Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 261 in total

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  1. Mohamad S, Ismail NN, Parumasivam T, Ibrahim P, Osman H, A Wahab H
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Jan 08;18(1):5.
    PMID: 29310671 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-2077-5
    BACKGROUND: Costus speciosus, Cymbopogon citratus, and Tabernaemontana coronaria are herbal plants traditionally used as remedies for symptoms of tuberculosis (TB) including cough. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the in vitro anti-TB activity of different solvent partitions of these plants, to identify the phytochemical compounds, and to assess the effects of the most active partitions on the growth kinetics and cellular integrity of the tubercle organism.

    METHODS: The in vitro anti-TB activity of different solvent partitions of the plant materials was determined against M. tuberculosis H37Rv using a tetrazolium colorimetric microdilution assay. The phytochemical compounds in the most active partition of each plant were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The effects of these partitions on the growth kinetics of the mycobacteria were evaluated over 7-day treatment period in a batch culture system. Their effects on the mycobacterial cellular integrity were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

    RESULTS: The respective n-hexane partition of C. speciosus, C. citratus, and T. coronaria exhibited the highest anti-TB activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 100-200 μg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 200 μg/mL. GC-MS phytochemical analysis of these active partitions revealed that majority of the identified compounds belonged to lipophilic fatty acid groups. The active partitions of C. speciosus and T. coronaria exhibited high cidal activity in relation to time, killing more than 99% of the cell population. SEM observations showed that these active plant partitions caused multiple structural changes indicating massive cellular damages.

    CONCLUSIONS: The n-hexane partition of the plant materials exhibited promising in vitro anti-TB activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Their anti-TB activity was supported by their destructive effects on the integrity of the mycobacterial cellular structure.

  2. Lee SY, Mediani A, Ismail IS, Maulidiani, Abas F
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Jan 07;19(1):7.
    PMID: 30616569 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2413-4
    BACKGROUND: Neptunia oleracea is a plant cultivated as vegetable in Southeast Asia. Previous works have revealed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and α-glucosidase inhibitors. Continuing our interest on this plant, the present work is focused in identification of the bioactive compounds from different polarity fractions of N. oleracea, namely hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EF) and methanol (MF).

    METHODS: The N. oleracea fractions were obtained using solid phase extraction (SPE). A metabolomics approach that coupled the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) with multivariate data analysis (MVDA) was applied to distinguish the metabolite variations among the N. oleracea fractions, as well as to assess the correlation between metabolite variation and the studied bioactivities (DPPH free radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities). The bioactive fractions were then subjected to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis to profile and identify the potential bioactive constituents.

    RESULTS: The principal component analysis (PCA) discriminated EF and MF from the other fractions with the higher distributions of phenolics. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis revealed a strong correlation between the phenolics and the studied bioactivities in the EF and the MF. The UHPLC-MS/MS profiling of EF and MF had tentatively identified the phenolics present. Together with some non-phenolic metabolites, a total of 37 metabolites were tentatively assigned.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this work supported that N. oleracea is a rich source of phenolics that can be potential antioxidants and α-glucosidase inhibitors for the management of diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on the metabolite-bioactivity correlation and UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of N. oleracea fractions.

  3. Zainal Abidin F, Hui CK, Luan NS, Mohd Ramli ES, Hun LT, Abd Ghafar N
    PMID: 21992551 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-94
    There has been no effective treatment or agent that is available for corneal injury in promoting corneal wound healing. Previous studies on edible bird's nest extract (EBN) had reported the presence of hormone-like substance; avian epidermal growth factor that could stimulate cell division and enhance regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes proliferative capacity and phenotypical changes.
  4. Lay MM, Karsani SA, Mohajer S, Abd Malek SN
    PMID: 24885709 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-152
    The edible fruits of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl are widely used in traditional medicine in Indonesia. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions such as - cancer, diabetes mellitus, allergies, liver and heart diseases, kidney failure, blood diseases, high blood pressure, stroke, various skin diseases, itching, aches, and flu. Therefore, it is of great interest to determine the biochemical and cytotoxic properties of the fruit extracts.
  5. Razali N, Mat Junit S, Ariffin A, Ramli NS, Abdul Aziz A
    PMID: 26683054 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0963-2
    Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica) or locally known as "asam jawa" belongs to the family Leguminosae. T. indica seeds as by-products from the fruits were previously reported to contain high polyphenolic content. However, identification of their bioactive polyphenols using recent technologies is less well researched but nonetheless important. Hence, it was the aim of this study to provide further information on the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities as well as to identify and quantify its bioactive polyphenols.
  6. Chua KH, Lee TH, Nagandran K, Md Yahaya NH, Lee CT, Tjih ET, et al.
    PMID: 23339380 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-19
    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that results in the destruction of cartilage. Edible Bird's Nest (EBN) extract contains important components, which can reduce the progression of osteoarthritis and helps in the regeneration of the cartilage. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of EBN extract on the catabolic and anabolic activities of the human articular chondrocytes (HACs) isolated from the knee joint of patients with OA.
  7. Hamid A, Ibrahim FW, Ming TH, Nasrom MN, Eusoff N, Husain K, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Mar 20;18(1):101.
    PMID: 29558939 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2161-5
    BACKGROUND: Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith belongs to the Zingiberaceae family that is widely distributed throughout the tropics, particularly in Southeast Asia. It is locally known as 'Lempoyang' and traditionally used to treat fever, constipation and to relieve pain. It is also known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Based on these antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of ethyl-acetate extract of Z. zerumbet rhizomes against ethanol-induced brain damage in male Wistar rats.

    METHOD: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups which consist of normal, 1.8 g/kg ethanol (40% v/v), 200 mg/kg Z. zerumbet extract plus ethanol and 400 mg/kg Z. zerumbet plus ethanol. The extract of Z. zerumbet was given once daily by oral gavage, 30 min prior to ethanol exposure via intraperitoneal route for 14 consecutive days. The rats were then sacrificed. Blood and brain homogenate were subjected to biochemical tests and part of the brain tissue was sectioned for histological analysis.

    RESULT: Treatment with ethyl-acetate Z. zerumbet extract at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (p 

  8. Hazalin NA, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Wahab IA, Cole AL, Abdul Majeed AB
    PMID: 19930582 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-9-46
    Endophytes, microorganisms which reside in plant tissues, have potential in producing novel metabolites for exploitation in medicine. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of a total of 300 endophytic fungi were investigated.
  9. Aisha AF, Ismail Z, Abu-Salah KM, Siddiqui JM, Ghafar G, Abdul Majid AM
    PMID: 23842450 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-168
    Syzygium campanulatum Korth (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen shrub rich in phenolics, flavonoid antioxidants, and betulinic acid. This study sought to investigate antiangiogenic and anti-colon cancer effects of S.C. standardized methanolic extract.
  10. Sazwi NN, Nalina T, Abdul Rahim ZH
    PMID: 24330738 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-351
    Betel quid chewing is a popular habit in Southeast Asia. It is believed that chewing betel quid could reduce stress, strengthen teeth and maintain oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of each of the ingredients of betel quid and compared with betel quid itself (with and without calcium hydroxide). The correlation of their cytoprotective and antioxidant activities with phenolic content was also determined.
  11. Nordin MA, Wan Harun WH, Abdul Razak F
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2013 Dec 04;13:342.
    PMID: 24305010 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-342
    BACKGROUND: Candida species have been associated with the emergence of resistant strains towards selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease candidal infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antifungal susceptibility patterns and growth inhibiting effect of Brucea javanica seeds extract against Candida species.

    METHODS: A total of seven Candida strains that includes Candida albicans ATCC14053, Candida dubliniensis ATCCMYA-2975, Candida glabrata ATCC90030, Candida krusei ATCC14243, Candida lusitaniae ATCC64125, Candida parapsilosis ATCC22019 and Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 were used in this study. The antifungal activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of B. javanica extract were evaluated. Each strain was cultured in Yeast Peptone Dextrose broth under four different growth environments; (i) in the absence and presence of B. javanica extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg/ml (iii) 3 mg/ml and (iv) 6 mg/ml. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific-growth rates (μ) and doubling time (g). The values in the presence of extract were computed as percentage in the optical density relative to that of the total cells suspension in the absence of extract.

    RESULTS: B. javanica seeds extract exhibited antifungal properties. C. tropicalis showed the highest growth rate; 0.319 ± 0.002 h(-1), while others were in the range of 0.141 ± 0.001 to 0.265 ± 0.005 h(-1). In the presence of extract, the lag and log phases were extended and deviated the μ- and g-values. B. javanica extract had significantly reduced the μ-values of C. dubliniensis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis at more than 80% (ρ 

  12. Abrahim NN, Kanthimathi MS, Abdul-Aziz A
    PMID: 23153283 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-220
    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7.
  13. Gunasekaran R, Shaker MR, Mohd-Zin SW, Abdullah A, Ahmad-Annuar A, Abdul-Aziz NM
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Jan 28;17(1):79.
    PMID: 28129764 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1600-z
    Coconut oil is commonly used as herbal medicine worldwide. There is limited information regarding its effects on the developing embryo and infant growth.
  14. Zakaria ZA, Kamisan FH, Omar MH, Mahmood ND, Othman F, Abdul Hamid SS, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 May 18;17(1):271.
    PMID: 28521788 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1781-5
    BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the potential of methanolic extract of Dicranopteris linearis (MEDL) leaves to attenuate liver intoxication induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in rats.

    METHODS: A group of mice (n = 5) treated orally with a single dose (5000 mg/kg) of MEDL was first subjected to the acute toxicity study using the OECD 420 model. In the hepatoprotective study, six groups of rats (n = 6) were used and each received as follows: Group 1 (normal control; pretreated with 10% DMSO (extract's vehicle) followed by treatment with 10% DMSO (hepatotoxin's vehicle) (10% DMSO +10% DMSO)), Group 2 (hepatotoxic control; 10% DMSO +3 g/kg APAP (hepatotoxin)), Group 3 (positive control; 200 mg/kg silymarin +3 g/kg APAP), Group 4 (50 mg/kg MEDL +3 g/kg APAP), Group 5 (250 mg/kg MEDL +3 g/kg APAP) or Group 6 (500 mg/kg MEDL +3 g/kg APAP). The test solutions pre-treatment were made orally once daily for 7 consecutive days, and 1 h after the last test solutions administration (on Day 7th), the rats were treated with vehicle or APAP. Blood were collected from those treated rats for biochemical analyses, which were then euthanized to collect their liver for endogenous antioxidant enzymes determination and histopathological examination. The extract was also subjected to in vitro anti-inflammatory investigation and, HPLC and GCMS analyses.

    RESULTS: Pre-treatment of rats (Group 2) with 10% DMSO failed to attenuate the toxic effect of APAP on the liver as seen under the microscopic examination. This observation was supported by the significant (p 

  15. Halim SZ, Zakaria ZA, Omar MH, Mohtarrudin N, Wahab IRA, Abdullah MNH
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Nov 09;17(1):488.
    PMID: 29121900 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1992-9
    BACKGROUND: Melastoma malabathricum L. (family Melastomaceae; MM) and Muntingia calabura L. (family Elaeocarpaceae; MC) have been separately reported to possess gastroprotective activity. In an attempt to develop a pharmaceutical product with antiulcer potential, the synergistic gastroprotective activity of methanolic extract of a mixture of MM and MC (MMMC) at various ratios was evaluated in rat models.

    METHODS: Rats were pre-treated orally with 2% Tween 80 (vehicle), 100 mg/kg ranitidine (reference drug) or MMMC (ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1 (v/v); doses of 15, 150 or 300 mg/kg) and then subjected to the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer or pyloric ligation assays. Stomach of rats from the former assay was collected and subjected to the macroscopic and microscopic observations, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant studies while the gastric juice content and tissue from the latter assay were subjected to the antisecretory activity study. The UHPLC analysis of MMMC was also performed.

    RESULT: MMMC, in the ratio 1:1, demonstrated the most effective (P 

  16. Nordin ML, Abdul Kadir A, Zakaria ZA, Abdullah R, Abdullah MNH
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Mar 12;18(1):87.
    PMID: 29530022 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2153-5
    BACKGROUND: Ardisia crispa Thunb. D.C is used mostly in some parts of the Asian region by traditional practitioners to treat certain diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation including cancer and rheumatism. In Malaysia, it is popularly known as 'Mata Ayam' and local traditional practitioners believed that the root of the plant is therapeutically beneficial.

    METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of hydromethanolic extract of A. crispa and its solvents partitions (ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts) against breast cancer cells were evaluated by using MTT assay. The cells were treated with concentration of extracts ranging from 15.63 μg/mL- 1000 μg/mL for 72 h. The quantification of phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were carried out to determine the relationship between of phytochemical compounds responsible for cytotoxic and antioxidative activities. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assay and expressed as milligram (mg) Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per 1 g (g) of tested extract.

    RESULTS: The hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts showed moderate cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 with IC50 values of 57.35 ± 19.33 μg/mL, and 54.98 ± 14.10 μg/mL, respectively but aqueous extract was inactive against MCF-7. For MDA-MB-231, hydromethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts exhibited weak cytotoxic effects against MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values more than 100 μg/mL. The plant revealed high total phenolic content, total flavonoid and antioxidant capacity.

    CONCLUSION: The response of different type of breast cancer cell lines towards A. crispa extract and its partitions varied. Accordingly, hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts appear to be more cytotoxic to oestrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer than oestrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer. However, aqueous extract appears to have poor activity to both types of breast cancer. Besides that, hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts exhibit higher TPC, TFC and antioxidant capacity compared to aqueous extract. Synergistic effect of anticancer and antioxidant bioactives compounds of A. crispa plausibly contributed to the cytotoxic effects of the extract.

  17. Karim AA, Azlan A, Ismail A, Hashim P, Abd Gani SS, Zainudin BH, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2014 Oct 07;14:381.
    PMID: 25292439 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-381
    BACKGROUND: Cocoa pod is an outer part of cocoa fruits being discarded during cocoa bean processing. Authors found out that data on its usage in literature as cosmetic materials was not recorded in vast. In this study, cocoa pod extract was investigated for its potential as a cosmetic ingredient.

    METHODS: Cocoa pod extract (CPE) composition was accomplished using UHPLC. The antioxidant capacity were measured using scavenging assay of 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Inhibiting effect on skin degradation enzymes was carried out using elastase and collagenase assays. The skin whitening effect of CPE was determined based on mushroom tyrosinase assay and sun screening effect (UV-absorbance at 200-400 nm wavelength).

    RESULTS: LC-MS/MS data showed the presence of carboxylic acid, phenolic acid, fatty acid, flavonoids (flavonol and flavones), stilbenoids and terpenoids in CPE. Results for antioxidant activity exhibited that CPE possessed good antioxidant activity, based on the mechanism of the assays compared with ascorbic acid (AA) and standardized pine bark extract (PBE); DPPH: AA > CPE > PBE; FRAP: PBE > CPE > AA; and BCB: BHT > CPE > PBE. Cocoa pod extract showed better action against elastase and collagenase enzymes in comparison with PBE and AA. Higher inhibition towards tyrosinase enzyme was exhibited by CPE than kojic acid and AA, although lower than PBE. CPE induced proliferation when tested on human fibroblast cell at low concentration. CPE also exhibited a potential as UVB sunscreen despite its low performance as a UVA sunscreen agent.

    CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the CPE has high potential as a cosmetic ingredient due to its anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and sunscreen effects.

  18. Varatharajan R, Sattar MZ, Chung I, Abdulla MA, Kassim NM, Abdullah NA
    PMID: 24074026 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-242
    Catechins-rich oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaves extract (OPLE) is known to have antioxidant activity. Several polyphenolic compounds reported as antioxidants such as quercetin, catechins and gallic acid have been highlighted to have pro-oxidant activity at high doses. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects of chronically administering high dose of OPLE (1000 mg kg⁻¹) in an animal model of diabetic nephropathy (DN).
  19. Malik FZ, Allaudin ZN, Loh HS, Nee TK, Hani H, Abdullah R
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2016 May 23;16:139.
    PMID: 27216794 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-1120-2
    Duabanga grandiflora or known in Malaysia as Berembang Bukit, Megawasih, or Pedada Bukit, is a native plant of the Southeast Asian countries. In this study, the anti-viral properties of D. grandiflora were investigated.
  20. Adnan A, Allaudin ZN, Hani H, Loh HS, Khoo TJ, Ting KN, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Jul 10;19(1):169.
    PMID: 31291936 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2586-5
    BACKGROUND: Garcinia species contain bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, xanthones, triterpernoids, and benzophenones with antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. In addition, many of these compounds show interesting biological properties such as anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity. Garcinia parvifolia is used in traditional medicine. Currently, the antiviral activity of G. parvifolia is not known.

    METHODS: This study was conducted to determine the effects of ethyl acetate (45 L Ea), ethanol (45 L Et), and hexane (45 L H) leaf extracts of G. parvifolia on the infectivity of pseudorabies virus (PrV) in Vero cells. The antiviral effects of the extracts were determined by cytopathic effect (CPE), inhibition, attachment, and virucidal assays.

    RESULTS: The 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) values obtained were 237.5, 555.0, and 

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