Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 229 in total

  1. Ahmad NA, Mat Ludin AF, Shahar S, Mohd Noah SA, Mohd Tohit N
    BMJ Open, 2020 Mar 16;10(3):e033870.
    PMID: 32184309 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033870
    INTRODUCTION: The world's older population continues to grow at an unprecedented rate. An ageing population poses a great challenge to our healthcare system that requires new tool to tackle the complexity of health services as well as the increasing expenses. Mobile health applications (mHealth app) is seen to have the potential to address these challenges, alleviating burdens on the healthcare system and enhance the quality of life for older adults. Despite the numerous benefits of mHealth apps, relatively little is known about whether older adults perceive that these apps confer such benefits. Their perspectives towards the use of mobile applications for health-related purposes have also been little studied. Therefore, in this paper, we outline our scoping review protocol to systematically review literature specific to older adults' willingness, perceived barriers and motivators towards the use of mobile applications to monitor and manage their health.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review methodology framework will guide the conduct of this scoping review. The search strategy will involve electronic databases including PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect, in addition to grey literature sources and hand-searching of reference lists. Two reviewers will independently screen all abstracts and full-text studies for inclusion. Data will be charted and sorted through an iterative process by the research team. The extracted data will undergo a descriptive analysis and simple quantitative analysis will be conducted using descriptive statistics. Engagement with relevant stakeholders will be carried out to gain more insights into our data from different perspectives.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Since the data used are from publicly available sources, this study does not require ethical approval. Results will be disseminated through academic journals, conferences and seminars. We anticipate that our findings will aid technology developers and health professionals working in the area of ageing and rehabilitation.

  2. Hisham R, Ng CJ, Liew SM, Hamzah N, Ho GJ
    BMJ Open, 2016 Mar 09;6(3):e010565.
    PMID: 26962037 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010565
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the factors, including barriers and facilitators, influencing the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) across various primary care settings in Malaysia based on the doctors' views and experiences.
    RESEARCH DESIGN: The qualitative study was used to answer the research question. 37 primary care physicians participated in six focus group discussions and six individual in-depth interviews. A semistructured topic guide was used to facilitate both the interviews and focus groups, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, checked and analysed using a thematic approach.
    PARTICIPANTS: 37 primary care doctors including medical officers, family medicine specialists, primary care lecturers and general practitioners with different working experiences and in different settings.
    SETTING: The study was conducted across three primary care settings-an academic primary care practice, private and public health clinics in Klang Valley, Malaysia.
    RESULTS: The doctors in this study were aware of the importance of EBM but seldom practised it. Three main factors influenced the implementation of EBM in the doctors' daily practice. First, there was a lack of knowledge and skills in searching for and applying evidence. Second, workplace culture influenced doctors' practice of EBM. Third, some doctors considered EBM as a threat to good clinical practice. They were concerned that rigid application of evidence compromised personalised patient care and felt that EBM did not consider the importance of clinical experience.
    CONCLUSIONS: Despite being aware of and having a positive attitude towards EBM, doctors in this study seldom practised EBM in their routine clinical practice. Besides commonly cited barriers such as having a heavy workload and lack of training, workplace 'EBM culture' had an important influence on the doctors' behaviour. Strategies targeting barriers at the practice level should be considered when implementing EBM in primary care.
    Study site: klinik kesihatan, general practice clinics, Klang Valley, Malaysia
  3. Tong WT, Vethakkan SR, Ng CJ
    BMJ Open, 2015 Jan 29;5(1):e006407.
    PMID: 25633285 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006407
    OBJECTIVE: To explore factors influencing poor glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes using insulin.
    RESEARCH DESIGN: A qualitative method comprising in-depth individual interviews. A semistructured interview guide was used. The interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic approach.
    PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen people with type 2 diabetes using insulin with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥9% for >1 year.
    SETTING: The Primary Care Clinic and Diabetes Clinic in the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia.
    RESULTS: Data analysis uncovered four themes: lifestyle challenges in adhering to medical recommendations; psychosocial and emotional hurdles; treatment-related factors; lack of knowledge about and self-efficacy in diabetes self-care.
    CONCLUSIONS: Factors that explain the poor glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes using insulin were identified. Healthcare providers could use these findings to address patients' concerns during consultations and help to improve glycaemic control.
    Study site: Primary Care Clinic and Diabetes Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  4. Mak J, Abramsky T, Sijapati B, Kiss L, Zimmerman C
    BMJ Open, 2017 Aug 11;7(8):e015835.
    PMID: 28801409 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-015835
    OBJECTIVES: Growing numbers of people are migrating outside their country for work, and many experience precarious conditions, which have been linked to poor physical and mental health. While international dialogue on human trafficking, forced labour and slavery increases, prevalence data of such experiences remain limited.

    METHODS: Men from Dolakha, Nepal, who had ever migrated outside of Nepal for work were interviewed on their experiences, from predeparture to return (n=194). Forced labour was assessed among those who returned within the past 10 years (n=140) using the International Labour Organization's forced labour dimensions: (1) unfree recruitment; (2) work and life under duress; and (3) impossibility to leave employer. Forced labour is positive if any one of the dimensions is positive.

    RESULTS: Participants had worked in India (34%), Malaysia (34%) and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries (29%), working in factories (29%), as labourers/porters (15%) or in skilled employment (12%). Among more recent returnees (n=140), 44% experienced unfree recruitment, 71% work and life under duress and 14% impossibility to leave employer. Overall, 73% experienced forced labour during their most recent labour migration.Forced labour was more prevalent among those who had taken loans for their migration (PR 1.23) and slightly less prevalent among those who had migrated more than once (PR 0.87); however the proportion of those who experienced forced labour was still high (67%). Age, destination and duration of stay were associated with only certain dimensions of forced labour.

    CONCLUSION: Forced labour experiences were common during recruitment and at destination. Migrant workers need better advice on assessing agencies and brokers, and on accessing services at destinations. As labour migration from Nepal is not likely to reduce in the near future, interventions and policies at both source and destinations need to better address the challenges migrants face so they can achieve safer outcomes.

  5. Al-Sadat N, Majid HA, Sim PY, Su TT, Dahlui M, Abu Bakar MF, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2016 08 18;6(8):e010689.
    PMID: 27540095 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010689
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<37.5 nmol/L) among young adolescents in Malaysia and its association with demographic characteristics, anthropometric measures and physical activity.

    DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study among Form 1 (year 7) students from 15 schools selected using a stratified random sampling design. Information regarding sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data and environmental factors was collected and blood samples were taken for total vitamin D. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression was performed on the data.

    SETTING: National secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: 1361 students (mean age 12.9±0.3 years) (61.4% girls) completed the consent forms and participated in this study. Students with a chronic health condition and/or who could not understand the questionnaires due to lack of literacy were excluded.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Vitamin D status was determined through measurement of sera 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Body mass index (BMI) was classified according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Self-reported physical activity levels were assessed using the validated Malay version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C).

    RESULTS: Deficiency in vitamin D was seen in 78.9% of the participants. The deficiency was significantly higher in girls (92.6%, p<0.001), Indian adolescents (88.6%, p<0.001) and urban-living adolescents (88.8%, p<0.001). Females (OR=8.98; 95% CI 6.48 to 12.45), adolescents with wider waist circumference (OR=2.64; 95% CI 1.65 to 4.25) and in urban areas had higher risks (OR=3.57; 95% CI 2.54 to 5.02) of being vitamin D deficient.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study shows a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among young adolescents. Main risk factors are gender, ethnicity, place of residence and obesity.

  6. Chia YC, Gray SY, Ching SM, Lim HM, Chinna K
    BMJ Open, 2015;5(5):e007324.
    PMID: 25991451 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007324
    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the validity of the Framingham general cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk chart in a primary care setting.
    DESIGN: This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study.
    SETTING: A primary care clinic in a teaching hospital in Malaysia.
    PARTICIPANTS: 967 patients' records were randomly selected from patients who were attending follow-up in the clinic.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline demographic data, history of diabetes and smoking, blood pressure (BP), and serum lipids were captured from patient records in 1998. Each patient's Framingham CVD score was computed from these parameters. All atherosclerotic CVD events occurring between 1998 and 2007 were counted.
    RESULTS: In 1998, mean age was 57 years with 33.8% men, 6.1% smokers, 43.3% diabetics and 59.7% hypertensive. Median BP was 140/80 mm Hg and total cholesterol 6.0 mmol/L (1.3). The predicted median Framingham general CVD risk score for the study population was 21.5% (IQR 1.2-30.0) while the actual CVD events that occurred in the 10 years was 13.1% (127/967). The median CVD points for men was 30.0, giving them a CVD risk of more than 30%; for women it is 18.5, a CVD risk of 21.5%. Our study found that the Framingham general CVD risk score to have moderate discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.63 [c-statistic or c-index]. It also discriminates well for Malay (AUC 0.65, p=0.01), Chinese (AUC 0.60, p=0.03), and Indians (AUC 0.65, p=0.001). There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ(2)=3.25, p=0.78.
    CONCLUSIONS: Taking into account that this cohort of patients were already on treatment, the Framingham General CVD Risk Prediction Score predicts fairly accurately for men and overestimates somewhat for women. In the absence of local risk prediction charts, the Framingham general CVD risk prediction chart is a reasonable alternative for use in a multiethnic group in a primary care setting.
    Study site: Primary care clinic,University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  7. Sutan R, Batarfi SA, Ismail H, Bin-Ghouth AS
    BMJ Open, 2022 Feb 17;12(2):e055841.
    PMID: 35177459 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-055841
    INTRODUCTION: Although immunisation prevents the death of millions of infants and children each year, the vaccination coverage of routine childhood vaccination does not reach its target. The reasons for low vaccination uptake can be related to both demand and supply side determinants. The prevalence of vaccine hesitancy is increasing globally. However, data on vaccine hesitancy in low-income Arabic countries are scarce. To investigate this issue in Yemen, an Arabic low-income country, we aim to examine the link between vaccine hesitancy and the immunisation status of children living in Costal Hadhramout, Yemen, from the perspective of their parents and healthcare providers.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will use a mixed-method research design. The study will be conducted in Costal Hadhramout in three phases. Phase 1 will involve a situational analysis using secondary data from records of the national expanded immunisation programme in Costal Hadhramout to examine the trend for previous years. Phase 2 will be a quantitative study aimed at assessing the prevalence of vaccination status of children aged <2 years and the determinants of parental vaccine hesitancy perception through a validated questionnaire. Lastly, phase 3 will be a qualitative study that explores vaccine hesitancy in Yemen using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with parents and healthcare providers, respectively.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the Research Committee of the Faculty of Medicine, University Kebangsaan Malaysia. The findings will be disseminated via publication in peer-reviewed academic journals, academic conferences and public presentations.

  8. Lee JY, Chan CKY, Chua SS, Paraidathathu T, Lee KK, Tan CSS, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2019 Oct 22;9(10):e026575.
    PMID: 31640990 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026575
    OBJECTIVE: Telemedicine has been promoted as an economical and effective way to enhance patient care, but its acceptance among patients in low-income and middle-income countries is poorly understood. This study is aimed to explore the experiences and perspectives of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus that used telemedicine to manage their condition.

    DESIGN: In-depth and focus group interviews were conducted with participants who have engaged in telemedicine. Questions included were participants' perception on the programme being used, satisfaction as well as engagement with the telemedicine programme. All interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach.

    PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: People with type 2 diabetes (n=48) who participated in a randomised controlled study which examined the use of telemedicine for diabetes management were recruited from 11 primary care clinics located within the Klang Valley.

    RESULTS: Twelve focus groups and two in-depth interviews were conducted. Four themes emerged from the analysis: (1) generational difference; (2) independence and convenience, (3) sharing of health data and privacy and (4) concerns and challenges. The main obstacles found in patients using the telemedicine systems were related to internet connectivity and difficulties experienced with system interface. Cost was also another significant concern raised by participants. Participants in this study were primarily positive about the benefits of telemedicine, including its ability to provide real-time data and disease monitoring and the reduction in clinic visits.

    CONCLUSION: Despite the potential benefits of telemedicine in the long-term care of diabetes, there are several perceived barriers that may limit the effectiveness of this technology. As such, collaboration between educators, healthcare providers, telecommunication service providers and patients are required to stimulate the adoption and the use of telemedicine.NCT0246680.

  9. Syed A, Mohd Don Z, Ng CJ, Lee YK, Khoo EM, Lee PY, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2017 05 09;7(5):e014260.
    PMID: 28490553 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014260
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the use of apatient decision aid (PDA) for insulin initiation fulfils its purpose of facilitating patient-centred decision-making through identifying how doctors and patients interact when using the PDA during primary care consultations.
    DESIGN: Conversation analysis of seven single cases of audio-recorded/video-recorded consultations between doctors and patients with type 2 diabetes, using a PDA on starting insulin.
    SETTING: Primary care in three healthcare settings: (1) one private clinic; (2) two public community clinics and (3) one primary care clinic in a public university hospital, in Negeri Sembilan and the Klang Valley in Malaysia.
    PARTICIPANTS: Clinicians and seven patients with type 2 diabetes to whom insulin had been recommended. Purposive sampling was used to select a sample high in variance across healthcare settings, participant demographics and perspectives on insulin.
    PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Interaction between doctors and patients in a clinical consultation involving the use of a PDA about starting insulin.
    RESULTS: Doctors brought the PDA into the conversation mainly by asking information-focused 'yes/no' questions, and used the PDA for information exchange only if patients said they had not read it. While their contributions were limited by doctors' questions, some patients disclosed issues or concerns. Although doctors' PDA-related questions acted as a presequence to deliberation on starting insulin, their interactional practices raised questions on whether patients were informed and their preferences prioritised.
    CONCLUSIONS: Interactional practices can hinder effective PDA implementation, with habits from ordinary conversation potentially influencing doctors' practices and complicating their implementation of patient-centred decision-making. Effective interaction should therefore be emphasised in the design and delivery of PDAs and in training clinicians to use them.
  10. Aziz NA, Pindus DM, Mullis R, Walter FM, Mant J
    BMJ Open, 2016 Jan 06;6(1):e009244.
    PMID: 26739728 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009244
    INTRODUCTION: Despite the rising prevalence of stroke, no comprehensive model of postacute stroke care exists. Research on stroke has focused on acute care and early supported discharge, with less attention dedicated to longer term support in the community. Likewise, relatively little research has focused on long-term support for informal carers. This review aims to synthesise and appraise extant qualitative evidence on: (1) long-term healthcare needs of stroke survivors and informal carers, and (2) their experiences of primary care and community health services. The review will inform the development of a primary care model for stroke survivors and informal carers.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will systematically search 4 databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL for published qualitative evidence on the needs and experiences of stroke survivors and informal carers of postacute care delivered by primary care and community health services. Additional searches of reference lists and citation indices will be conducted. The quality of articles will be assessed by 2 independent reviewers using a Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion or third party adjudication. Meta-ethnography will be used to synthesise the literature based on first-order, second-order and third-order constructs. We will construct a theoretical model of stroke survivors' and informal carers' experiences of primary care and community health services.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The results of the systematic review will be disseminated via publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at a relevant conference. The study does not require ethical approval as no patient identifiable data will be used.

  11. Sreeramareddy CT, Harper S
    BMJ Open, 2019 09 06;9(9):e029712.
    PMID: 31494612 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029712
    OBJECTIVE: To measure trends in socioeconomic inequalities tobacco use in Nepal.

    SETTING: Adults interviewed during house-to-house surveys.

    PARTICIPANTS: Women (15-45 years) and men (15-49 years) surveyed in four Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys done in 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016.

    OUTCOME MEASURE: Current tobacco use (in any form).

    RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco use for men declined from 66% in 2001 to 55% in 2016, and declined from 29% to 8.4% among women. Across both education and wealth quintiles for both men and women, the prevalence of tobacco use generally declines with increasing education or wealth. We found persistently larger absolute inequalities by education than by wealth among men. Among women we also found larger educational than wealth-related gradients, but both declined over time. For men, the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) for education was larger than for wealth (44% vs 26% in 2001) and changed very little over time. For women, the SII for both education and wealth were similar in magnitude to men, but decreased substantially between 2001 and 2016 (from 44% to 16% for education; from 37% to 16% for wealth). Women had a larger relative index of inequality than men for both education (6.5 vs 2.0 in 2001) and wealth (4.8 vs 1.5 in 2001), and relative inequality increased between 2001 and 2016 for women (from 6.5 to 16.0 for education; from 4.8 to 12.0 for wealth).

    CONCLUSION: Increasing relative inequalities indicates suboptimal reduction in tobacco use among the vulnerable groups suggesting that they should be targeted to improve tobacco control.

  12. Khairullah S, Mahadeva S
    BMJ Open, 2017 05 25;7(5):e013873.
    PMID: 28550020 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013873
    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to adapt, translate and validate the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ) in Malaysian patients with chronic liver diseases of various aetiologies.

    SETTING: Tertiary level teaching institution in Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: The validation process involved 211 adult patients (English language n=101, Malay language n=110) with chronic liver disease. Characteristics of the study subjects were as follows: mean (SD) age was 56 (12.8) years, 58.3% were male and 41.7% female. The inclusion criteria were patients 18 years or older with chronic hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis of any aetiology. The exclusion criteria were as follows: presence of hepatic encephalopathy, ongoing treatment with interferon and presence of other chronic conditions that have an impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL).

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Cultural adaptation of the English version of the CLDQ was performed, and a Malay version was developed following standard forward-backward translation by independent native speakers. Psychometric properties of both versions were determined by assessing their internal consistency, test-retest reliability and discriminant and convergent validity.

    RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency across the various domains of the CLDQ was 0.95 for the English version and 0.92 for the Malay version. Test-retest analysis showed excellent reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.89 for the English version and 0.93 for the Malay version. The average scores of both the English and Malay versions of the CLDQ demonstrated adequate discriminant validity by differentiating between non-cirrhosis (English 6.3, Malay 6.1), compensated cirrhosis (English 5.6, Malay 6.0) and decompensated cirrhosis (English 5.1, Malay 4.9) (p<0.001). Convergent validity showed that correlation was fair between the English (ρ=0.59) and Malay (p=0.47) CLDQ versions with the EQ-5D, a generic HRQOL instrument.

    CONCLUSION: The English and Malay versions of the CLDQ are reliable and valid disease-specific instruments for assessing HRQOL in Malaysian patients with chronic liver disease.

  13. Chow CK, Corsi DJ, Gilmore AB, Kruger A, Igumbor E, Chifamba J, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2017 03 31;7(3):e013817.
    PMID: 28363924 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013817
    OBJECTIVES: This study examines in a cross-sectional study 'the tobacco control environment' including tobacco policy implementation and its association with quit ratio.

    SETTING: 545 communities from 17 high-income, upper-middle, low-middle and low-income countries (HIC, UMIC, LMIC, LIC) involved in the Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH) study from 2009 to 2014.

    PARTICIPANTS: Community audits and surveys of adults (35-70 years, n=12 953).

    PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Summary scores of tobacco policy implementation (cost and availability of cigarettes, tobacco advertising, antismoking signage), social unacceptability and knowledge were associated with quit ratios (former vs ever smokers) using multilevel logistic regression models.

    RESULTS: Average tobacco control policy score was greater in communities from HIC. Overall 56.1% (306/545) of communities had >2 outlets selling cigarettes and in 28.6% (154/539) there was access to cheap cigarettes (<5cents/cigarette) (3.2% (3/93) in HIC, 0% UMIC, 52.6% (90/171) LMIC and 40.4% (61/151) in LIC). Effective bans (no tobacco advertisements) were in 63.0% (341/541) of communities (81.7% HIC, 52.8% UMIC, 65.1% LMIC and 57.6% LIC). In 70.4% (379/538) of communities, >80% of participants disapproved youth smoking (95.7% HIC, 57.6% UMIC, 76.3% LMIC and 58.9% LIC). The average knowledge score was >80% in 48.4% of communities (94.6% HIC, 53.6% UMIC, 31.8% LMIC and 35.1% LIC). Summary scores of policy implementation, social unacceptability and knowledge were positively and significantly associated with quit ratio and the associations varied by gender, for example, communities in the highest quintile of the combined scores had 5.0 times the quit ratio in men (Odds ratio (OR) 5·0, 95% CI 3.4 to 7.4) and 4.1 times the quit ratio in women (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.4 to 7.1).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that more focus is needed on ensuring the tobacco control policy is actually implemented, particularly in LMICs. The gender-related differences in associations of policy, social unacceptability and knowledge suggest that different strategies to promoting quitting may need to be implemented in men compared to women.

  14. Sooryanarayana R, Choo WY, Hairi NN, Chinna K, Hairi F, Ali ZM, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2017 Sep 01;7(8):e017025.
    PMID: 28864485 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017025
    BACKGROUND: As Malaysia is fast becoming an ageing nation, the health, safety and welfare of elders are major societal concerns. Elder abuse is a phenomenon recognised abroad but less so locally. This paper presents the baseline findings from the Malaysian Elder Mistreatment Project (MAESTRO) study, the first community-based study on elder abuse in Malaysia.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, analysing baseline findings of a cohort of older adults.

    SETTING: Kuala Pilah district, Negeri Sembilan state, Malaysia.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of elder abuse among community dwelling older adults and its associated factors.

    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2112 community dwelling older adults aged 60 years and above were recruited employing a multistage sampling using the national census.

    PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Elder abuse, measured using a validated instrument derived from previous literature and the modified Conflict Tactic Scales, similar to the Irish national prevalence survey on elder abuse with modification to local context. Factors associated with abuse and profiles of respondents were also examined.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of overall abuse was reported to be 4.5% in the past 12 months. Psychological abuse was most common, followed by financial, physical, neglect and sexual abuse. Two or more occurrences of abusive acts were common, while clustering of various types of abuse was experienced by one-third of abused elders. Being male (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.15, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.78), being at risk of social isolation (aOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.58), a prior history of abuse (aOR 3.28, 95% CI 1.40 to 7.68) and depressive symptomatology (aOR 7.83, 95% CI 2.88 to 21.27) were independently associated with overall abuse.

    CONCLUSION: Elder abuse occurred among one in every 20 elders. The findings on elder abuse indicate the need to enhance elder protection in Malaysia, with both screening of and interventions for elder abuse.

  15. Ibrahim N, Chu SY, Siau CS, Amit N, Ismail R, Abdul Gafor AH
    BMJ Open, 2022 Jun 03;12(6):e059305.
    PMID: 36691236 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-059305
    INTRODUCTION: The number of patients in Malaysia requiring dialysis is expected to rise substantially in the future due to the ageing population and increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Hence, more individuals will be expected to adopt the role of caregivers in the future. The upward trend of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and caregiving for dialysis patients has detrimental consequences for both patients and caregivers in terms of their psychological well-being and quality of life. Despite the current circumstances, there are very few studies in Malaysia that have explored the psychosocial factors, specifically on the economic impact of the management of ESRD.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This two-phase sequential explanatory mixed-methods design, incorporating a quantitative design (phase I) and a qualitative study (phase II), is to be conducted in 4 government hospitals and 10 other non-governmental organisations or private dialysis centres within Klang Valley, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey (phase I) will include 236 patient-caregiver dyads, while focus group discussions (phase II) will include 30 participants. The participants for both phases will be recruited purposively. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-tests and multiple regression analysis will be used for analyses in phase I, and thematic analysis will be used in phase II.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval for the study has been obtained from the National Medical Research and Ethics Committee (MREC) (NMRR-21-1012-59714) and the Research Ethics Committee of Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz UKM (UKM PPI/111/8/JEP-2021-078) and University of Malaya Medical Centre (MREC ID NO: 2 02 178-10346). Informed consent of the participants will be obtained beforehand, and no personal identifiers will be obtained from the participants to protect their anonymity. The findings will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals and presented at national or international conferences with minimal anonymised data.

  16. Haque SE, Rahman M, Itsuko K, Mutahara M, Sakisaka K
    BMJ Open, 2014;4(7):e004607.
    PMID: 24993753 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004607
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of a school-based menstrual education programme on: (1) menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices, (2) menstrual disorders experienced, and (3) restrictions on menstruating adolescents.
    DESIGN: Intervention study.
    SETTING: Araihazar area, Bangladesh.
    PARTICIPANTS: 416 adolescent female students aged 11-16 years, in grade 6-8, and living with their parents.
    INTERVENTIONS: A school-based health education study conducted from April 2012 to April 2013.
    We randomly selected 3 of 26 high schools in the study area. We delivered 6 months of educational intervention by trained (by an obstetrician and gynaecologist) research assistants (RAs) on menstrual hygiene among school girls. RAs read the questionnaire and participants answered. The changes in knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding menstruation, menstrual disorders experienced, and the restrictions and behaviours practiced by menstruating adolescents were compared between the baseline and the follow-up assessments.
    RESULTS: After health education, participants reported a significant improvement (p<0.001) in 'high knowledge and beliefs' scores compared to baseline (51% vs 82.4%). Significant improvement was also observed in overall good menstrual practices (28.8% vs 88.9%), including improvements in using sanitary pads (22.4% change after the intervention), frequency of changing pads/cloths per day (68.8%), drying the used absorbent (77.6%), methods of disposing of the used absorbent (25.5%), and cleaning of genitalia (19.2%). During the follow-up, the participants reported significant improvements in the regularity of their menstrual cycle (94.5% vs 99.5%) and fewer complications during menstruation (78.6% vs 59.6%).
    CONCLUSIONS: The programme produced significant changes in the knowledge, beliefs and practices of menstrual hygiene, complications from lack of hygiene, and the behaviour and restrictions of the menstruating adolescents. These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a health education programme for adolescents on menstrual hygiene in secondary schools serving rural Bangladesh.
  17. Venketasubramanian N, Kumar R, Soertidewi L, Abu Bakar A, Laik C, Gan R
    BMJ Open, 2015 Nov 13;5(11):e009866.
    PMID: 26567259 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009866
    INTRODUCTION: NeuroAiD (MLC601, MLC901), a combination of natural products, has been shown to be safe and to aid neurological recovery after brain injuries. The NeuroAiD Safe Treatment (NeST) Registry aims to assess its use and safety in the real-world setting.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The NeST Registry is designed as a product registry that would provide information on the use and safety of NeuroAiD in clinical practice. An online NeST Registry was set up to allow easy entry and retrieval of essential information including demographics, medical conditions, clinical assessments of neurological, functional and cognitive state, compliance, concomitant medications, and side effects, if any, among patients on NeuroAiD. Patients who are taking or have been prescribed NeuroAiD may be included. Participation is voluntary. Data collected are similar to information obtained during standard care and are prospectively entered by the participating physicians at baseline (before initialisation of NeuroAiD) and during subsequent visits. The primary outcome assessed is safety (ie, non-serious and serious adverse event), while compliance and neurological status over time are secondary outcomes. The in-person follow-up assessments are timed with clinical appointments. Anonymised data will be extracted and collectively analysed. Initial target sample size for the registry is 2000. Analysis will be performed after every 500 participants entered with completed follow-up information.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Doctors who prescribe NeuroAiD will be introduced to the registry by local partners. The central coordinator of the registry will discuss the protocol and requirements for implementation with doctors who show interest. Currently, the registry has been approved by the Ethics Committees of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia) and National Brain Center (Indonesia). In addition, for other countries, Ethics Committee approval will be obtained in accordance with local requirements.


  18. Islam T, Bhoo-Pathy N, Su TT, Majid HA, Nahar AM, Ng CG, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2015 Oct 26;5(10):e008643.
    PMID: 26503386 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008643
    INTRODUCTION: Over recent decades, the burden of breast cancer has been increasing at an alarming rate in Asia. Prognostic research findings from Western countries may not readily be adapted to Asia, as the outcome of breast cancer depends on a multitude of factors ranging from genetic, clinical and histological predictors, to lifestyle and social predictors. The primary aim of this study is to determine the impact of lifestyle (eg, nutrition, physical activity), mental and sociocultural condition, on the overall survival and quality of life (QoL) among multiethnic Malaysian women following diagnosis of breast cancer. This study aims to advance the evidence on prognostic factors of breast cancer within the Asian setting. The findings may guide management of patients with breast cancer not only during active treatment but also during the survivorship period.

    METHODS: This hospital-based prospective cohort study will comprise patients with breast cancer (18 years and above), managed in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). We aim to recruit 1000 cancer survivors over a 6-year period. Data collection will occur at baseline (within 3 months of diagnosis), 6 months, and 1, 3 and 5 years following diagnosis. The primary outcomes are disease-free survival and overall survival, and secondary outcome is QoL. Factors measured are demographic and socioeconomic factors, lifestyle factors (eg, dietary intake, physical activity), anthropometry measurements (eg, height, weight, waist, hip circumference, body fat analysis), psychosocial aspects, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) usage.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol was approved by the UMMC Ethical Committee in January 2012. All participants are required to provide written informed consent. The findings from our cohort study will be disseminated via scientific publication as well as presentation to stakeholders including the patients, clinicians, the public and policymakers, via appropriate avenues.

  19. Su TT, Adekunjo FO, Schliemann D, Cardwell CR, Htay MNN, Dahlui M, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2023 Aug 31;13(8):e072166.
    PMID: 37652591 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2023-072166
    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a cultural adaptation and validation of the Champion Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (CHBMS-CRC-M) in order to assess and investigate perceptions and beliefs about CRC screening in Malaysia.

    DESIGNS AND PARTICIPANTS: The results from an evidence synthesis and the outcomes from an expert panel discussion were used to shape CHBMS scale content into an assessment of beliefs about CRC screening (CHBMS-CRC). This questionnaire assessment was translated into the official language of Malaysia. An initial study tested the face validity of the new scale or questionnaire with 30 men and women from various ethnic groups. Factorial or structural validity was investigated in a community sample of 954 multiethnic Malaysians.

    SETTING: Selangor state, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: The new scale was culturally acceptable to the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia and achieved good face validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from 0.66 to 0.93, indicating moderate to good internal consistency. Items relating to perceived susceptibility to CRC 'loaded' on Factor 1 (with loadings scoring above 0.90); perceived benefits of CRC screening items loaded on factor 2 and were correlated strongly (loadings ranged between 0.63 and 0.83) and perceived barriers (PBA) to CRC screening (PBA) items loaded on factor 3 (range 0.30-0.72).

    CONCLUSION: The newly developed CHBMS-CRC-M fills an important gap by providing a robust scale with which to investigate and assess CRC screening beliefs and contribute to efforts to enhance CRC screening uptake and early detection of CRC in Malaysia and in other Malay-speaking communities in the region.

  20. Kuang Hock L, Hui Li L, Chien Huey T, Yuvaneswary V, Sayan P, Muhd Yusoff MF, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2019 02 12;9(2):e020304.
    PMID: 30760510 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020304
    OBJECTIVE: Public opinion and support can be powerful mandates for smoke-free policy. However, the scarcity of evidence on public opinion among Malaysians necessitates further investigation. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the level of support for smoke-free policy at various public domains and its associated factors among Malaysian adults.

    DESIGN: Data were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Malaysia (GATS-M). GATS-M is a nationwide study that employed a multistage, proportionate-to-size sampling strategy to select a representative sample of 5112 Malaysian adults aged 15 years and above. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with support for smoke-free policy in selected public domains that is, workplaces, restaurants, bars, hotels, casinos, karaoke centres, public transport terminals and shopping centres.

    RESULTS: The level of support for enactment of a smoke-free policy at selected public domains varied from 37.8% to 94.4%, with the highest support was for gazetted smoke-free domains, namely, shopping centres (94.4%, 95% CI: 93.2% to 95.3%) and public transport terminals (85.2%, 95% CI: 83.3% to 86.9%). Multiple logistic regression revealed that non-smokers were more likely to support smoke-free policy at all domains. In addition, respondents who worked in workplaces with total or partial smoking restrictions were more likely to support a smoke-free policy ((total restriction adjusted OR (AOR): 14.94 (6.44 to 34.64); partial restriction AOR: 2.96 (1.138 to 6.35); non-restriction was applied as a reference).

    CONCLUSION: A majority of the Malaysian adult population supported the smoke-free policy, especially at gazetted smoke-free domains. Therefore, expansion of a total smoking ban to workplaces, restaurants, bars, hotels, casinos and karaoke centres is strongly recommended to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and to denormalise smoking behaviour.

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