AIM: The objective of the present study was to investigate whether this polymorphism modulate the risk of disease recurrence in TNBC patients undergoing TAC chemotherapy regimen.
METHODS: Blood samples of 76 immunohistochemistry confirmed TNBC patients were recruited. The genotyping of CYP1B1 4326 C>G polymorphism was carried out using PCR-RFLP technique. The genotype patterns were categorized into homozygous wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous variant. Kaplan-Meier analysis followed by Cox proportional hazard regression model were performed to evaluate the TNBC patients' recurrence risk.
RESULTS: Out of 76 TNBC patients, 25 (33.0%) showed disease recurrence after one-year evaluation. Kaplan Meier analysis showed that TNBC patients who are carriers of CYP1B1 4326 GG variant genotypes (37.0%) had a significantly lower probability of disease-free rates as compared to TNBC patients who are carriers of CYP1B1 4326 CC/CG genotypes (71.0%). Univariate and multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that TNBC patients who carried CYP1B1 4326 GG variant genotype had a significantly higher risk of recurrence with HR: 2.50 and HR: 4.18 respectively, even after adjustment as compared to TNBC patients who were carriers of CYP1B1 4326 CC and CG genotypes.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the potential use of CYP1B1 4325 GG variant genotype as a candidate biomarker in predicting risk of recurrence in TNBC patients undergoing TAC chemotherapy regimen.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have conducted the study to evaluate immunohistochemistry's performance in detecting the E746-A750 deletion in exon 19 of the EGFR gene in primary lung adenocarcinoma cases. This study examined 133 cases of primary lung adenocarcinoma for three years duration. The selected cases were tested for EGFR gene mutations by real-time PCR by a reference laboratory. Most cases (124) were diagnosed by tissue biopsy, though nine used cell block cytology. We performed an immunohistochemistry test on 75 cases that contained adequate diagnostic material in the paraffin block.
RESULTS: The test result was scored as 0 to 3+, based on the staining intensity and percentage of positive tumor cells. We evaluated the immunohistochemistry test's sensitivity and specificity compared to the EGFR gene mutations by real-time PCR. There was a significant association between gender, smoking status, and the EGFR gene mutations (P < 0.001). The overall sensitivity and specificity of the immunohistochemistry test were 40% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive values were 100% and 76.9%, each.
CONCLUSIONS: The immunohistochemistry has high specificity but low sensitivity in the detection of E746-A750 deletion in exon 19 of the EGFR gene. The mutation-specific antibody used in this study was unable to detect other uncommon variants of exon 19 deletions. With high specificity value, immunohistochemistry may provide an adjunct to molecular testing for detecting the most common EGFR gene mutations in cases of a low cellularity sample, financially-limited situations, or in critically ill cases where urgent targeted therapy is needed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 53 paired tissue samples from breast cancer patients were frozen-sectioned to characterize the tumour and normal tissues. Only tissues with 80% tumour cells were used in this study. For confirmation, Q-PCR was used to determine the HER-2/neu DNA amplification.
RESULTS: We found 20/53 (37.7%) of the tumour tissues to be positive for HER-2/neu protein overexpression using IHC. Out of these twenty, only 9/53 (17%) cases were in agreement with the Q-PCR results. The concordance rate between IHC and Q-PCR was 79.3%. Approximately 20.7% of positive IHC cases showed no HER-2/neu gene amplification using Q-PCR.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, IHC can be used as an initial screening method for detection of the HER-2/neu protein overexpression. Techniques such as Q-PCR should be employed to verify the IHC results for uncertain cases as well as determination of HER-2/neu gene amplification.
METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a population based randomized control trial. Women aged 20-65 years in the population that matched the inclusion and exclusion criteria were re-called for a repeat smear. There are four different intervention groups; letter, registered letters, short messages services (SMS) and phone calls where 250 subjects were recruited into each group. Samples were generated randomly from the same population in Klang into four different groups. The first group received a recall letter for a repeat smear similar to the one that has been given during the first invitation. The intervention groups were either be given a registered letter, an SMS or a phone call to re-call them. The socio-demographic data of the patients who came for uptake were collected for further analysis. All the groups were followed up after 8 weeks to assess their compliance to the recall.
CONCLUSIONS: The study will provide recommendations about the most effective methods for recall in a population based pap smear screening program on two outcomes: i) patients response; ii) uptake for repeat pap smear.
METHODS: This is an observational retrospective study carried out in a general hospital on 117 solid tumor patients who admitted between January 2003 to December 2006. The main statistical tests used were Chi- square test and Fisher' s Exact test. The significance of the result will be when the P<0.05, while the confidence interval for this study was 95%.
RESULTS: The highest chemotherapeutic regimen was (5-FU+epirubicin+cyclophosphamide) (47, 40.2%) followed by (gemcitabine+cisplatin) (6, 5.1%) and many others. Majority of the patients receive their chemotherapy schedule of administration was one day schedule (90, 76.9%) followed by more than one day schedule (27, 23.1%).
CONCLUSION: The doses of these drugs were not high enough to produce a sufficient pharmacological effect to cause bone marrow suppression and lead to neutropenia. Besides the schedule of administration for each drug was long enough to overcome neutropenia also the high uses of granulocyte colony stimulation factor (G-CSF) which will play a major role in reducing the time and severity of neutropenia. All these factors play an important role in giving non- significant association between neutropenia onset and severity with chemotherapeutics drugs and their schedule of administration.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the inhibitory effects of PEITC against benzo[a]pyrene-induced rise in rat liver CYP1A1 mRNA and apoprotein levels.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Precision cut rat liver slices were treated with benzo[a]pyrene at 1 and 5 μM in the presence of PEITC (1-25 μM) for 24 hours, followed by determination of CYP1A1 mRNA and apoprotein levels using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting.
RESULTS: Findings revealed that PEITC inhibited benzo[a]pyrene-induced rise in rat liver CYP1A1 mRNA in a dose-dependent manner as well as the apoprotein levels of CYP1A.
CONCLUSIONS: It was demonstrated that PEITC can directly inhibit the bioactivation of benzo[a]pyrene, indicating chemopreventive potential.
METHODS: 11 key informant interviews were conducted with policy makers and health care providers from the Ministry of Health in Malaysia from October 2009 to May 2010. Interviewees' perceptions were explored on current and organized cervical screening program based on their expertise and experience.
RESULTS: The results highlighted that the existing cervical screening program in Malaysia faced flaws at all levels that failed to reduce cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. The identified weaknesses were poor acceptance by women, lack of commitment by health care providers, nature of the program, an improper follow-up system, limited resources and other competing needs. Complementarily, all interviewees perceived an organized cervical screening program as an alternative approach both feasible and acceptable by women and government to practice in Malaysia.
CONCLUSION: Better screening coverage depends on an effective screening program that incorporates a behaviour-based strategy. A new program should be focused in the policy-making context to improve screening coverage and to effectively combat cervical cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: All women with breast cancer treated at SJMC between 2008 and 2012 were enrolled for this observational cohort study. Mortality outcome was ascertained through record linkage with national death register, linkage with hospital registration system and finally through direct contact by phone or home visits.
RESULTS: A total of 675 patients treated between 2008 and 2012 were included in the present survival analysis, 65% with early breast cancer, 20% with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) and 4% with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The overall relative survival (RS) at 5 years was 88%. RS for stage I was 100% and for stage II, III and IV disease was 95%, 69% and 36% respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: SJMC is among the first hospitals in Malaysia to embark on routine measurement of the performance of its cancer care services and its results are comparable to any leading centers in developed countries.