Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 261 in total

  1. Hamid A, Ibrahim FW, Ming TH, Nasrom MN, Eusoff N, Husain K, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Mar 20;18(1):101.
    PMID: 29558939 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2161-5
    BACKGROUND: Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith belongs to the Zingiberaceae family that is widely distributed throughout the tropics, particularly in Southeast Asia. It is locally known as 'Lempoyang' and traditionally used to treat fever, constipation and to relieve pain. It is also known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Based on these antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of ethyl-acetate extract of Z. zerumbet rhizomes against ethanol-induced brain damage in male Wistar rats.

    METHOD: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups which consist of normal, 1.8 g/kg ethanol (40% v/v), 200 mg/kg Z. zerumbet extract plus ethanol and 400 mg/kg Z. zerumbet plus ethanol. The extract of Z. zerumbet was given once daily by oral gavage, 30 min prior to ethanol exposure via intraperitoneal route for 14 consecutive days. The rats were then sacrificed. Blood and brain homogenate were subjected to biochemical tests and part of the brain tissue was sectioned for histological analysis.

    RESULT: Treatment with ethyl-acetate Z. zerumbet extract at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (p 

  2. Khoo YT, Halim AS, Singh KK, Mohamad NA
    PMID: 20815896 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-48
    Full-thickness burn wounds require excision and skin grafting. Multiple surgical procedures are inevitable in managing moderate to severe full-thickness burns. Wound bed preparations prior to surgery are necessary in order to prevent wound infection and promote wound healing. Honey can be used to treat burn wounds. However, not all the honey is the same. This study aims to evaluate the wound contraction and antibacterial properties of locally-produced Tualang honey on managing full-thickness burn wounds in vivo.
  3. Tan BL, Norhaizan ME, Huynh K, Heshu SR, Yeap SK, Hazilawati H, et al.
    PMID: 26122204 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0730-4
    Brewers' rice, is locally known as temukut, is a mixture of broken rice, rice bran, and rice germ. The current study is an extension of our previous work, which demonstrated that water extract of brewers' rice (WBR) induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer (HT-29) cells. We also identified that brewers' rice was effective in reducing the tumor incidence and multiplicity in azoxymethane (AOM)-injected colon cancer rats. Our present study was designed to identify whether WBR confers an inhibitory effect via the regulation of upstream components in the Wnt signaling pathway in HT-29 cells. To further determine whether the in vitro mechanisms of action observed in the HT-29 cells inhibit the downstream signaling target of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, we evaluated the mechanistic action of brewers' rice in regulating the expressions and key protein markers during colon carcinogenesis in male Sprague-Dawley rats.
  4. Ng CT, Fong LY, Tan JJ, Rajab NF, Abas F, Shaari K, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Jul 06;18(1):210.
    PMID: 29980198 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2270-1
    BACKGROUND: Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau. has traditionally been using in South East Asia countries to manage cancer. However, scientific evidence is generally lacking to support this traditional claim. This study aims to investigate the in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo effects of C. nutans extracts on angiogenesis.

    METHODS: C. nutans leaves was extracted with 50-100% ethanol or deionised water at 1% (w/v). Human umbilical veins endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation was examined using MTT assay. The in vitro anti-angiogenic effects of C. nutans were assessed using wound scratch, tube formation and transwell migration assays. The VEGF levels secreted by human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-4) cell and HUVEC permeability were also measured. Besides, the rat aortic ring and chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays, representing ex vivo and in vivo models, respectively, were performed.

    RESULTS: The MTT assay revealed that water extract of C. nutans leaves exhibited the highest activity, compared to the ethanol extracts. Therefore, the water extract was chosen for subsequent experiments. C. nutans leaf extract significantly suppressed endothelial cell proliferation and migration in both absence and presence of VEGF. However, the water extract failed to suppress HUVEC transmigration, differentiation and permeability. C. nutans water extract also did not suppress HSC-4 cell-induced VEGF production. Importantly, C. nutans water extract significantly abolished the sprouting of vessels in aortic rings as well as in chick embryo CAM.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these findings reveal potential anti-angiogenic effects of C. nutans, providing new evidence for its potential application as an anti-angiogenic agent.

  5. Adnan A, Allaudin ZN, Hani H, Loh HS, Khoo TJ, Ting KN, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Jul 10;19(1):169.
    PMID: 31291936 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2586-5
    BACKGROUND: Garcinia species contain bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, xanthones, triterpernoids, and benzophenones with antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. In addition, many of these compounds show interesting biological properties such as anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity. Garcinia parvifolia is used in traditional medicine. Currently, the antiviral activity of G. parvifolia is not known.

    METHODS: This study was conducted to determine the effects of ethyl acetate (45 L Ea), ethanol (45 L Et), and hexane (45 L H) leaf extracts of G. parvifolia on the infectivity of pseudorabies virus (PrV) in Vero cells. The antiviral effects of the extracts were determined by cytopathic effect (CPE), inhibition, attachment, and virucidal assays.

    RESULTS: The 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) values obtained were 237.5, 555.0, and 

  6. Atangwho IJ, Yin KB, Umar MI, Ahmad M, Asmawi MZ
    PMID: 25358757 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-426
    This study evaluated the impact of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) on the transcription of key enzymes involved in cellular modulation of glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in a bid to understand the possible anti-diabetic mechanism of VA.
  7. Wan-Nadilah WA, Akhtar MT, Shaari K, Khatib A, Hamid AA, Hamid M
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Sep 05;19(1):245.
    PMID: 31488132 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2655-9
    BACKGROUND: Cosmos caudatus is an annual plant known for its medicinal value in treating several health conditions, such as high blood pressure, arthritis, and diabetes mellitus. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and total phenolic content of the leaf aqueous ethanolic extracts of the plant at different growth stages (6, 8. 10, 12 and 14 weeks) were determined in an effort to ascertain the best time to harvest the plant for maximum medicinal quality with respect to its glucose-lowering effects.

    METHODS: The aqueous ethanolic leaf extracts of C. caudatus were characterized by NMR and LC-MS/MS. The total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, respectively. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated using one-way ANOVA with Duncan's post hoc test, and correlation among the different activities was performed by Pearson's correlation test. NMR spectroscopy along with multivariate data analysis was used to identify the metabolites correlated with total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the C. caudatus leaf extracts.

    RESULTS: It was found that the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and total phenolic content of the optimized ethanol:water (80:20) leaf extract of the plant increased significantly as the plant matured, reaching a maximum at the 10th week. The IC50 value for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (39.18 μg mL- 1) at the 10th week showed greater potency than the positive standard, quercetin (110.50 μg mL- 1). Through an 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach, the 10-week-old samples were shown to be correlated with a high total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. From the partial least squares biplot, rutin and flavonoid glycosides, consisting of quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and quercetin 3-O-xyloside, were identified as the major bioactive metabolites. The metabolites were identified by NMR spectroscopy (J-resolve, HSQC and HMBC experiments) and further supported by dereplication via LC-MS/MS.

    CONCLUSION: For high phytomedicinal quality, the 10th week is recommended as the best time to harvest C. caudatus leaves with respect to its glucose lowering potential.

  8. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Ashkani S, Rahmat A, Juraimi AS, Puteh A, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2016 Mar 22;16:104.
    PMID: 27004511 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-1072-6
    Zingiber zerumbet (L.) is a traditional Malaysian folk remedy that contains several interesting bioactive compounds of pharmaceutical quality.
  9. Saqib F, Ahmed MG, Janbaz KH, Dewanjee S, Jaafar HZ, Zia-Ul-Haq M
    PMID: 26354022 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0837-7
    Murraya paniculata is traditionally used for management of gut, air way and cardiovascular disorders. The study was conducted for provision of pharmacological rationalization for folkloric uses of Murraya paniculata in gut, air way and cardiovascular problems.
  10. Zyoud SH, Al-Jabi SW, Sweileh WM, Tabeeb GH, Ayaseh NA, Sawafta MN, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2016 Jul 11;16:204.
    PMID: 27400742 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-1196-8
    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and herbal therapies, are accepted worldwide, and have been important from medical, sociological and economic perspectives, among haemodialysis (HD) patients. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the use of CAM among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are undergoing HD.
  11. Azam AA, Pariyani R, Ismail IS, Ismail A, Khatib A, Abas F, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 May 25;17(1):278.
    PMID: 28545435 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1777-1
    BACKGROUND: Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) is a herb known in ethnomedicine for treating diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, a (1)H NMR based urine metabolomics tool has been used for the first time to identify the metabolic protective mechanism of OS in DM using Streptozotocin (STZ) induced experimental model in rats.

    METHODS: Four different solvent extracts of OS, namely aqueous, ethanolic, 50% aqueous ethanolic and methanolic, at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (bw) were orally administered for 14 days to diabetic rats induced via intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg bw STZ. NMR metabolomics approach using pattern recognition combined with multivariate statistical analysis was applied in the rat urine to study the resulted metabolic perturbations.

    RESULTS: OS aqueous extract (OSAE) caused a reversal of DM comparable to that of 10 mg/kg bw glibenclamide. A total of 15 urinary metabolites, which levels changed significantly upon treatment were identified as the biomarkers of OSAE in diabetes. A systematic metabolic pathways analysis identified that OSAE contributed to the antidiabetic activity mainly through regulating the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, lipid and amino acid metabolism.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study validated the ethnopharmacological use of OS in diabetes and unveiled the biochemical and metabolic mechanisms involved.

  12. Hasan SS, Yong CS, Babar MG, Naing CM, Hameed A, Baig MR, et al.
    PMID: 21992582 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-95
    BACKGROUND: In recent times the basic understanding, perceptions and CAM use among undergraduate health sciences students have become a topic of interest. This study was aimed to investigate the understanding, perceptions and self-use of CAM among pharmacy students in Malaysia.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 systematically sampled pharmacy students from two private and one public university. A validated, self-administered questionnaire comprised of seven sections was used to gather the data. A systematic sampling was applied to recruit the students. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using SPSS® version 18.
    RESULTS: Overall, the students tend to disagree that complementary therapies (CM) are a threat to public health (mean score = 3.6) and agreed that CMs include ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit (mean score = 4.7). More than half (57.8%) of the participants were currently using CAM while 77.6% had used it previously. Among the current CAM modalities used by the students, CM (21.9%) was found to be the most frequently used CAM followed by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) (21%). Most of the students (74.8%) believed that lack of scientific evidence is one of the most important barriers obstructing them to use CAM. More than half of the students perceived TCM (62.8%) and music therapy (53.8%) to be effective. Majority of them (69.3%) asserted that CAM knowledge is necessary to be a well-rounded professional.
    CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals a high-percentage of pharmacy students who were using or had previously used at least one type of CAM. Students of higher professional years tend to agree that CMs include ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit.
  13. Wetchakul P, Goon JA, Adekoya AE, Olatunji OJ, Ruangchuay S, Jaisamut P, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Aug 13;19(1):209.
    PMID: 31409340 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2626-1
    BACKGROUND: The imbalance between the generation of free radicals and natural cellular antioxidant defenses, known as oxidative stress, can cause oxidation of biomolecules and further contribute to aging-associated diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacities of Thai traditional tonifying preparation, Jatu-Phala-Tiga (JPT) and its herbal ingredients consisting of Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellirica and further assess its effect on longevity.

    METHOD: Antioxidant activities of various extracts obtained from JPT and its herbal components were carried out using well-established methods including metal chelating, free radical scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. Qualitative analysis of the chemical composition from JPT water extract was done by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. The effect of JPT water extract on the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans were additionally described.

    RESULTS: Among the extracts, JPT water extract exerted remarkable antioxidant activities as compared to the extracts from other solvents and individual constituting plant extract. JPT water extract was found to possess the highest metal chelating activity, with an IC50 value of 1.75 ± 0.05 mg/mL. Moreover, it exhibited remarkable scavenging activities towards DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide anion radicals, with IC50 values of 0.31 ± 0.02, 0.308 ± 0.004, and 0.055 ± 0.002 mg/mL, respectively. The ORAC and FRAP values of JPT water extract were 40.338 ± 2.273 μM of Trolox/μg of extract and 23.07 ± 1.84 mM FeSO4/mg sample, respectively. Several well-known antioxidant-related compounds including amaronols, quinic acid, gallic acid, fertaric acid, kurigalin, amlaic acid, isoterchebin, chebulagic acid, ginkgolide C, chebulinic acid, ellagic acid, and rutin were found in this extract. Treatment with JPT water extract at 1 and 5 mg/mL increased C. elegans lifespan under normal growth condition (7.26 ± 0.65 vs. 10.4 0± 0.75 (p 

  14. Mohd Effendy N, Abdullah S, Yunoh MF, Shuid AN
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2015 Mar 12;15:58.
    PMID: 25887391 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0567-x
    BACKGROUND: Post-menopausal osteoporosis has long been treated and prevented by estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Despite its effectiveness, ERT is associated with serious adverse effects. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP) is a herb with potential as an alternative agent to ERT due to its phytoestrogenic, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on bone. This study aimed to determine the effects of LP supplementation on bone biomechanical strength of postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model.

    METHODS: Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats aged 4 to 5 months old were randomly divided into six groups; six rats in the baseline group (BL) and eighteen rats in each group of; Sham- operated (Sham), ovariectomised control (OVXC) and ovariectomised with daily oral gavages of Premarin at 64.5 μg/kg (ERT), LP at 20 mg/kg (LP20) and LP at 100 mg/kg (LP100) respectively. These groups were subdivided into three, six and nine weeks of treatment periods. Rats in BL group were euthanized before the start of the study, while other rats were euthanized after completion of their treatments. Femora were dissected out for biomechanical strength analysis using Instron Universal Model 5848 Micro Tester.

    RESULTS: OVXC group showed deterioration in the bone biomechanical strength with time. Both ERT and LP supplemented rats showed improvements in bone strength parameters such as maximum load, displacement, stiffness, stress, and Young Modulus. The most improved bone strength was seen in rats given LP at the dose of 100 mg/kg for nine weeks.

    CONCLUSION: LP supplementation at 100 mg/kg was more effective than ERT in reversing ovariectomy-induced bone biomechanical changes.
  15. Mohd Zainudin M, Zakaria Z, Megat Mohd Nordin NA
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2015 Mar 10;15:54.
    PMID: 25887182 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0565-z
    BACKGROUND: The National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2011 estimated that 35.1% (5.7 million) of Malaysian adults aged 18 and older suffer from hypertension. Hypertension is still treated by conventional medicine despite its exact aetiology being unknown. Studies showed that oxidative stress and low availability of nitric oxide (NO) causes an increase in vascular wall tension and increase blood pressure. Piper sarmentosum (PS) a traditional Malay herbal plant is well known for its high antioxidant content. Antioxidant is useful in improving cardiovascular diseases particularly hypertension. Thus, it is beneficial to determine the effect of PS leaves aqueous extract (Kadukmy™) on the blood pressure, NO level, oxidative stress markers and serum cholesterol level of the Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats (SHR).

    METHODS: Rats were devided into five groups consisting of three treatment groups and two control groups. Baseline blood investigations were done before and following commencement of treatment. Spontaneous hypertensive rats were treated for 28 consecutive days and the blood pressure was measured weekly.

    RESULTS: Kadukmy™ administration showed a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (P 

  16. Hii LW, Lim SE, Leong CO, Chin SY, Tan NP, Lai KS, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Sep 14;19(1):257.
    PMID: 31521140 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2663-9
    BACKGROUND: Clinacanthus nutans extracts have been consumed by the cancer patients with the hope that the extracts can kill cancers more effectively than conventional chemotherapies. Our previous study reported its anti-inflammatory effects were caused by inhibiting Toll-like Receptor-4 (TLR-4) activation. However, we are unsure of its anticancer effect, and its interaction with existing chemotherapy.

    METHODS: We investigated the anti-proliferative efficacy of polar leaf extracts (LP), non-polar leaf extracts (LN), polar stem extract (SP) and non-polar stem extracts (SN) in human breast, colorectal, lung, endometrial, nasopharyngeal, and pancreatic cancer cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, MTT assay. The most potent extracts was tested along with gemcitabine using our established drug combination analysis. The effect of the combinatory treatment in apoptosis were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Annexin V assay, antibody array and immunoblotting. Statistical significance was analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Dunnett's test. A p-value of less than 0.05 (p 

  17. Razali RA, Nik Ahmad Eid NAH, Jayaraman T, Amir Hassan MA, Azlan NQ, Ismail NF, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Jun 26;18(1):197.
    PMID: 29940929 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2250-5
    BACKGROUND: One of the molecular mechanisms involved in upper airway-related diseases is epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Olea europaea (OE) has anti-inflammatory properties and thus, great potential to prevent EMT. This study aimed to investigate the effect of OE on EMT in primary nasal human respiratory epithelial cells (RECs).

    METHODS: Respiratory epithelial cells were isolated and divided into four groups: control (untreated), treated with 0.05% OE (OE group), EMT induced with 5 ng/ml of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1 group) and treated with 5 ng/ml TGFβ1 + 0.05% OE (TGFβ1 + OE group). The effects of OE treatment on growth kinetics, morphology and protein expression in RECs were evaluated. Immunocytochemistry analysis was performed to quantitate the total percentage of E-cadherin and vimentin expression from day 1 to day 3.

    RESULTS: There were no significant differences between untreated RECs and OE-treated RECs in terms of their morphology, growth kinetics and protein expression. Induction with TGFβ1 caused RECs to have an elongated spindle shape, a slower proliferation rate, a higher expression of vimentin and a lower expression of E-cadherin compared with the control. Cells in the TGFβ1 + OE group had similar epithelial shape to untreated group however it had no significant differences in their proliferation rate when compared to TGFβ1-induced RECs. Cells treated with TGFβ1 + OE showed significantly reduced expression of vimentin and increased expression of E-cadherin compared with the TGFβ1 group (P 

  18. Sejari N, Kamaruddin K, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Neoh CF, Ming LC
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2016 Jan 15;16:16.
    PMID: 26767971 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-0988-1
    BACKGROUND: The treatment of low back pain is very challenging due to the recurrent nature of the problem. It is believed that traditional Malay massage helps to relieve such back pain but there is a lack of scientific evidence to support both the practice of traditional Malay massage and the mechanism by which it exerts its effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the immediate effect of traditional Malay massage on the pain scale, substance P, inflammatory mediators, and functional outcomes among low back pain patients.

    METHODS: A non-blinded, randomised controlled trial will be conducted. A total of sixty-six patients who fulfil the inclusion criteria will be recruited. The participants will be randomly allocated into intervention (traditional Malay massage) and control (relaxation position) groups. Blood and saliva samples will be collected before and immediately after intervention. All collected samples will be analysed. The primary outcomes are the changes in the level of substance P in both saliva and blood samples between both groups. The secondary outcomes include the levels of inflammatory mediators [i.e. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-6 and IL-10, and the soluble form of the intercellular adhesion molecule], the pain intensity as measured by a visual analogous scale and functional outcomes using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire.

    DISCUSSION: Massage is a type of physical therapy that has been proven to be potentially capable of reducing unpleasant pain sensations by a complex sensory response and chemical mediators such as substance P and various inflammatory mediators. Previous studies conducted using Thai, Swedish, or other forms of massage therapies, have showed inconsistent findings on substance P levels pre and post the interventions. Each massage genre varies in terms of massage and joint mobilization points, as well as the lumbar spinous process. Traditional Malay massage, known locally as "Urut Melayu", involves soft-tissue manipulation of the whole body applied using the hands and fingers. This massage technique combines both deep muscular tissue massage and spiritual rituals. This trial is expected to give rise to new knowledge underlying the mechanisms for pain and inflammation relief that are activated by traditional Malay massage.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials ACTRN12615000537550 .

  19. Hamsin DE, Hamid RA, Yazan LS, Taib CN, Ting YL
    PMID: 23298265 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-5
    Ardisia crispa (Myrsinaceae) is used in traditional Malay medicine to treat various ailments associated with inflammation, including rheumatism. The plant's hexane fraction was previously shown to inhibit several diseases associated with inflammation. As there is a strong correlation between inflammation and angiogenesis, we conducted the present study to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of the plant's roots in animal models of inflammation-induced angiogenesis.
  20. Zaid SS, Sulaiman SA, Sirajudeen KN, Othman NH
    PMID: 21194469 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-82
    Honey is a highly nutritional natural product that has been widely used in folk medicine for a number of therapeutic purposes. We evaluated whether Malaysian Tualang honey (AgroMas, Malaysia) was effective in reducing menopausal syndrome in ovariectomised female rats; an animal model for menopause.
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