The natural rubber latex extracted from the bark of Hevea brasiliensis plays various important roles in today's modern society. Following ultracentrifugation, the latex can be separated into 3 layers: C-serum, lutoids, and rubber particles. Previous studies have shown that a large number of proteins are present in these 3 layers. However, a complete proteome for this important plant is still unavailable. Protein sequences have been recently translated from the completed draft genome database of H. brasiliensis, leading to the creation of annotated protein databases of the following H. brasiliensis biosynthetic pathways: photosynthesis, latex allergens, rubberwood formation, latex biosynthesis, and disease resistance. This research was conducted to identify the proteins contained within the latex by way of de novo sequencing from mass spectral data obtained from the 3 layers of the latex. Peptides from these proteins were fragmented using collision-induced dissociation, higher-energy collisional dissociation, and electron-transfer dissociation activation methods. A large percentage of proteins from the biosynthetic pathways (63% to 100%) were successfully identified. In addition, a total of 1839 unique proteins were identified from the whole translated draft genome database (AnnHBM).
The natural rubber latex extracted from the bark of Hevea brasiliensis plays various important roles in modern society. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the latex proteins are important for the stability and functionality of the proteins. In this study, latex proteins were acquired from the C-serum, lutoids, and rubber particle layers of latex without using prior enrichment steps; they were fragmented using collision-induced dissociation (CID), higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) activation methods. PEAKS 7 were used to search for unspecified PTMs, followed by analysis through PTM prediction tools to crosscheck both results. There were 73 peptides in 47 proteins from H. brasiliensis protein sequences derived from UniProtKB were identified and predicted to be post-translationally modified. The peptides with PTMs identified include phosphorylation, lysine acetylation, N-terminal acetylation, hydroxylation, and ubiquitination. Most of the PTMs discovered have yet to be reported in UniProt, which would provide great assistance in the research of the functional properties of H. brasiliensis latex proteins, as well as being useful biomarkers. The data are available via the MassIVE repository with identifier MSV000082419.
Finding a proper transition structure for the peptide bond formation process can lead one to a better understanding of the role of ribosome in catalyzing this reaction. Using computer simulations, we performed the potential energy surface scan on the ester bond dissociation of P-site aminoacyl-tRNA and the peptide bond formation of P-site and A-site amino acids. The full fragments of initiator tRNA(i)(met) and elongator tRNA(phe) are attached to both cognate and non-cognate amino acids as the P-site substrate. The A-site amino acid for all four calculations is methionine. We used ONIOM calculations to reduce the computational cost. Our study illustrates the reduced rate of peptide bond formation for misacylated tRNA(i)(met) in the absence of ribosomal bases. The misacylated elongator tRNA(phe), however, did not show any difference in its PES compared with that for the phe-tRNA(phe). This demonstrates the structural specification of initiator tRNA(i)(met) for the amino acids side chain.
The search for the mechanism of ribosomal peptide bond formation is still ongoing. Even though the actual mechanism of peptide bod formation is still unknown, the dominance of proton transfer in this reaction is known for certain. Therefore, it is vital to take the quantum mechanical effects on proton transfer reaction into consideration; the effects of which were neglected in all previous studies. In this study, we have taken such effects into consideration using a semi-classical approach to the overall reaction mechanism. The M06-2X density functional with the 6-31++G(d,p) basis set was used to calculate the energies of the critical points on the potential energy surface of the reaction mechanism, which are then used in transition state theory to calculate the classical reaction rate. The tunnelling contribution is then added to the classical part by calculating the transmission permeability and tunnelling constant of the reaction barrier, using the numerical integration over the Boltzmann distribution for the symmetrical Eckart potential. The results of this study, which accounts for quantum effects, indicates that the A2451 ribosomal residue induces proton tunnelling in a stepwise peptide bond formation.