Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 589 in total

  1. Al-Rawashde FA, Wan Taib WR, Ismail I, Johan MF, Al-Wajeeh AS, Al-Jamal HAN
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Dec 01;22(12):3959-3965.
    PMID: 34967577 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.12.3959
    OBJECTIVE: BCR ABL oncogene encodes the BCR-ABL chimeric protein, which is a constitutively activated non-receptor tyrosine kinase. The BCR-ABL oncoprotein is a key molecular basis for the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) via activation of several downstream signaling pathways including JAK/STAT pathway. Development of leukemia involves constitutive activation of signaling molecules including, JAK2, STAT3, STAT5A and STAT5B. Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive constituent of Nigella sativa that has shown anticancer properties in various cancers. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of TQ on the expression of BCR ABL, JAK2, STAT3, STAT5A and STAT5B genes and their consequences on the cell proliferation and apoptosis in K562 CML cells.

    METHODS: BCR-ABL positive K562 CML cells were treated with TQ. Cytotoxicity was determined by Trypan blue exclusion assay. Apoptosis assay was performed by annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay and analyzed by flow cytometry. Transcription levels of BCR ABL, JAK2, STAT3, STAT5A and STAT5B genes were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Protein levels of JAK2 and STAT5 were determined by Jess Assay analysis.

    RESULTS: TQ markedly decreased the cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in K562 cells (P < 0.001) in a concentration dependent manner. TQ caused a significant decrease in the transcriptional levels of BCR ABL, JAK2, STAT3, STAT5A and STAT5B genes (P < 0.001). TQ induced a significant decrease in JAK2 and STAT5 protein levels (P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: our results indicated that TQ inhibited cell growth of K562 cells via downregulation of BCR ABL/ JAK2/STAT3 and STAT5 signaling and reducing JAK2 and STAT5 protein levels.

  2. Hasenan N, Mohd Isa SA, Hussain FA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Dec 01;22(12):4011-4016.
    PMID: 34967583 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.12.4011
    BACKGROUND: c-Myc has become significantly involved in aggressive B-cell non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but little is known about its importance in T and NK cell NHL (TNKcNHLs) in association with prognostic factors. The study is to investigate the significance of c-Myc expression with clinicopathological features of TNKcNHLs patients.

    METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study of 32 archived tissue blocks of TNKcNHLs were immunohistochemically stained with c-Myc. The results were microscopically evaluated and statistically analysed to examine the association between the clinicopathological data with the c-Myc expression.

    RESULTS: c-Myc protein expressions were detected in 25/32 (78.1%) cases. The median age was 38-years.  Malay ethnicity (92.0%) with 21 males and 11 females. c-Myc expressions were seen in T lymphoblastic lymphoma (20%), ALK-positive ALCL (16%) ,PTCL,NOS (16%), extra nodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (12%), extra-nodal involvement (78.1%), elevated serum LDH (83.3%) and high ECOG performance status (82.4%). However, no statistical significant of c-Myc in association with the clinicopathological parameters (p > 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: There was no statistically significant association of clinicopathological parameters and histological subtypes of TNKcNHLs contributed by small samples tested. However, the attribution of c-Myc in this disease should be further explored.

  3. Norsa'adah B, Rampal KG, Mohd Amin R
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Nov 01;22(11):3623-3631.
    PMID: 34837921 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.11.3623
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer patients in Malaysia often present late, delaying diagnosis and treatment. Decisions on health-seeking behaviour are influenced by a complex interplay of several factors. Early detection and subsequent successful treatment are the main goal in order to reduce breast cancer mortality. The aims of this study were to identify the time taken by women with breast cancer for consultation, diagnosis and first definitive treatment and the factors associated with the initiation of definitive treatment.

    METHODS: In this cohort study, we interviewed 328 women with histologically confirmed breast cancer at five medical centres in Malaysia. Times were measured from recognition of symptoms to first consultation to diagnosis and to the first definitive treatment. The event was initiation of definitive treatment. Data was analysed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression.

    RESULTS: The mean age was 47.9 (standard deviation 9.4) years and 79.9% were ethnic Malays. The median follow-up time was 6.9 months. The median times for first doctor consultation, diagnosis and initiation of treatment were 2 months, 5.5 months and 2.4 weeks, respectively. The percentage of consultation delay more than a month was 66.8%, diagnosis delay more than three months was 73.2% and treatment delay more than one month was 11.6%. Factors associated with not initiating the definitive treatment were pregnancy (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.75; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.07, 2.88), taking complementary alternative medicine (AHR 1.45; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.83), initial refusal of mastectomy (AHR 3.49; 95% CI: 2.38, 5.13) and undergoing lumpectomy prior to definitive treatment (AHR 1.62; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.28).

    CONCLUSIONS: Delays in diagnosis and consultation were more serious than treatment delays. Most respondents would accept treatment immediately after diagnosis. Respondents themselves were responsible for a large proportion of the delays. This study was successful in understanding the process of breast cancer patients' experience, from symptoms recognition to consultation, diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Ahmat ANMF, Wan Puteh SE, Yusak S
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Nov 01;22(11):3601-3606.
    PMID: 34837918 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.11.3601
    OBJECTIVE: Cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (CAT) is a common disease or complication which is associated with reduced survival and incurring a substantial health-care cost. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) remained the gold standard treatment option available. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have recently become more popular in the guidelines, they are still few and inconsistent across the current literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate rivaroxaban in treatment of CAT.

    METHODS: In this prospective real-world study, we recruited and followed up patients diagnosed with CAT treated with rivaroxaban or standard of care as a control for 12 months or until death. Baseline characteristics were collected at the study entry. The primary outcomes were recurrent DVT or PE and death within 12 months after treatment initiation. Safety outcomes were composite outcomes of major and minor bleeding.    Results: A total of 80 patients confirm CAT with radiological imaging were recruited; 39 patients were evaluated in the control arm and 41 patients in the rivaroxaban arm. The 12 months cumulative CAT recurrence rate was 46.2% in control and 39% in rivaroxaban (p=0.519). The 12-month death was not a statistically significant difference between both arms (20.5% vs. 31.7%, p=0.255). The cumulative rate of composite safety outcomes was similar in both groups (17.9% vs. 12.2%, p=0.471).

    CONCLUSION: The result of this small but important real-world evidence proofs that rivaroxaban is an effective and safe alternative to the standard of care for CAT in Malaysia's cancer population.

  5. Chan MW, Chean KY, Kader Maideen SF, Kow FP
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Nov 01;22(11):3475-3482.
    PMID: 34837902 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.11.3475
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women in Malaysia. A major challenge for CRC screening programs is to improve the screening participation rates. In Malaysia, the most critical barrier to the uptake of CRC screening is the lack of patient awareness. This study aimed to determine the intention and the uptake of CRC screening, and to explore the related motivators and barriers after raising awareness with a brief health education.

    METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in a government health clinic of Penang from March to August 2019. Asymptomatic clinic attendees aged 50-75 years who had no prior awareness of CRC screening were recruited by systematic random sampling technique. Participants first received a standardised one to one health education, followed by an interview using a standardised questionnaire to assess their CRC screening intention and the relevant motivators and barriers. A submission of a sample for immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) was considered as an uptake of the CRC screening.

    RESULTS: A total of 546 participants participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 62.8 (SD=6.36). Majority of them were females (57.3%), Chinese (78.6%), who had attained primary or higher education (92.0%) and had comorbidities (87.0%).  After a brief health education, 231 participants (42.3%) agreed to undergo iFOBT. The actual screening uptake rate in this study was 28%. Perceived benefit of the test (84.4%) was the most common motivators, while self-perceived non-vulnerability was the biggest impediment to CRC screening intention. Physicians' recommendation was the perceived most effective way in raising CRC awareness.

    CONCLUSION: Participants prefer physicians to provide health education. Standardised brief health education is inadequate to stimulate CRC screening adherence. Future interventions will require in-depth understanding of patients' beliefs, risk perception, and affective responses.

  6. Mohd Nafis NS, Mat Zin AA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Oct 01;22(10):3261-3266.
    PMID: 34711003 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.10.3261
    Liquid-based preparation (LBP) cytology is commonly used in most laboratories these days due to its convenience and reliable results for the cervical cancer screening program. The PathTezt™ Liquid-based Pap smear is a second-generation LBP, which uses a filter-based concentration technique in processing the sample.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was done to evaluate the cellular fixation, morphology, quality of smear in gynae cytology, and diagnostic interpretation of cervical cytological smears produced by the PathTezt liquid-based processor.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 400 pap smear samples were taken and processed using the PathTezt 2000 processor. The slides were evaluated in terms of sample adequacy, percentage of the circle covered by epithelial cells, cellular distribution, obscuring factors, and cell fixation.

    RESULTS: About 95.25% (381) of the samples were satisfactory for the evaluation. In 19 (4.75%) of the samples, epithelial cells covered less than 50% of the circle. A sample with good cellular distribution was seen in 92% of the cases, while 354 (88.5%) samples showed minimal inflammatory background. Almost all the smears (95.75%) had no erythrocytes in the background. All smears showed good quality fixation features toward nuclear, cytoplasm, and microorganisms. The total performance rate was 99%.

    CONCLUSION: Although the PathTezt liquid-based processor is still new compared to other first-generation LBP, the smears produced by this method were of high quality and it was cost-effective.

  7. Pandarathodiyil AK, Ramanathan A, Garg R, Doss JG, Abd Rahman FB, Ghani WMN, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Oct 01;22(10):3227-3235.
    PMID: 34710999 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.10.3227
    BACKGROUND: We examined the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme levels in the saliva of vapers (e-cigarette users) and compared the data with cigarette smokers and a control group of non-smokers and non-vapers.

    METHODS: Subjects were recruited among those responding to a social media announcement or patients attending the SEGi Oral Health Care Centre between May and December 2019, and among some staff at the centre. Five ml of unstimulated   whole saliva was collected and salivary LDH enzyme activity levels were measured with a LDH colorimetric assay kit. Salivary LDH activity level was determined for each group and compared statistically.

    RESULTS: Eighty-eight subjects were categorized into three groups (control n=30, smokers n=29, and vapers n=29). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) values for salivary LDH activity levels for vapers, smokers, and control groups were 35.15 ± 24.34 mU/ml, 30.82 ± 20.73 mU/ml, and 21.45 ± 15.30 mU/ml, respectively. The salivary LDH activity levels of smoker and vaper groups were significantly higher than in the control group (p = 0.031; 0.017). There was no significant difference of salivary LDH activity level in vapers when compared with smokers (p= 0.234).

    CONCLUSION: Our findings showed higher LDH levels in the saliva of vapers when compared with controls, confirming cytotoxic and harmful effects of e-cigarettes on the oral mucosa.

  8. Nasution A, Yusuf A, Lean Keng S, Rasudin NS, P Iskandar YH, Ab Hadi IS
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Oct 01;22(10):3151-3163.
    PMID: 34710991 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.10.3151
    BACKGROUND: Mobile health technologies are widely being used for delivering health behaviour interventions. However, there is insufficient evidence that they are integrating theory and only a few researchers utilized a qualitative approach in their study.

    OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to identify requirements in developing a breast examination awareness mobile app based on the component of the Health Belief Model (HBM) for integration in health promotion strategy.

    METHODS: A qualitative approach using semi-structured in-depth interview was utilized in this study. A purposive sampling method was conducted among public women attending hospital services, software and content experts in a tertiary teaching hospital in the East coast of Peninsular Malaysia. These interviews were recorded, transcribed and organized using NVIVO 11. The main themes were identified through thematic analysis of the interview transcripts.  Results: A total of 37 participants recruited in this study. The themes that emerged from the analysis are vulnerability, forecasting, reactive, influence, outcome and obstacles. The sub-themes findings supported the HBM's component in terms of the requirement for are an infographic risk factor, video (symptoms, self-examination), info (metastasis, survival, screening, triple assessment, treatment, myth and facts, benefit of early treatment, support groups), features (screening reminder, sharing button, prompt) and mobile app's design.

    CONCLUSION: The research findings could provide a guide for future app development from public women, content and software experts.  The information will be used to develop a breast examination awareness mobile app integrated with health theories.

  9. Okoye JO, Chukwukelu CF, Okekpa SI, Ogenyi SI, Onyekachi-Umah IN, Ngokere AA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Sep 01;22(9):2729-2741.
    PMID: 34582640 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.9.2729
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Cervical Cancer is the 6th most common and 3rd most deadly cancer among women. Despite the fact that the majority of the countries in Asia and Africa have a similar economy and low life expectancy, the mean age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of cervical cancer is substantially higher in Africa than in Asia. This study identified the correlates of the higher ASIR rates in Africa relative to Asia against two timelines; 2004-2009 and 2010-2017.

    METHODS: Peer-reviewed articles published between 2004 and 2017 were selected using the PRISMA standard. Sources of articles included Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed Central, and EMBASE. Search keywords included: HPV genotypes, cervical cancer, HPV vaccine, and multiple infections in Africa and Asia.

    RESULT: Twenty-nine and seventeen full-length articles were selected from Africa and Asia, respectively. The pooled prevalence of HPV infection up to 2017 was higher in Africa (41.8%; 95% CI: 35.9, 47.7) than in Asia (24.2%; 95% CI: 16.22, 32.2) at p< 0.001. Between 2004-2009 and 2010-2017 timelines, the pooled prevalence of HPV infection decreased from 49.1% to 36.7% (OR': 1.66, 95% CI: 1.51-1.80) in Africa and increased from 16.9% to 20.5% (OR': 0.79, 95% CI: 0.71-0.86) in Asia. However, the pooled prevalence of multiple HPV infections and non-vaccine high-risk HPV infections were higher among African women diagnosed with cancer (30.9% and 5.2%) than their Asian counterparts (21.0% and 2.0%, respectively) at p< 0.001. Additionally, the pooled prevalence of the five most prevalent high-risk HPV types in Africa were HPV16 (35.3%), HPV52 (14.2%), HPV35 (12.4%), HPV18 (10.4%), and HPV58 (10.0%), while that of Asia were HPV16 (37.3%), HPV52 (16.2%), HPV58 (14.7%), HPV33 (7.4%) and HPV18 (7.2%).

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the higher prevalence of HPV, multiple HPV and non-vaccine HPV infections could be responsible for the higher ASIR in Africa than in Asia.

  10. Rahmat F, Kuan JY, Hajiman Z, Mohamed Shakrin NNS, Che Roos NA, Mustapa M, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Sep 01;22(9):2969-2976.
    PMID: 34582669 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.9.2969
    BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the third leading cause of death in Malaysia, and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the principal aetiology that is responsible for its development. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence and distribution of HPV types among different age groups, ethnicity, and areas in Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 764 women aged 20-74 years old within the cities of Johor Bahru, Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh, Penang, and Kota Kinabalu underwent both cervical cytological assessment and HPV DNA analysis. Cervical cytology glass slides were prepared using the liquid base technique (Path TEZT TM). HPV DNA was extracted using TANBead® Nucleic Acid Extraction Kit (Taiwan Advanced Nonotech Inc.), then the types were further identified using a DR.HPV Genotyping IVD kit.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of HPV infection was 14.0% (107/764) with high-risk type at 10.7% (82/764) and low-risk type at 3.27% (25/764). The most common high-risk HPV types were HPV-52, 66, 33, 39, and 58 whereas low-risk HPV types were HPV-6, 40, and 81. The majority of HPV infections (80.37%) were detected in women with normal cytology results. The most prevalent HPV type among Chinese is 33 (n=6) followed by 16, 44, 58, 66 and 68 (n=5). Among Malays, HPV 16 and 51 were the two most prevalent types (n=2). The sensitivity of the HPV DNA test compared to cytology was 100% with a specificity of 88.37%.

    CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the most common high-risk HPV type among women living in urban areas in Malaysia is HPV 52, unfortunately which is not the type of infection the current HPV vaccine is covered for protection among females. These findings may contribute beneficial information to health care providers for the appropriate use of HPV vaccine in the prevention of cervical cancer in Malaysia.

  11. Gatellier L, Ong SK, Matsuda T, Ramlee N, Lau FN, Yusak S, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Sep 01;22(9):2945-2950.
    PMID: 34582666 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.9.2945
    The COVID-pandemic has shown significant impact on cancer care from early detection, management plan to clinical outcomes of cancer patients. The Asian National Cancer Centres Alliance (ANCCA) has put together the 9 "Ps" as guidelines for cancer programs to better prepare for the next pandemic. The 9 "Ps" are Priority, Protocols and Processes, Patients, People, Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs), Pharmaceuticals, Places, Preparedness, and Politics. Priority: to maintain cancer care as a key priority in the health system response even during a global infectious disease pandemic. Protocol and processes: to develop a set of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and have relevant expertise to man the Disease Outbreak Response (DORS) Taskforce before an outbreak. Patients: to prioritize patient safety in the event of an outbreak and the need to reschedule cancer management plan, supported by tele-consultation and use of artificial intelligence technology. People: to have business continuity planning to support surge capacity. PPEs and Pharmaceuticals: to develop plan for stockpiles management, build local manufacturing capacity and disseminate information on proper use and reduce wastage. Places: to design and build cancer care facilities to cater for the need of triaging, infection control, isolation and segregation. Preparedness: to invest early on manpower building and technology innovations through multisectoral and international collaborations. Politics: to ensure leadership which bring trust, cohesion and solidarity for successful response to pandemic and mitigate negative impact on the healthcare system.
  12. Ameli F, Ghafourina Nassab F, Masir N, Kahtib F
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Aug 01;22(8):2603-2609.
    PMID: 34452576 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.8.2603
    INTRODUCTION: Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer death in women. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) is a hypothetical prognostic marker in invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to determine MMP-13 expression in benign and malignant breast lesions and to evaluate the correlation between MMP-13 expression and tumor characteristics in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).

    MATERIALS AND METHOD: We evaluated cytoplasmic expression of MMP-13 based on staining index using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in epithelial cells, stromal fibroblasts of IDC (n=90) and benign epithelial breast (n=90) lesions. Correlation between IHC and tumor size, lymph node status, distance metastasis, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her-2/neu was assessed.

    RESULTS: MMP-13 expression was 45% and 38.8% in malignant epithelial cells and peritumoral fibroblasts, respectively. Only low level of MMP-13 expression was seen in benign breast lesions (8.8% in epithelial component and 2.2% in stromal fibroblasts), while high level of MMP-13 expression was noted in malignant tumors, mainly grade II or III. Cytoplasmic MMP-13 expressions in epithelial tumor cells was correlated significantly with peritumoral fibroblasts. MMP-13 expression was directly correlated with distant metastasis and tumor stage in epithelial tumoral cells and was inversely correlated with progesterone expression in both tumoral and stromal cells.

    CONCLUSION: This study showed that MMP-13 was a moderator for tumor invasion and metastasis and could be an independent predictor of poor prognosis in breast cancer. The role of MMP-13 in predicting the risk of malignant transformation in benign lesions should be further investigated.

  13. Zainordin NH, A Karim N, Shahril MR, Abd Talib R
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Aug 01;22(8):2399-2408.
    PMID: 34452552 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.8.2399
    BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity and reducing sitting time was recommended to cancer survivors after cancer treatment for sustained health and to enhance the quality of life. This study aimed to determine the association of physical activity and sitting time with quality of life among the Malay breast and gynaecological cancer survivors.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 95 breast and gynaecology cancer survivor subjects. The Malay International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to assess physical activity and sitting time. Quality of life was assessed using the Malay EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Sociodemographic, clinical characteristics and anthropometric measurements were also obtained in this study.

    RESULTS: The mean age of the subject was 51.8 ± 7.7 years old and the duration of survivorship was 4.3 ± 3.4 years. A total of 76.8% of subjects were categorized as having low physical activity level with a mean MET 403.5 ± 332.7 minutes/week and sitting time of 416.9 ± 151.0 minutes/day. Overall, subjects aged 50 years and above (p=0.006), widowed (p=0.032), retired (p=0.029) and had other non-communicable diseases (p=0.005) showed lower levels of physical activity. Increased physical activity had a positive effect on physical function (r=0.2, p=0.038), reduced insomnia (r=-0.3, p <0.001) and constipation symptoms (r=-0.3, p=0.012) domains of quality of life. The longer the sitting period showed more severe insomnia symptoms (r=0.2, p=0.03) but improved social function (r=0.2, p=0.012).

    CONCLUSIONS: Increasing physical activity and reducing sitting time have a positive effect on the quality of life of cancer survivors. The focus of health education should be prioritized to older adults (50 years and above), widows, retirees, and those with other comorbidities as they are at risk of being not physically active.

  14. Senarath NH, Jayasooriya PR, Siriwardena BSMS, Tilakaratne WM
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Aug 01;22(8):2313-2321.
    PMID: 34452541 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.8.2313
    BACKGROUND: Epithelial dysplasia (ED) at oral cancer excision margins is a frequent finding. Dysplastic epithelium at excision margins may not be similar to dysplasia in Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) as malignant transformation has already taken place. Therefore, management of ED at excision margins should be different to that of OPMD. ED creates a dilemma in relation to further management of cancer patients, since there are no accepted guidelines. Therefore, the objective of this review is to analyze  existing literature and to arrive at evidence based recommendations for the management of ED at excision margins.

    METHODS: A comprehensive string was run on PubMed, Medscape and Medline. The final outcome included 113 studies. Finally, the most relevant 10 articles were critically assessed for inclusion and exclusion criteria against various parameters.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:   Severe and Moderate ED need re-excision in order to improve prognosis. There is not enough sound evidence for the management of Mild ED at excision margins of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Guidelines for the management of ED at excision margins should be formulated after comprehensive multi center studies using lager cohorts of patients.

  15. Rajah HDA, Chie QT, Ahmad M, Leong WC, Bhoo-Pathy N, Chan CMH
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Aug 01;22(8):2487-2492.
    PMID: 34452562 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.8.2487
    OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this study was to identify the psychometric properties and validate   the Bahasa Malaysia version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire among patients with cancer.

    METHODS: A total of 129 newly diagnosed patients with cancer were consecutively sampled. Reliability and validity of the questionnaire were tested using translation validity, test-retest reliability, Principal Component Analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficient for domains and item-total correlation.

    RESULTS: The questionnaire indicates excellent test-retest reliability. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) is 0.60 for the two-factor structure of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire of the Bahasa Malaysia version which consists of cognitive illness representation and emotional illness representation.

    CONCLUSION: The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire in the Bahasa Malaysia version is a useful tool to use among patients with cancer in Malaysia context despite moderate psychometric properties. This is based on the premise that the questionnaire can be used as a quick tool to assess illness perceptions among Malaysian with cancer in routine oncology practice.

  16. Arafat HM, Omar J, Muhamad R, Al-Astani TAD, Shafii N, Al Laham NA, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Jul 01;22(7):1987-1995.
    PMID: 34319018 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.7.1987
    OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer (BC) is known as one of the deadliest forms of cancer, and it is increasing globally. Identifying risk factors for BC is a key point in developing preventive strategies to reduce its occurrence. Herein, we aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis focus on the risk factors for BC in Palestine.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a systematic search via PubMed, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Science Direct, Cochrane library, Emerald Insight, and Google scholar for identifying studies published on BC risk factors up to March 2021. Pooled odds ratios (OR) are calculated using fixed and random-effect models. Data were processed using Review Manager 5.4 (RevMan 5.4).

    RESULTS: From a total of 73 articles, seven case-control studies met the criteria for systematic review. Meta-analysis results showed that of the known modifiable risk factors for BC, diabetes mellitus (DM) had the highest odds ratio (OR = 4.97, 95% CI 3.00- 8.25) followed by hypertension (OR = 3.21, 95% CI 1.96-5.23), obesity (BMI >30 Kg/m2) (OR = 2.90, 95% CI 2.00- 4.21), and passive smoking (OR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.12- 2.02). Controversially, breastfeeding (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.23- 0.61) was protective factor in BC. Of non-modifiable risk factors for BC has reached menopause had the highest odds ratio (OR = 3.74, 95% CI 2.64- 5.29), followed by family history of BC (OR = 2.63, 95% CI 1.07-6.44) and age (≥ 40 years) (OR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.43-4.34).

    CONCLUSIONS: The most significant predictors of BC in Palestine were DM, hypertension, passive smokers, age (>40), reached menopause, and family history of BC. Almost all these risk factors are consistent with known risk factors for breast cancer in other parts of the world.

  17. Mohamed M, Mohd Nafi SN, Jaafar H, Paiman NM
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Jul 01;22(7):2043-2047.
    PMID: 34319025 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.7.2043
    OBJECTIVE: The role of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) in relation to prognostic and treatment predictive information of HER2 positive breast cancer has been newly explored. In this study, we aimed to determine the expression of HMGCR in HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) scores of 2+ and 3+ breast cancer and to correlate with the patients' outcomes.

    METHODOLOGY: Using a cross-sectional design, invasive breast carcinoma of no special type (NST) and HER2 IHC scores of 2+ and 3+ cases were selected over a 50-month period in Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah (HSB), Alor Setar. IHC staining for HMGCR was performed on paraffin-embedded tissues at the Pathology Laboratory, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kubang Kerian using the standard staining procedure. The results were correlated with the patient's demographic and clinicopathological data.

    RESULTS: A total of 59 cases of HER2 IHC 2+ and 3+ invasive breast carcinoma were identified. The cases were predominant in young Malay women with tumours smaller than 50mm, higher grade and positive for lymphovascular invasion, axillary lymph nodes involvement and ER/PR expressions. HMGCR was positively expressed in HER2 IHC 2+ and 3+ breast cancer cases, which the staining intensities varied from weak, moderate to strong. Majority of the cases were scored 1+ for HMGCR expression. A low-positive HMGCR was more likely to be associated with less favourable outcomes of patients with HER2 IHC 2+ and 3+. However, the associations were statistically not significant.

    CONCLUSION: A study in a larger cohort of tumour samples is needed to further validate HMGCR expression as a potential prognostic biomarker for HER2 positive breast cancer. It is also suggested that all the HER2 IHC 2+ and 3+ cases need to be gene amplified using FISH analysis.  

  18. Yen ST, Tan AKG
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Jul 01;22(7):1997-2004.
    PMID: 34319019 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.7.1997
    BACKGROUND: This study investigates the socio-demographic factors associated with smoking status in five Southeast Asian countries: Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Philippines.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilizes data of adults ≥15 years who completed the Global Adult Tobacco Surveys. Ordered probit analysis is used to account for the smoking statuses of non-smokers, occasional smokers, and daily smokers.

    RESULTS: Malaysian and Vietnamese households with more family members face lower smoking likelihoods than otherwise. Urbanites in Philippines and rural residents in Thailand and Indonesia are more likely to smoke on occasional and daily basis than others. Males are consistently more likely to smoke occasionally or daily and less likely to be non-smokers than females across all countries. Younger middle-age (retiree) individuals aged 30-35 (≥60) years in Malaysia and Thailand exhibit higher (lower) likelihoods to smoke occasionally or daily than their younger cohorts aged 15-29 years. Individuals aged 30 years and above in Indonesia, Vietnam, and Philippines display higher daily smoking propensities than others. Higher education levels dampens smoking likelihoods and increases non-smoking propensities in all countries. Non-government or self-employed workers in all countries are more likely to smoke occasionally or daily than unemployed persons. Being married is associated with higher non-smoking likelihoods in Thailand although this association is not evident in Malaysia.

    CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that a portfolio of targeted interventions is necessary to meet the needs of specific subpopulations within the various countries.

  19. Abdul Hamid NS, Mat Zin AA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Jun 01;22(6):1935-1942.
    PMID: 34181354 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.6.1935
    BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in lung adenocarcinoma is associated with good clinical response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase therapy. The two most common EGFR gene mutations, representing 80 to 90%, are the E746-A750 deletion in exon 19 and the L858R point mutation in exon 21.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have conducted the study to evaluate immunohistochemistry's performance in detecting the E746-A750 deletion in exon 19 of the EGFR gene in primary lung adenocarcinoma cases. This study examined 133 cases of primary lung adenocarcinoma for three years duration. The selected cases were tested for EGFR gene mutations by real-time PCR by a reference laboratory. Most cases (124) were diagnosed by tissue biopsy, though nine used cell block cytology. We performed an immunohistochemistry test on 75 cases that contained adequate diagnostic material in the paraffin block.

    RESULTS: The test result was scored as 0 to 3+, based on the staining intensity and percentage of positive tumor cells. We evaluated the immunohistochemistry test's sensitivity and specificity compared to the EGFR gene mutations by real-time PCR. There was a significant association between gender, smoking status, and the EGFR gene mutations (P < 0.001). The overall sensitivity and specificity of the immunohistochemistry test were 40% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive values were 100% and 76.9%, each.

    CONCLUSIONS: The immunohistochemistry has high specificity but low sensitivity in the detection of E746-A750 deletion in exon 19 of the EGFR gene. The mutation-specific antibody used in this study was unable to detect other uncommon variants of exon 19 deletions. With high specificity value, immunohistochemistry may provide an adjunct to molecular testing for detecting the most common EGFR gene mutations in cases of a low cellularity sample, financially-limited situations, or in critically ill cases where urgent targeted therapy is needed.

  20. Mahees M, Amarasinghe HK, Usgodaararachchi U, Ratnayake N, Tilakaratne WM, Shanmuganathan S, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 06 01;22(6):1753-1759.
    PMID: 34181330 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.6.1753
    BACKGROUND: Use and addiction to commercial preparation of Smokeless Tobacco (CPSLT) is creating new socio-cultural issues and health challenges in Sri Lanka.  The objective of this sociological study is to investigate and analyse the socio-cultural factors that influence CPSLT use Sri Lanka to enable development of effective interventions.  Methods: This is a qualitative study for which data was collected through in-depth interviews in selected groups that use CPSLT. Thirty-five interviews were carried out in seven of the 24 districts in the country representing urban, rural, plantation communities and different livelihood and ethnic, gender and age groups in the year 2016. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used for selecting interviewees. The data was analysed by using qualitative data analysis techniques and sociological perspectives.

    RESULTS: This study reveals that the CPSLT use has integrated with the culture of several sociological and livelihood groups. Products such Thool (tobacco powder) and Maawa (dried areca-nut with flaked tobacco and some flavoured chemicals) were identified as the most popular forms of CPSLT.  Use of CPSLT has developed as a silent sub-culture specific to several social and livelihood groups. The informal CPSLT industry operating in the urban and sub-urban areas is influencing the school children and youth engaged in sports. Different groups of users express different reasons and justifications for its use.

    CONCLUSION: Use of CPSLT is closely integrated with the day to-day lifestyle and values of people of specific groups. and is an unseen part of life. Therefore, interventions will be urgently required to control the use of CPSLT to prevent its significant health impacts, considering the different contexts, symbolisms and justifications of its among the different groups. 

Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links