regression for multivariate analysis.
    RESULTS: The majority of the subjects were male, single, Malay and from urban areas (61.5%, 94.5%, 66%, 76.5%; respectively). In this study 30% of the study participants were shisha smokers. Regarding knowledge about shisha smoking, the majority (48.5%) mentioned that shisha is less harmful than cigarettes and 55% reported that shisha is less addictive. Univariate analysis showed that age, race, sex and income significantly influenced the practice of smoking shisha among university students (p=0.019, p=0.002, p=0.001, p=0.018; respectively). For multivariate analysis, income and gender demonstrated significant influence (both p=0.001).
    CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of shisha smoking among Malaysian university students and knowledge about the dangers is low. Income and gender significantly influenced the practice of smoking shisha in our population. Banning of smoking including shisha smoking in public places is strongly recommended.
  9. Chaudhry GE, Jan R, Naveed Zafar M, Mohammad H, Muhammad TST
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2019 Dec 01;20(12):3555-3562.
    PMID: 31870094 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.12.3555
    OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects and mechanism of cell death induced by the extract and fractions of Vitex rotundifolia (leaves) in breast cancer cell line, T-47D.

    METHODS: The cytotoxicity activity was measured using MTS assay. The mode of cell death was analysed by early (phosphatidylserine externalization) and late apoptosis (DNA fragmentation). The caspases 8, 9, 3/7 and apoptotic proteins bax, bcl-2 study were done by western blot and ELISA method.

    RESULTS: The methanol extract was found to inhibit 50% growth of T-47D cells at the concentration of 79.43µg/ml respectively after 72hr. From seven fractions, fraction F1, F2 and F3 produced cytotoxicity effects in T-47D cell line with IC50 (72hr) < 30µg/ml. The results obtained by Annexin V/PI apoptosis detection assay and TUNEL assay suggest that active fractions of  Vitex rotundifolia induced early and late apoptosis (DNA fragmentation) in T-47D cell line. Moreover, western blot analysis and Caspase GloTM luminescent assay demonstrated that fractions F2 and F3 triggered apoptotic cell death via activation of caspases -8, -9 and -3/7 and up-regulation of  Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein.  Furthermore, chemical profiling confirms the presence of potential metabolites (vitexicarpin) in fractions of Vitex rotundifolia.

    CONCLUSION: Thus, the present study suggests the remarkable potential of active metabolites in fractions of Vitex rotundifolia as future cancer therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

  10. Ghazali AR, Muralitharan RV, Soon CK, Salyam T, Ahmad Maulana NN, Mohamed Thaha UAB, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2020 Nov 01;21(11):3381-3386.
    PMID: 33247699 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.11.3381
    BACKGROUND: Traditional cooling rice powder (bedak sejuk) is a fermented rice-based cosmetic that is applied topically on one's skin, as an overnight facial mask. According to user testimonies, bedak sejuk beautifies and whitens skin, whereby these benefits could be utilised as a potential melanoma chemopreventive agent.

    OBJECTIVE: Hence, this study aimed to determine the effects of bedak sejuk made from Oryza sativa ssp. indica (Indica) and Oryza sativa ssp. japonica (Japonica) on UVB-induced B164A5 melanoma cells, and also identify the antioxidant capacities of both types of bedak sejuk.

    METHODS: The optimum dose of Indica and Japonica bedak sejuk to treat the cells was determined via the MTT assay. Then, the antioxidant capacities of both types of bedak sejuk were determined using the FRAP assay.

    RESULTS: From the MTT assay, it was found that Indica and Japonica bedak sejuk showed no cytotoxic effects towards the cells. Hence, no IC50 can be obtained and two of the higher doses, 50 and 100 g/L were chosen for treatment. In the FRAP assay, Indica bedak sejuk at 50 and 100 g/L showed FRAP values of 0.003 ± 0.001 μg AA (ascorbic acid)/g of bedak sejuk and 0.004 ± 0.0003 μg AA/g of bedak sejuk. Whereas Japonica bedak sejuk at 50 g/L had the same FRAP value as Indica bedak sejuk at 100 g/L. As for Japonica bedak sejuk at 100 g/L, it showed the highest antioxidant capacity with the FRAP value of 0.01 ± 0.0007 μg AA/g of bedak sejuk which was statistically significant (p < 0.05) when compared to other tested concentrations.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, Japonica bedak sejuk has a higher antioxidant capacity compared to Indica bedak sejuk despite both being not cytotoxic towards the cells. Regardless, further investigations need to be done before bedak sejuk could be developed as potential melanoma chemoprevention agents.

  11. Edirisinghe ST, Weerasekera M, De Silva DK, Devmini MT, Pathmaperuma S, Wijesinghe GK, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2023 Jan 01;24(1):267-274.
    PMID: 36708576 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2023.24.1.267
    BACKGROUND: The incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is very high in South Asia and Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the key factors essential for cancer growth. The importance of VEGF-A and VEGF Receptor 2(VEGFR-2) in oral cancer pathophysiology is yet to be decided. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A) is the main factor concerned in angiogenesis in tumors, but its role in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is still debatable. Our study aimed to determine the role of VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 in OSCC.

    METHODS: Blood from 30 patients with primary OSCC and 1:1 age-sex-matched controls was subjected to qPCR and ELISA to detect VEGF-A gene expression and serum level. Tumors of the 30 patients were investigated for VEGF Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) expression and were analyzed using Image J software version 1.52 for DAB percentage (DAB-P) area and optical density (OD).

    RESULTS: VEGF-A relative gene expression among patients was 2.43-fold higher compared to the healthy control group. Well-differentiated had a 1.98-fold increment, while poorly differentiated had a 3.58-fold increment. Serum VEGF-A was significantly elevated among the patients compared to controls (458.7 vs 253.2, p=0.0225). Poorly differentiated had a higher serum VEGF concentration (1262.0±354.7pg/ml) compared with other two. Mean VEGFR-2 DAB-P level in OSCC was 42.41±5.61(p=0.15). Well-differentiated had a DAB-P of 41.20±5.32 while poorly differentiated had DAB-P 46.21±3.78. The mean OD in OSCC was 0.54±0.16. VEGFR-2 OD in well and poorly differentiated OSCC were 0.48±0.12 and 0.68±0.17, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: VEGF-A gene expression, serum levels, and tissue VEGFR-2 levels correlated linearly with the stage and grade of the tumor. This study justifies the value of VEGF-A as a potential biomarker in OSCC in early detection of OSCC. More studies are needed to accept the use of VEGF-A.

  12. Halim NH, Chong ET, Goh LP, Chuah JA, See EU, Chua KH, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2016;17(4):1925-31.
    PMID: 27221877
    BACKGROUND: The XRCC1 protein facilitates various DNA repair pathways; single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene are associated with a risk of gastrointestinal cancer (GIC) with inconsistent results, but no data have been previously reported for the Sabah, North Borneo, population. We accordingly investigated the XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln SNPs in terms of GIC risk in Sabah.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed genotyping for both SNPs for 250 GIC patients and 572 healthy volunteers using a polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism approach. We validated heterozygosity and homozygosity for both SNPs using direct sequencing.

    RESULTS: The presence of a variant 194Trp allele in the Arg194Trp SNP was significantly associated with a higher risk of GIC, especially with gastric and colorectal cancers. We additionally found that the variant 399Gln allele in Arg399Gln SNP was associated with a greater risk of developing gastric cancer. Our combined analysis revealed that inheritance of variant alleles in both SNPs increased the GIC risk in Sabah population. Based on our etiological analysis, we found that subjects ≥50 years and males who carrying the variant 194Trp allele, and Bajau subjects carrying the 399Gln allele had a significantly increased risk of GIC.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that inheritance of variant alleles in XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln SNPs may act as biomarkers for the early detection of GIC, especially for gastric and colorectal cancers in the Sabah population.

  13. Zainol Abidin N, Abidin EZ, Zulkifli A, Syed Ismail SN, Karuppiah K, Amer Nordin AS, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2018 Feb 26;19(2):457-462.
    PMID: 29480664
    Background: Consistency and accuracy of results in assessing health risks due to vaping or e-cigarette use are difficult to achieve without established consumption data. The present report covers baseline data on vaping topography and reasons for use among local users in Klang Valley, Malaysia.
    Methods: An 80-item survey regarding socio-demographic characteristics, smoking topography and reasons for e-cigarette use was employed to assess e-cigarette users recruited from several public universities and private organisations. The survey questionnaire was self-administered. Data were analysed using statistical software.
    Results: Eighty-six current e-cigarette users participated with more than half (51.2%) of them aged ≥ 25 years old. Significant proportions of the sample were single (51.2%), had a tertiary education level (63.5%) and a household income of less than USD1000 per month (65.2%). Median duration of e-cigarette use was less than a year; users drew approximately 50 puffs per day and refilled twice a day. The majority (74%) used e-liquids containing nicotine with a concentration of 6 μg/mL. Daily users spent USD18-23 per month. Reasons for using the e-cigarette included enjoyment of the products (85.9%), perception of lower toxicity than tobacco (87%), and the fact that it was a cheaper smoking alternative (61%).
    Conclusion: The data on e-cigarette smoking topography obtained in this study are novel. The reasons of usage were mainly users’ enjoyment of e-cigarettes, preparation for quitting smoking, perception of low toxicity and a healthier smoking substitute and cheapness in the long run. The results establish basic knowledge for the local vaping topography and reference material for future e-cigarette-related research.
  14. Che Mohamed N, Moey SF, Lim BC
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2019 09 01;20(9):2865-2873.
    PMID: 31554389 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.9.2865
    Background: Early detection of breast cancer is essential in improving overall women’s health. The researchers
    sought to develop a comprehensive measure that combined the basic components of the health belief model (HBM)
    with a focus on breast self-examination (BSE) and screening mammogram amongst women. Methods: Questionnaire
    items were developed following a review of relevant literature of HBM on BSE and screening mammogram. The
    sampling frame for the study was Malaysian women aged 35 to 70 years old, living in Kuantan, Pahang and able to
    read or write in Bahasa Malaysia or English. As such, 103 women were randomly selected to participate in the study.
    Tests of validity using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and reliability were subsequently performed to determine the
    psychometric properties of the questionnaire. Results: The EFA revealed nine factors (self-efficacy of mammogram,
    perceived barriers of BSE and mammogram, perceived susceptibility of breast cancer, perceived severity of breast
    cancer, cues to action for mammogram screening, perceived benefits of BSE, health motivation, perceived benefits
    of mammogram and self-efficacy of BSE) containing 54 items that jointly accounted for 74.2% of the observed
    variance. All nine factors have good internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha ≥ 0.8. Fifty-four items remained in
    the final questionnaire after deleting 13 problematic items. The scale also showed good convergent and discriminant
    validity. Conclusion: The findings showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable instrument for the
    study involving women in Kuantan, Pahang. The instrument can help to assess women’s beliefs on BSE adoption and
    mammogram screening in health care practice and research.
  15. Juliana N, Shahar S, Chelliah KK, Ghazali AR, Osman F, Sahar MA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(14):5759-65.
    PMID: 25081698
    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a potential supplement for mammogram screening. This study aimed to evaluate and feasibility of EIT as opposed to mammography and to determine pain perception with both imaging methods. Women undergoing screening mammography at the Radiology Department of National University of Malaysia Medical Centre were randomly selected for EIT imaging. All women were requested to give a pain score after each imaging session. Two independent raters were chosen to define the image findings of EIT. A total of 164 women in the age range from 40 to 65-year-old participated and were divided into two groups; normal and abnormal. EIT sensitivity and specificity for rater 1 were 69.4% and 63.3, whereas for rater 2 they were 55.3% and 57.0% respectively. The reliability for each rater ranged between good to very good (p<0.05). Quantitative values of EIT showed there were significant differences in all values between groups (ANCOVA, p<0.05). Interestingly, EIT scored a median pain score of 1.51±0.75 whereas mammography scored 4.15±0.87 (Mann Whitney U test, p<0.05). From these quantitative values, EIT has the potential as a health discriminating index. Its ability to replace image findings from mammography needs further investigation.
  16. Mohd Suan MA, Ng YZ, Henry GF, Md Said R, Kollanthavelu S, Mustapha MI, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2023 Sep 01;24(9):3183-3186.
    PMID: 37774070 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2023.24.9.3183
    BACKGROUND: Colorectal neoplasia is a multistep process that can lead to the development of colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis and screening of colorectal cancer, but its uptake is often hindered by unpleasant experiences and logistic obstacles. Therefore, non-invasive biomarker tests such as the M2-pyruvate kinase (M2PK) test have been explored as a potential screening tool.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the M2PK Quick Stool Test (ScheBo®) in detecting colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma in high-risk Malaysian populations using colonoscopy as the comparison.

    METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted from December 2017 to December 2019 in four hospitals in Malaysia. Participants were eligible if they met any of the following criteria: personal or family history of colorectal polyps or cancer, inherited syndromes, altered bowel habits, rectal bleeding, unintended weight loss, loss of appetite, abdominal pain or cramps, or unexplained iron deficiency, or an Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening score of 4-7. Participants provided a stool sample that was tested for M2PK using the M2PK Quick Test. Participants then underwent a colonoscopy, and any lesions found were biopsied and sent for histopathological examination.

    RESULTS: A total of 562 participants were included in the study, of whom 89 had a positive M2PK test. Presence of adenoma and/or dysplastic lesions were confirmed in 14.4% and adenocarcinoma in 3.0% of the participants. The M2PK Quick Stool Test showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 58.8%, 85.5%, 11.2% and 98.5%, respectively in detecting colorectal adenocarcinoma. For detection of colorectal adenoma, this test yielded a sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 27.3%, 86.3%, 27.0% and 86.5%, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The M2PK Quick Stool Test showed a moderate accuracy in detecting colorectal adenocarcinoma and adenomas in the studied population.

  17. Omer ME, Abu Bakar M, Adam M, Mustafa M
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Apr 01;22(4):1045-1053.
    PMID: 33906295 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.4.1045
    OBJECTIVE: Cure rate models are survival models, commonly applied to model survival data with a cured fraction. In the existence of a cure rate, if the distribution of survival times for susceptible patients is specified, researchers usually prefer cure models to parametric models. Different distributions can be assumed for the survival times, for instance, generalized modified Weibull (GMW), exponentiated Weibull (EW), and log-beta Weibull. The purpose of this study is to select the best distribution for uncured patients' survival times by comparing the mixture cure models based on the GMW distribution and its particular cases.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A data set of 91 patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) followed for five years from 1982 to 1987 was chosen for fitting the mixture cure model. We used the maximum likelihood estimation technique via R software 3.6.2 to obtain the estimates for parameters of the proposed model in the existence of cure rate, censored data, and covariates. For the best model choice, the Akaike information criterion (AIC) was implemented.

    RESULTS: After comparing different parametric models fitted to the data, including or excluding cure fraction, without covariates, the smallest AIC values were obtained by the EW and the GMW distributions, (953.31/969.35) and (955.84/975.99), respectively. Besides, assuming a mixture cure model based on GMW with covariates, an estimated ratio between cure fractions for allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplant groups (and its 95% confidence intervals) were 1.42972 (95% CI: 1.18614 - 1.72955).

    CONCLUSION: The results of this study reveal that the EW and the GMW distributions are the best choices for the survival times of Leukemia patients.

  18. Tan GC, Sharifah NA, Shiran MS, Salwati S, Hatta AZ, Paul-Ng HO
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2008 Oct-Dec;9(4):781-4.
    PMID: 19256776
    The differentiation between cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN 3) and early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix may be difficult in certain situations. Identification of invasion beyond the basement membrane is the gold standard for the diagnosis of the latter. The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of Ki-67 and p53 could help in solving the above dilemma. This was a retrospective study on 61 cases of cervical neoplasms comprising of 25 cases of CIN 3 and 36 SCC. All cases were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using Ki-67 and p53 monoclonal antibodies. Results showed that the differences of Ki-67 and p53 expression between CIN 3 and SCC were statistically significant. In conclusion, Ki-67 and p53 may serve as helpful adjuncts to routinely-stained histological sections in differentiating between CIN 3 and SCC.
  19. Mohamad M, Kok HS
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2019 May 25;20(5):1427-1432.
    PMID: 31127903
    Objective: This study aims to investigate the public pattern in seeking breast cancer screening information in
    Malaysia using Google Trends. Methods: The Google Trends database was evaluated for the relative Internet search
    popularity of breast cancer and screening-related search terms from 2007 to 2018. Results: Result showed downward
    trends in breast cancer search, whereas mammogram and tomosynthesis search fluctuated consistently. A significant
    increment was found during Pink October month. Breast cancer search term achieved the highest popularity in the east
    coast of Malaysia with [x2 (5, N=661) = 110.93, P<0.05], whereas mammogram attained the highest search volume in
    central Malaysia [x2 (4, N=67) = 18.90, P<0.05]. The cross-correlation for breast cancer was moderate among northern
    Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak (0.3 ≤ rs ≤ 0.7). Conclusion: Public interest trend in breast cancer screening is strongly
    correlated with the breast cancer awareness campaign, Pink October. Breast cancer screening should be promoted in
    the rural areas in Malaysia.
  20. Saibul N, Shariff ZM, Rahmat A, Sulaiman S, Yaw YH
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2012;13(8):4081-6.
    PMID: 23098520
    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is prevalent among individuals with cancer, especially breast cancer survivors. This study was conducted among 394 breast cancer survivors in selected regions of Peninsular Malaysia to identify the pattern and factors associated with CAM use. About 51% of the respondents reported CAM use as complementary treatment. Vitamins (47.2%), spiritual activities (33.2%) and other dietary supplements (30.7%) were the most commonly used CAM therapies. Common reasons for CAM use were to increase the body's ability to perform daily activities (70.9%), enhance immune function (58.3%) and improve emotional well-being (31.7%). Users obtained CAM information mainly from friends and family members (62.5%), physicians (25.0%) and mass media (13.9%). Ethnicity and years of education were significantly associated with CAM use. Although no adverse effects of CAM were reported, breast cancer survivors should discuss their CAM use with health professionals to prevent potential adverse effects of these therapies.
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