Present study was conducted to evaluate current status of trace elements contamination in the surface sediments of the Johor Strait. Iron (2.54 +/- 1.24%) was found as the highest occurring element, followed by those of zinc (210.45 +/- 115.4 microg/g), copper (57.84 +/- 45.54 microg/g), chromium (55.50 +/- 31.24 microg/g), lead (52.52 +/- 28.41 microg/g), vanadium (47.76 +/- 25.76 microg/g), arsenic (27.30 +/- 17.11 microg/g), nickel (18.31 +/- 11.77 microg/g), cobalt (5.13 +/- 3.12 microg/g), uranium (4.72 +/- 2.52 microg/g), and cadmium (0.30 +/- 0.30 microg/g), respectively. Bioavailability of cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic and cadmium were higher than 50% of total concentration. Vanadium, copper, zinc, arsenic and cadmium were found significantly different between the eastern and western part of the strait (p < 0.05). Combining with other factors, Johor Strait is suitable as a hotspot for trace elements contamination related studies.
The effects of initial oil concentration and the Corexit 9500 dispersant on the rate of bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons were investigated with a series of ex-situ seawater samples. With initial oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/L, removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) with dispersant were 67.3%, 62.5%, 56.5% and 44.7%, respectively, and were 64.2%, 55.7%, 48.8% and 37.6% without dispersant. The results clearly indicate that the presence of dispersant enhanced crude oil biodegradation. Lower concentrations of crude oil demonstrated more efficient hydrocarbon removal. Based on these findings, bioremediation is not recommended for crude oil concentrations of 2,000 mg/L or higher.
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was detected as isomer groups (congener numbers 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) in the coastal water and sediment of four stations around Shadegan wetland protected area in the northwestern part of the Persian Gulf. Total PCB concentration range was 8-375 ng/L in water and 3.4-50.2 μg/g in sediment. Concentration of different congeners and chromatogram indicates that the source of PCB in this area can be Clophen A60; it used for long time in Iranian electronic industries. Other chlorinated hydrocarbons such as lindane, DDT and their metabolites were also present in the samples.
Urban environmental quality is vital to be investigated as the majority of people live in cities. However, given the continuous urbanization and industrialization in urban areas, heavy metals are continuously emitted into the terrestrial environment and pose a great threat to human. In this study, a total of 76 urban surface soil samples were collected in the Klang district (Malaysia), and analyzed for total and bioavailable heavy metal concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Results showed that the concentrations of bioavailable heavy metals declined in the order of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Cd, Pb, and Cr, and the concentrations of total heavy metals declined in the order of Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Co, and Cd. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that heavy metals could be grouped into three principal components, with PC1 containing Al and Fe, PC2 comprising Cd, Co, Cr, and Cu, and PC3 with only Zn. PCA results showed that PC1 may originate from natural sources, whereas PC2 and PC3 most likely originated from anthropogenic sources. Health risk assessment indicated that heavy metal contamination in the Klang district was below the acceptable threshold for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks in adults, but above the acceptable threshold for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks in children.
Analysis of herbicides sorption behavior in soil is critical in predicting their fate and possible harmful side effects in the environment. Application of polar imidazolinone herbicides is growing in tropical agricultural fields. Imidazolinones have high leaching potential and are persistent. In this study, adsorption-desorption of imazapic and imazapyr herbicides were evaluated in different types of Malaysian agricultural soils. Effects of soil parameters were also investigated on the soils' sorption capacities. The adsorption data fitted best to Freundlich isotherm (R2 > 0.991). The herbicides adsorptions were physical and spontaneous processes as ΔG values were negative and below 40 kJ/mol. The adsorption correlated positively with clay content, total organic carbon (TOC) content, and cation exchange capacity (CEC). There were strong negative correlations between hysteresis index and these factors indicating their importance in imidazolinones immobilization and, thus, their pollution reduction in the environment.
In this study, the ranges of pollutants found in the soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from Kg. Masai and Kg. Sg. Melayu, both located in the Straits of Johore, were 0.85-1.58 μg/g dry weight (dw) for Cd, 5.52-12.2 μg/g dw for Cu, 5.66-8.93 μg/g dw for Ni and 63.4-72.3 μg/g dw for Zn, and 36.4-244 ng/g dry weight for ∑PAHs. Significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn and ∑PAHs in the mussels were found in the water of a seaport site at Kg. Masai than a non-seaport site at Kg. Sg. Melayu population. The ratios of low molecular weight/high molecular weight hydrocarbons (2.94-3.42) and fluoranthene/pyrene (0.43-0.45) in mussels from both sites indicated the origin of the PAHs to be mainly petrogenic. This study has demonstrated the utility of using the soft tissues of P. viridis as a biomonitor of PAH contamination and bioavailability in the coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia.
In this study, three soil amendments (inorganic, liming, or organic-inorganic materials) were used in a Cd-contaminated purple field soil to investigate their impacts on soil Cd availability, enzyme (urease, catalase, sucrase, and acid phosphatase) activities, microbial biomass (carbon/nitrogen) and type (bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes) in mustard and corn trials. Results showed that soil amendments generally decreased soil exchangeable Cd, fungi and bacterial populations while increasing the activities of all the four soil enzymes tested, microbial biomass carbon and populations of actinomycetes (p 0.05) whereas stronger effects appeared in soil organic matter and available nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium; p
This study aims to determine the composition and sources of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in a semi-urban area. PM10 samples were collected using a high volume sampler. Heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cd and Ni) and cations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) were detected using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, while anions (SO4 (2-), NO3 (-), Cl(-) and F(-)) were analysed using Ion Chromatography. Principle component analysis and multiple linear regressions were used to identify the source apportionment of PM10. Results showed the average concentration of PM10 was 29.5 ± 5.1 μg/m(3). The heavy metals found were dominated by Fe, followed by Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cd and Ni. Na(+) was the dominant cation, followed by Ca(2+), K(+) and Mg(2+), whereas SO4 (2-) was the dominant anion, followed by NO3 (-), Cl(-) and F(-). The main sources of PM10 were the Earth's crust/road dust, followed by vehicle emissions, industrial emissions/road activity, and construction/biomass burning.
A study was conducted to determine the suitability of using selected aquatic dipterian larvae for biomonitoring bioassays. The organisms included a member of the biting midge family that was identified as Culicoides furens and a member of the non-biting midge family, identified as Chironomus plumosus. Median lethal toxicity tests were conducted to observe the variation between metal sensitivities between the two larval forms and how variations in temperature could affect the experimental setup. Nine heavy metals were used in the study. It was observed that the 96 h LC(50) (in mg/L) for the different metals was found to be Zn-16.21 (18.55 +/- 13.87); Cr-0.96 (1.08 +/- 0.84); Ag-4.22 (6.87 +/- 1.57); Ni-0.42 (0.59 +/- 0.25); Hg-0.42 (0.59 +/- 0.25); Pb-16.21 (18.31 +/- 14.11); Cu-42.24 (45.18 +/- 39.30); Mn-4.22 (7.19 +/- 1.25); Cd-0.42 (0.59 +/- 0.25) for the Chironomus plumosus and Zn-4.22 (6.56 +/- 1.88); Cr-0.42 (0.54 +/- 0.30); Ag-0.42 (0.54 +/- 0.30); Ni-0.42 (0.54 +/- 0.30); Hg-0.04 (0.07 +/- 0.01); Pb-0.42 (0.54 +/- 0.30); Cu-42.24 (45.18 +/- 39.30); Mn-4.22 (6.56 +/- 1.88); Cd-0.42 (0.54 +/- 0.30) in the case of the Culicoides furens. With temperature as a variable the LC(50) values were observed to increase from 2.51 mg/L at 10 degrees C to 4.22 ppm at 30 degrees C and to reduce slightly to 3.72 mg/L at 35 degrees C as seen in the case of Zn. It was also observed that at 40 degrees C thermal toxicity and chemical toxicity overlapped as 100% mortality was observed in the controls. This trend was observed in all metals for both C. plumosus and C. furens. Thus indicating temperature played an important role in determining LC(50) values of toxicants.
A study was conducted on the long term effects of nine heavy metals on the Chironomus plumosus and Culicoides furens larvae. This study tested the effect of the heavy metals on several generations of the larvae to observe the formation of increased hardiness against pollutants present within the aquatic habitat. From this study it was observed that susceptibility or sensitivity to heavy metals decreased with LC50 values becoming larger indicating a decreased toxicity level. Significant variations (p < 0.05) were observed between first generation and third generation culicoides for all metals and at all concentrations. Variations between third and fourth generation culicoides were also significantly different (p < 0.05) with the exception of chromium at 25 degrees C and nickel and lead at every temperature range group. The variation between all generations 4, 5 and 6 was found to be insignificant (p > 0.05). This would indicate that metal tolerance would have occurred in these generations and the effect of metals was less toxic to the culicoides. Generation 9 was found to have LC50 values (p > 0.05) the same as the LC50 values obtained in third generation culicoides. Thus it would appear that heavy metal resistance was developed when the organisms were exposed to prolonged exposure of the heavy metals but was lost when the organisms were bred in non-contaminated water.
Wilting, especially of the leaves, was observed as an initial symptom of arsenate [As(V)] to Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P. H. Raven. The plants tolerated As(V) levels of 39 mg kg⁻¹ for as long as 35 days of exposure. After 91 days, the maximum concentration of As uptake in the plant occurred at As(V) concentration of 65 mg kg⁻¹ while As concentration in the stems, roots and leaves were 6139.9 ± 829.5, 1284.5 ± 242.9 and 1126.1 ± 117.2 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. In conclusion, As(V) could cause toxic effects in L. octovalvis and the plants could uptake and accumulate As in plant tissues.
A short-term investigation on the chemical composition of rainwater was carried out at five selected sampling stations in Kuantan district, Pahang, Malaysia. Sampling of rainwater was conducted by event basis between September and November 2011. Rainwater samples were collected using polyethylene containers and the parameters measured were cations (sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium and magnesium) and anions (chlorides, nitrates and sulphates). The average pH value for rainwater samples was 6.0 ± 0.57 in which most of the sampling sites exhibited pH values >5.6. Calcium and sulphate were the most abundant cation and anion, respectively, whilst the concentrations of other major ions varied according to sampling location.
The distribution of total petrogenic hydrocarbon was investigated in the subsurface water of Setiu Wetland from July to October 2008. The concentration was quantified by UV-fluorescence spectroscopy and ranged from 4 to 121 μg/L (mean 60 ± 41 μg/L). Higher total petrogenic hydrocarbon concentrations were found in area with high boating activities suggesting that the contribution is likely related to fossil fuel combustion. The present study also revealed that the total petrogenic hydrocarbon values are still lower that those reported in Malaysian coastal waters.
This paper presents a preliminary result carried out in the Besut River basin, Terengganu, Malaysia to determine the selected trace metal concentrations. Concentrations of dissolved Pb, Cu, and Fe during the present study were in the range of 3.3-8.3 microg/L Pb, 0.1-0.3 microg/L Cu, and 1.1-12.3 microg/L Fe. For the particulate fraction concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Fe ranged from 1.0 to 3.6 microg/L, 0.3 to 2.8 microg/L, and 114 to 1,537 microg/L, respectively. The concentrations of metals in this study area, in general, were lower than those reported for other study areas. Higher metal concentrations measured in the wet monsoon season suggest that the input was mainly due to terrestrial runoff.
Livers and muscles of swamp eels (Monopterus albus) were analyzed for bioaccumulation of heavy metals during the plowing stage of a paddy cycle. Results showed heavy metals were bioaccumulated more highly in liver than muscle. Zinc (Zn) was the highest bioaccumulated metal in liver (98.5 ± 8.95 μg/g) and in muscle (48.8 ± 7.17 μg/g). The lowest bioaccumulated metals were cadmium (Cd) in liver (3.44 ± 2.42 μg/g) and copper (Cu) in muscle (0.65 ± 0.20 μg/g). In sediments, Zn was present at the highest mean concentration (52.7 ± 2.85 μg/g), while Cd had the lowest mean concentration (1.04 ± 0.24 μg/g). The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for Cu, Zn, Cd and nickel (Ni) in liver tissue was greater than the corresponding BSAF for muscle tissue. For the three plowing stages, metal concentrations were significantly correlated between liver and muscle tissues in all cases, and between sediment and either liver or muscle in most cases. Mean measured metal concentrations in muscle tissue were below the maximum permissible limits established by Malaysian and U.S. governmental agencies, and were therefore regarded as safe for human consumption.