METHODS: Initially, MTT proliferation assay was used to test the cell viability with various doses of MNQ (5-100 µM). As the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was obtained, glucose uptake and lactate assays of the cells were tested with IC50 dose of MNQ. The treated cells were also subjected to gene and protein analysis of glycolysis-related molecules (GLUT1 and Akt).
RESULTS: The results showed that MNQ decreased the percentage of MDA-MB-231 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 value of 29 µM. The percentage of glucose uptake into the cells and lactate production decreased significantly after treatment with MNQ as compared to untreated cells. Remarkably, the expressions of GLUT1 and Akt molecules decreased in MNQ-treated cells, suggesting that the inhibition of glycolysis by MNQ is GLUT1-dependent and possibly mediated by the Akt signaling pathway.
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate the ability of MNQ to inhibit the glycolytic activities as well as glycolysis-related molecules in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting the potential of MNQ to be further developed as an effective anticancer agent against TNBC cells.
METHODS: We conducted a study on 34 patients with HRP and randomly assigned the patients to two treatment arm groups (n=17). The formalin group underwent 4% formalin dab and another session 4 weeks later. The irrigation group self-administered daily rectal irrigation at home for 8 weeks and consumed oral metronidazole and ciprofloxacin during the first one week. We measured the patients' symptoms and endoscopic findings before and after total of 8 weeks of treatment in both groups.
RESULTS: Our study showed that HRP patients had reduced per rectal bleeding (p = 0.003) in formalin group, whereas irrigation group showed reduced diarrhoea (p=0.018) and tenesmus (p=0.024) symptoms. The comparison between the two treatment arms showed that irrigation technique was better than formalin technique for tenesmus (p=0.043) symptom only.
CONCLUSION: This novel treatment showed benefit in treating HRP. It could be a new treatment option which is safe and conveniently self-administered at home or used as a combination with other therapies to improve the treatment outcome for HRP.
METHODOLOGY: Using a cross-sectional design, invasive breast carcinoma of no special type (NST) and HER2 IHC scores of 2+ and 3+ cases were selected over a 50-month period in Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah (HSB), Alor Setar. IHC staining for HMGCR was performed on paraffin-embedded tissues at the Pathology Laboratory, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kubang Kerian using the standard staining procedure. The results were correlated with the patient's demographic and clinicopathological data.
RESULTS: A total of 59 cases of HER2 IHC 2+ and 3+ invasive breast carcinoma were identified. The cases were predominant in young Malay women with tumours smaller than 50mm, higher grade and positive for lymphovascular invasion, axillary lymph nodes involvement and ER/PR expressions. HMGCR was positively expressed in HER2 IHC 2+ and 3+ breast cancer cases, which the staining intensities varied from weak, moderate to strong. Majority of the cases were scored 1+ for HMGCR expression. A low-positive HMGCR was more likely to be associated with less favourable outcomes of patients with HER2 IHC 2+ and 3+. However, the associations were statistically not significant.
CONCLUSION: A study in a larger cohort of tumour samples is needed to further validate HMGCR expression as a potential prognostic biomarker for HER2 positive breast cancer. It is also suggested that all the HER2 IHC 2+ and 3+ cases need to be gene amplified using FISH analysis.
RESULTS: This study reveals that the CPSLT use has integrated with the culture of several sociological and livelihood groups. Products such Thool (tobacco powder) and Maawa (dried areca-nut with flaked tobacco and some flavoured chemicals) were identified as the most popular forms of CPSLT. Use of CPSLT has developed as a silent sub-culture specific to several social and livelihood groups. The informal CPSLT industry operating in the urban and sub-urban areas is influencing the school children and youth engaged in sports. Different groups of users express different reasons and justifications for its use.
CONCLUSION: Use of CPSLT is closely integrated with the day to-day lifestyle and values of people of specific groups. and is an unseen part of life. Therefore, interventions will be urgently required to control the use of CPSLT to prevent its significant health impacts, considering the different contexts, symbolisms and justifications of its among the different groups.
OBJECTIVE: To propose a model that provides a methodological tool to increase women's participation in the decision making process towards breast cancer prevention. To address this, an evaluation framework was developed that includes a typology of community participation approaches (models) in health, as well as five levels of participation in health programs proposed by Rifkin (1985 and 1991).
METHOD: This model explains the community participation approaches in breast cancer prevention in Iran. In a 'medical approach', participation occurs in the form of women's adherence to mammography recommendations. As a 'health services approach', women get the benefits of a health project or participate in the available program activities related to breast cancer prevention. The model provides the five levels of participation in health programs along with the 'health services approach' and explains how to implement those levels for women's participation in available breast cancer prevention programs at the local level.
CONCLUSION: It is hoped that a focus on the 'medical approach' (top-down) and the 'health services approach' (top-down) will bring sustainable changes in breast cancer prevention and will consequently produce the 'community development approach' (bottom-up). This could be achieved using a comprehensive approach to breast cancer prevention by combining the individual and community strategies in designing an intervention program for breast cancer prevention.
METHODS: A total of 25 CLL patients and 25 normal individuals were recruited in this study. The methylation status of ADAM12 was determined using Methylation-Specific PCR (MSP); whereas, DNA sequencing method was applied for validation of the MSP results.
RESULTS: Among CLL patients, 12 (48%) were partially methylated and 13 (52%) were unmethylated. Meanwhile, 5 (20%) and 20 (80.6%) of healthy individuals were partially methylated and unmethylated, respectively. There was a statistically significant association between the status of methylation at ADAM12 and the presence of CLL (p=0.037).
CONCLUSION: The aberrant methylation of ADAM12 found in this study using MSP assay may provide new exposure to CLL that may improve the gaps involved in genetic epigenetic study in CLL.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 17 patients were selected fulfilling one of the Bethesda criteria: colorectal cancer diagnosed in a patient aged less than 50 years old, having synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer or with a strong family history. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin embedded tumour tissue samples using four antibodies: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2.
RESULTS: Twelve out of 17 patients (70.6%) were noted to have a family history. A total of 41% (n=7) of the patients had abnormal immunohistochemical staining with one or more of the four antibodies. Loss of expression were noted in 13 tumour tissues with a negative staining score <4. Of 13 tumour tissues, four showed loss expression of MLH1. For PMS2, loss of expression were noted in five cases. Both MSH2 and MSH6 showed loss of expression in two tumour tissues respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Revised Bethesda criteria and immunohistochemical analysis constituted a convenient approach and is recommended to be a first-line screening for Lynch syndrome in Malay cohorts.