Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 422 in total

  1. Durani LW, Khor SC, Tan JK, Chua KH, Mohd Yusof YA, Makpol S
    Biomed Res Int, 2017;2017:6894026.
    PMID: 28596968 DOI: 10.1155/2017/6894026
    Piper betle
    (PB) is a traditional medicine that is widely used to treat different diseases around Asian region. The leaf extracts contain various bioactive compounds, which were reported to have antidiabetic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. In this study, the effect of PB aqueous extracts on replicative senescent human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) was investigated by determining the expressions of senescence-associated genes using quantitative PCR. Our results showed that PB extracts at 0.4 mg/ml can improve cell proliferation of young (143%), presenescent (127.3%), and senescent (157.3%) HDFs. Increased expressions ofPRDX6,TP53,CDKN2A,PAK2, andMAPK14were observed in senescent HDFs compared to young and/or presenescent HDFs. Treatment with PB extracts modulates the transcriptional profile changes in senescent HDFs. By contrast, expressions ofSOD1increased, whereasGPX1,PRDX6,TP53,CDKN2A,PAK2, andMAPK14were decreased in PB-treated senescent HDFs compared to untreated senescent HDFs. In conclusion, this study indicates the modulation of PB extracts on senescence-associated genes expression of replicative senescent HDFs. Further studies warrant determining the mechanism of PB in modulating replicative senescence of HDFs through these signaling pathways.
  2. Irawan BA, Irawan SN, Masudi SM, Sukminingrum N, Alam MK
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:327289.
    PMID: 26558267 DOI: 10.1155/2015/327289
    This study aims to evaluate the effects of vital tooth bleaching with carbamide peroxide home bleaching and in-office bleaching on the color stability and 3D surface profile of dental restorative filling materials. Thirty discs (n = 30) measure 6 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick for each of three restorative materials. These are nanofilled composite Filtek Z350 XT, the submicron composite Estelite Σ Quick, and nanofilled glass ionomer Ketac N100 nanoionomer and were fabricated in shade A2. Each group was further divided into three subgroups (n = 10): subgroup A (Opalescence PF), subgroup B (Opalescence Boost in-office bleaching), and subgroup C (distilled water) serving as control. Samples were bleached according to the manufacturer's instructions for a period of two weeks. The Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE L(*), a(*), b(*)) system was chosen for image processing, while 3D surface profile was tested with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Statistical analyses were performed with the Mann-Whitney tests and Krusal-Wallis with a P value of ≤ 0.05. The three restorative materials showed significant color changes (ΔE); P ≤ 0.05. In diminishing order, the mean color changes recorded were Estelite Σ (3.82 ± 1.6) > Ketac Nano (2.97 ± 1.2) > Filtek Z350 XT (2.25 ± 1.0). However, none of the tested materials showed statistically significant changes in surface roughness; P > 0.05.
  3. Ahmed N, Halim MSB, Ghani ZA, Khan ZA, Abbasi MS, Jamayet NB, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2021;2021:6674400.
    PMID: 33969123 DOI: 10.1155/2021/6674400
    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the existence of golden percentage in natural maxillary anterior teeth with the aid of 3D digital dental models and 2D photographs. And to propose regional values of golden percentage for restoration of maxillary anterior teeth. For this purpose, one hundred and ninety dentate subjects with sound maxillary anterior teeth were selected. Standardized frontal images were captured with DSLR, and the apparent width of maxillary anterior teeth was measured utilizing a software on a personal laptop computer. Once the dimensions were recorded, the calculations were made according to the golden percentage theory (GPT). The data were analyzed by independent and paired T-test. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. The golden percentage values were not found in this study. The values obtained were 16%, 15%, 20%, 20%, 15%, and 16% moving from the right canine to the left canine teeth. There was no significant gender difference in the golden percentage values. Thus, golden percentage should not be used solely for the correction of anterior teeth or for determining dental attractiveness. Emphasis should be given to a range of dental proportion on regional basis.
  4. Karobari MI, Khijmatgar S, Bhandary R, Krishna Nayak US, Del Fabbro M, Horn R, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2021;2021:5599724.
    PMID: 34327231 DOI: 10.1155/2021/5599724
    Objectives: The objective of the study was to understand and analyze the prescription patterns of dentists across various demographic locations for managing oral infections and pain with antibiotics and explore the evidence-based practices by clinicians as well as the need for further education. Materials and methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out using an online questionnaire framed to explore the knowledge, attitude, and practices among dentists with varying levels of experience and qualifications, regarding antimicrobial prescription. The questions were validated from previous published studies that explored the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) with respect to antimicrobial prescription. In total, N = 300 of dentists from four different countries responded to the online questionnaire out of which 53% were specialists while 47% were general dentists. After data collection, descriptive analysis was carried out along with a one-sided hypothesis test to depict the power of the sample.

    Results: It was seen from the results of the study that the first-choice antibiotics for 67.8% of dentists were found to be the β-lactam group while sulfonamides and tetracyclines at 20% were the second most prescribed group. Another important finding was that 45.6% of dentists ignored hypersensitivity testing before prescription of antibiotics even though 83.3% of the total dentists interviewed were aware of the increase in antibiotic resistance.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, the dentists are partially aware of the guidelines but need further training and education on antimicrobial prescription that enables evidence-based decision-making for better practices and outcomes.

  5. Zakaria AA, Noor MHM, Ahmad H, Hassim HA, Mazlan M, Latip MQA
    Biomed Res Int, 2021;2021:9928199.
    PMID: 34568497 DOI: 10.1155/2021/9928199
    The Labisia pumila (LP) is a traditional plant that is locally known as Kacip Fatimah, Selusuh Fatimah, or Pokok Ringgang by the Malaysian indigenous people. It is believed to facilitate their childbirth, treating their postchild birth and menstrual irregularities. The water extract of LP has shown to contain bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and phenolic acid, which contribute extensive antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antifungal. The LP ethanolic extract exhibits significant estrogenic effects on human endomentrial adenocarcinoma cell in estrogen-free basal medium and promoting an increase in secretion of alkaline phosphate. Water based has been used for many generations, and studies had reported that it could displace in binding the antibodies and increase the estradiol production making it similar to esterone and estradiol hormone. LP extract poses a potential and beneficial aspect in medical and cosmeceutical applications. This is mainly due to its phytoestrogen properties of the LP. However, there is a specific functionality in the application of LP extract, due to specific functional group in phytoconstituent of LP. Apart from that, the extraction solvent is important in preparing the LP extract as it poses some significant and mild side effects towards consuming the LP extracts. The current situation of women reproductive disease such as postmenopausal syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome is increasing. Thus, it is important to find ways in alternative treatment for women reproductive disease that is less costly and low side effects. In conclusion, these studies proven that LP has the potential to be an alternative way in treating female reproductive related diseases such as in postmenopausal and polysystic ovarian syndrome women.
  6. Perumal K, Mun KS, Yap NY, Razack AHA, Gobe GC, Ong TA, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2020;2020:3682086.
    PMID: 32802842 DOI: 10.1155/2020/3682086
    Background: The mechanisms that link obesity and cancer development are not well-defined. Investigation of leptin and leptin receptor expressions may help define some of the mechanisms. These proteins are known for associating with the immune response, angiogenesis and, signalling pathways such as JAK2/STAT3, PI3K, and AKT pathways. Tissue proteins can be easily detected with immunohistochemistry (IHC), a technique widely used both in diagnostic and research laboratories. The identification of altered levels of leptin and leptin receptor proteins in tumour tissues may lead to targeted treatment for cancer.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to use IHC to compare leptin and leptin receptor expressions in clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) in non-obese and obese patients to determine the association between these proteins with the clinicopathological features and prognosis of ccRCC. Patients and Methods. The study involved 60 patients who underwent nephrectomy of which 34 were obese, as assessed using body mass index (BMI). Nephrectomy samples provided tissues of ccRCC and adjacent non-cancerous kidney. The intensity and localization of leptin and leptin receptor protein expressions were evaluated using IHC and correlated with clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes. Aperio ImageScope morphometry and digital pathology were applied to assess the IHC results. The chi-square test was used to determine if there was any significant association between the proteins and the clinicopathological features. The Kaplan-Meier test was used to determine the overall survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence-free survival. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant.

    Results: There was neither significant difference in the overall cellular and nuclear expressions of leptin and leptin receptor between non-cancerous kidney and ccRCC tissues nor in non-obese and obese individuals with ccRCC.

    Conclusion: In this present study, it was revealed that leptin and leptin receptor were not associated with tumour characteristics and progression of ccRCC patients. Interestingly, nuclear expression of leptin was significantly associated with overall survival. However, the significance of these proteins as biomarkers in other RCC histotypes is still unclear.

  7. Sim PY, Su TT, Abd Majid H, Nahar AM, Jalaludin MY
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:475659.
    PMID: 25258711 DOI: 10.1155/2014/475659
    To compare the measurements of body fat percentage (BF%) using the foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (FTF-BIA) with the direct segmental multifrequency BIA (DSM-BIA).
  8. Shapi'i A, Mat Zin NA, Elaklouk AM
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:493562.
    PMID: 25815320 DOI: 10.1155/2015/493562
    Brain injury such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke is the major cause of long-term disabilities in many countries. The increasing rate of brain damaged victims and the heterogeneity of impairments decrease rehabilitation effectiveness and competence resulting in higher cost of rehabilitation treatment. On the other hand, traditional rehabilitation exercises are boring, thus leading patients to neglect the prescribed exercises required for recovery. Therefore, we propose game-based approach to address these problems. This paper presents a rehabilitation gaming system (RGS) for cognitive rehabilitation. The RGS is developed based on a proposed conceptual framework which has also been presented in this paper.
  9. Chua YA, Abdullah WZ, Yusof Z, Gan SH
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:316310.
    PMID: 24790995 DOI: 10.1155/2014/316310
    The vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 gene (VKORC1) is commonly assessed to predict warfarin sensitivity. In this study, a new nested allele-specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that can simultaneously identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at VKORC1 381, 861, 5808, and 9041 for haplotype analysis was developed and validated. Extracted DNA was amplified in the first PCR DNA, which was optimized by investigating the effects of varying the primer concentrations, annealing temperature, magnesium chloride concentration, enzyme concentration, and the amount of DNA template. The amplification products produced from the first round of PCR were used as templates for a second PCR amplification in which both mutant and wild-type primers were added in separate PCR tubes, followed by optimization in a similar manner. The final PCR products were resolved by agarose gel electrophoresis and further analysed by using a VKORC1 genealogic tree to infer patient haplotypes. Fifty patients were identified to have H1H1, one had H1H2, one had H1H7, 31 had either H1H7 or H1H9, one had H1H9, eight had H7H7, and one had H8H9 haplotypes. This is the first method that is able to infer VKORC1 haplotypes using only conventional PCR methods.
  10. Amid M, Murshid FS, Manap MY, Hussin M
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:815413.
    PMID: 25756051 DOI: 10.1155/2015/815413
    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme.
  11. Shafiu Kamba A, Ismail M, Tengku Ibrahim TA, Zakaria ZA
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:587451.
    PMID: 24324966 DOI: 10.1155/2013/587451
    The synthesised biobased calcium carbonate nanocrystals had demonstrated to be an effective carrier for delivery of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). The use of these nanocrystals displayed high levels of selectivity and specificity in achieving effective cancer cell death without nonspecific toxicity. These results confirmed that DOX was intercalated into calcium carbonate nanocrystals at high loading and encapsulation efficiency (4.8 and 96%, resp.). The CaCO₃/DOX nanocrystals are relatively stable at neutral pH (7.4), resulting in slow release, but the nanocrystals progressively dissociated in acidic pH (4.8) regimes, triggering faster release of DOX. The CaCO₃/DOX nanocrystals exhibited high uptake by MDA MB231 breast cancer cells and a promising potential delivery of DOX to target cells. In vitro chemosensitivity using MTT, modified neutral red/trypan blue assay, and LDH on MDA MB231 breast cancer cells revealed that CaCO₃/DOX nanocrystals are more sensitive and gave a greater reduction in cell growth than free DOX. Our findings suggest that CaCO₃ nanocrystals hold tremendous promise in the areas of controlled drug delivery and targeted cancer therapy.
  12. Ojha SC, Yean Yean C, Ismail A, Singh KK
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:412370.
    PMID: 23509722 DOI: 10.1155/2013/412370
    The magnitude of shigellosis in developing countries is largely unknown because an affordable detection method is not available. Current laboratory diagnosis of Shigella spp. is laborious and time consuming and has low sensitivity. Hence, in the present study, a molecular-based diagnostic assay which amplifies simultaneously four specific genes to identify invC for Shigella genus, rfc for S. flexneri, wbgZ for S. sonnei, and rfpB for S. dysenteriae, as well as one internal control (ompA) gene, was developed in a single reaction to detect and differentiate Shigella spp. Validation with 120 Shigella strains and 37 non-Shigella strains yielded 100% specificity. The sensitivity of the PCR was 100 pg of genomic DNA, 5.4 × 10(4) CFU/ml, or approximately 120 CFU per reaction mixture of bacteria. The sensitivity of the pentaplex PCR assay was further improved following preincubation of the stool samples in gram-negative broth. A preliminary study with 30 diarrhoeal specimens resulted in no cross-reaction with other non-Shigella strains tested. We conclude that the developed pentaplex PCR assay is robust and can provide information about the four target genes that are essential for the identification of the Shigella genus and the three Shigella species responsible for the majority of shigellosis cases.
  13. Wei LK, Sutherland H, Au A, Camilleri E, Haupt LM, Gan SH, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:167976.
    PMID: 25705649 DOI: 10.1155/2015/167976
    Stroke is a multifactorial disease that may be associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. We investigated epigenetic dysregulation for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene among ischemic stroke patients. Cases and controls were recruited after obtaining signed written informed consents following a screening process against the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Serum vitamin profiles (folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine) were determined using immunoassays. Methylation profiles for CpGs A and B in the MTHFR gene were determined using a bisulfite-pyrosequencing method. Methylation of MTHFR significantly increased the susceptibility risk for ischemic stroke. In particular, CpG A outperformed CpG B in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 levels to increase ischemic stroke susceptibility risks by 4.73-fold. However, both CpGs A and B were not associated with serum homocysteine levels or ischemic stroke severity. CpG A is a potential epigenetic marker in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 to contribute to ischemic stroke.
  14. Koo CL, Liew MJ, Mohamad MS, Salleh AH
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:432375.
    PMID: 24228248 DOI: 10.1155/2013/432375
    Recently, the greatest statistical computational challenge in genetic epidemiology is to identify and characterize the genes that interact with other genes and environment factors that bring the effect on complex multifactorial disease. These gene-gene interactions are also denoted as epitasis in which this phenomenon cannot be solved by traditional statistical method due to the high dimensionality of the data and the occurrence of multiple polymorphism. Hence, there are several machine learning methods to solve such problems by identifying such susceptibility gene which are neural networks (NNs), support vector machine (SVM), and random forests (RFs) in such common and multifactorial disease. This paper gives an overview on machine learning methods, describing the methodology of each machine learning methods and its application in detecting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Lastly, this paper discussed each machine learning method and presents the strengths and weaknesses of each machine learning method in detecting gene-gene interactions in complex human disease.
  15. Tan CS, Ting WS, Mohamad MS, Chan WH, Deris S, Shah ZA
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:213656.
    PMID: 25250315 DOI: 10.1155/2014/213656
    When gene expression data are too large to be processed, they are transformed into a reduced representation set of genes. Transforming large-scale gene expression data into a set of genes is called feature extraction. If the genes extracted are carefully chosen, this gene set can extract the relevant information from the large-scale gene expression data, allowing further analysis by using this reduced representation instead of the full size data. In this paper, we review numerous software applications that can be used for feature extraction. The software reviewed is mainly for Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Partial Least Squares (PLS), and Local Linear Embedding (LLE). A summary and sources of the software are provided in the last section for each feature extraction method.
  16. Moghadamtousi SZ, Kadir HA, Hassandarvish P, Tajik H, Abubakar S, Zandi K
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:186864.
    PMID: 24877064 DOI: 10.1155/2014/186864
    Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae family) and its polyphenolic compound curcumin have been subjected to a variety of antimicrobial investigations due to extensive traditional uses and low side effects. Antimicrobial activities for curcumin and rhizome extract of C. longa against different bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites have been reported. The promising results for antimicrobial activity of curcumin made it a good candidate to enhance the inhibitory effect of existing antimicrobial agents through synergism. Indeed, different investigations have been done to increase the antimicrobial activity of curcumin, including synthesis of different chemical derivatives to increase its water solubility as well ass cell up take of curcumin. This review aims to summarize previous antimicrobial studies of curcumin towards its application in the future studies as a natural antimicrobial agent.
  17. Yuet Ping K, Darah I, Chen Y, Sreeramanan S, Sasidharan S
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:182064.
    PMID: 24386634 DOI: 10.1155/2013/182064
    Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5,000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1,000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity.
  18. Golbabapour S, Hajrezaie M, Hassandarvish P, Abdul Majid N, Hadi AH, Nordin N, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:974185.
    PMID: 23781513 DOI: 10.1155/2013/974185
    The investigation was to evaluate gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. Forty-eight rats were divided into 8 groups: negative control, extract control, ulcer control, reference control, and four experimental groups. As a pretreatment, the negative control and the ulcer control groups were orally administered carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). The reference control was administered omeprazole orally (20 mg/kg). The ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves was given orally to the extract control group (500 mg/kg) and the experimental groups (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg). After 1 h, CMC was given orally to the negative and the extract control groups. The other groups received absolute ethanol. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. The ulcer control group exhibited significant mucosal injuries with decreased gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa. The extract caused upregulation of Hsp70 protein, downregulation of Bax protein, and intense periodic acid schiff uptake of glandular portion of stomach. Gastric mucosal homogenate showed significant antioxidant properties with increase in synthesis of PGE2, while MDA was significantly decreased. The ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves was nontoxic (<5 g/kg) and could enhance defensive mechanisms against hemorrhagic mucosal lesions.
  19. Al Batran R, Al-Bayaty F, Al-Obaidi MM, Abdulla MA
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:594012.
    PMID: 23844365 DOI: 10.1155/2013/594012
    The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of andrographolide on hyperlipidemia induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in rats. Thirty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into five groups as follows: group 1 (vehicle) and four experimental groups (groups 2, 3, 4, and 5) were challenged orally with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 (0.2 mL of 1.5 ×10(12) bacterial cells/mL in 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)) five times a week for one month to induce hyperlipidemia. Then, group 3 received a standard oral treatment with simvastatin 100 mg/kg, and groups 4 and 5 received oral treatment with andrographolide 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively, for another month. The results showed that total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were reduced significantly in groups treated with andrographolide. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level was low in treated groups, while antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly increased in these groups (P < 0.05). Liver tissues of the groups treated with andrographolide reduce the accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatic tissue cells. An acute toxicity test did not show any toxicological symptoms in rats.
  20. Rahman HS, Rasedee A, Othman HH, Chartrand MS, Namvar F, Yeap SK, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:563930.
    PMID: 25276798 DOI: 10.1155/2014/563930
    Zerumbone- (ZER-) loaded nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC) (ZER-NLC) prepared for its antileukemia effect in vitro was evaluated for its toxicological effects by observing changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow stem cells. The acute toxicity study for ZER-NLC was conducted by orally treating BALB/c mice with a single dose with either water, olive oil, ZER, NLC, or ZER-NLC for 14 days. The animals were observed for clinical and behavioral abnormalities, toxicological symptoms, feed consumption, and gross appearance. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and brain tissues were assessed histologically. Total haemogram was counted by hemocytometry and microhematocrit reader. Bone marrow examination in terms of cellular morphology was done by Wright staining with bone marrow smear. Furthermore, serum biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Grossly all treated mice, their investigated tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow were normal. At oral doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg ZER-NLC there was no sign of toxicity or mortality in BALB/c mice. This study suggests that the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ZER-NLC is higher than 200 mg/kg, thus, safe by oral administration.
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links