Type 2 diabetes mellitus is recognized as a significant risk factor for fragility of bone. Among the newer anti-diabetic agents, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) have been reported to decrease the occurrence of bone fractures although the reason is unclear. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of sitagliptin treatment on tissue bone strength and compositional parameters in the high-fat-fed mouse model. Male NIH swiss mice were allowed free access to high-fat diet for 150 days to induce chronic hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Sitagliptin was administered once daily for 3 weeks. High-fat-fed mice administered with saline were used as controls. Bone strength was assessed at the organ and tissue level by three-point bending and nanoindentation, respectively. Bone microarchitecture was investigated by microcomputed tomography and bone composition was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared imaging and quantitative backscattered electron imaging. Administration of sitagliptin increased non-fasting insulin, improved glucose tolerance and increased insulin sensitivity. This was associated with clear ameliorations in bone strength at the organ and tissue level. No changes in trabecular or cortical microarchitectures were observed. On the other hand, higher values of Camean, Caturn, collagen maturity, mineral/matrix ratio, mineral maturity and crystal size index were evidenced after sitagliptin treatment. Correlation analysis significantly linked the modifications of bone strength to changes in bone compositional parameters. These results bring new light on the mode of action of sitagliptin on bone physiology and demonstrate a benefit of DPP4i.
Osteoporosis (OP) and osteoarthritis (OA) are debilitating musculoskeletal diseases of the elderly. Ficus deltoidea (FD) or mistletoe fig, a medicinal plant, was pre-clinically evaluated against OP- and OA-related bone alterations, in postmenopausal OA rat model. Thirty twelfth-week-old female rats were divided into groups (n = 6). Four groups were bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) and OA-induced by intra-articular monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) injection into the right knee joints. The Sham control and OVX-OA non-treated groups were given deionized water. The three other OVX-OA groups were orally administered daily with FD extract (200, 400 mg/kg) or diclofenac (5 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. The rats' bones and blood were evaluated for protein and mRNA expressions of osteoporosis and inflammatory indicators, and micro-CT computed tomography for bone microstructure. The non-treated OVX-OA rats developed severe OP bone loss and bone microstructural damage in the subchondral and metaphyseal regions, supported by reduced serum bone formation markers (osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin) and increased bone resorption markers (RANKL and CTX-I). The FD extract significantly (p
Nicotine is a major alkaloid of tobacco, which can increase free radical formation, leading to osteoporosis. The effects of nicotine administration and cessation on bone histomorphometry and biomarkers were studied in 28 Sprague-Dawley male rats. Rats aged 3 months and weighing 250-300 g were divided into four groups: control (C, normal saline for 4 months), nicotine for 2 months (N2), nicotine for 4 months (N4), and nicotine cessation (NC). The NC group was given nicotine for the first 2 months and then allowed to recover for the following 2 months without nicotine. Histomorphometric analysis was done using an image analyzer. ELISA kits were used to measure serum osteocalcin (bone formation marker) and pyridinoline (PYD, bone resorption marker) levels at month 0, month 2, and month 4. All test groups showed a significant decrease in BV/TV, Ob.S/BS, dLS/BS, MAR, BFR/BS, and osteocalcin levels and an increase in sLS/BS and PYD levels compared to group C. No significant differences were observed in all parameters measured among the test groups, except for MAR and BFR/BS. In conclusion, nicotine administration at a dose of 7 mg/kg for 2 and 4 months has detrimental effects on bone metabolism. Nicotine administration at 7 mg/kg for 2 months is sufficient to produce significant effects on bone histomorphometric parameters and biomarkers. In addition, prolonging the treatment for another 2 months did not show any significant differences. Cessation of nicotine for 2 months did not reverse the effects.
The prevalence of hypercalcemia in patients with untreated tuberculosis (TB) varies widely between countries. Since the vitamin D status and calcium intake are important determinants of hypercalcemia in TB, these two factors were compared among four populations (U.K., Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand) with a low prevalence (<3%) and two populations (Sweden, Australia) with a high prevalence (>25%). In the three Asian countries, the circulating vitamin D levels are abundant, but the calcium intakes are low. Subjects from the U.K. have the lowest circulating vitamin D level of all, although their calcium intake is high. In Sweden and Australia, both the circulating vitamin D levels and calcium intakes are high. Since serum 1,25(OH)2D concentration will only be raised if its substance for extrarenal conversion, 25(OH)D, is plentiful and the effect of a given serum 1,25 (OH)2D concentration on serum calcium is determined by the calcium intake, it is postulated that the regional variation in the prevalence of hypercalcemia in TB may be due to differences in the circulating vitamin D levels and calcium intakes in these populations.
This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of three forms of vitamin E supplements following nicotine treatment on bone histomorphometric parameters in an adult male rat model. Rats were divided into seven groups: baseline (B, killed without treatment), control (C, normal saline for 4 months), nicotine (N, nicotine for 2 months), nicotine cessation (NC), tocotrienol-enhanced fraction (TEF), gamma-tocotrienol (GTT), and alpha-tocopherol (ATF). Treatments for the NC, TEF, GTT, and ATF groups were performed in two phases. For the first 2 months they were given nicotine (7 mg/kg), and for the following 2 months nicotine administration was stopped and treatments with respective vitamin E preparations (60 mg/kg) were commenced except for the NC group, which was allowed to recover without treatment. Rats in the N and NC groups had lower trabecular bone volume, mineral appositional rate (MAR), and bone formation rate (BFR/BS) and higher single labeled surface and osteoclast surface compared to the C group. Vitamin E treatment reversed these nicotine effects. Both the TEF and GTT groups, but not the ATF group, had a significantly higher trabecular thickness but lower eroded surface (ES/BS) than the C group. The tocotrienol-treated groups had lower ES/BS than the ATF group. The GTT group showed a significantly higher MAR and BFR/BS than the TEF and ATF groups. In conclusion, nicotine induced significant bone loss, while vitamin E supplements not only reversed the effects but also stimulated bone formation significantly above baseline values. Tocotrienol was shown to be slightly superior compared to tocopherol. Thus, vitamin E, especially GTT, may have therapeutic potential to repair bone damage caused by chronic smoking.