Zero waste multistage utilization of biomass from Ginkgo biloba branches (GBBs) was achieved through extraction of bioactive components, analysis of antioxidant and antibacterial activities, preparation and composition of pyrolyzate, adsorption and reuse of modified biochar. The results showed that GBBs had abundant bioactive components for potential application in the industry of food, chemical raw materials and biomedicine. Especially, the bioactive compounds in acetone extract (10 mg/mL) of GBBs identified by DPPH and ABTS had free radical scavenging abilities of 92.28% and 98.18%, respectively, which are equivalent to Vitamin C used as an antioxidant in food additives. Fourier Transform Infrared and X-Ray Diffraction analysis showed that carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and magnetic Fe3O4 were successfully incorporated into raw biochar (RB) to form CMC-Fe3O4-RB nanomaterial. Scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction spectroscopy displayed Fe, C, and O existed on the surface of CMC-Fe3O4-RB. Compared with RB, CMC-Fe3O4-RB had a larger specific surface area, pore volume and pore size. Meanwhile, nanomagnetic CMC-Fe3O4-RB solved the problem of agglomeration in traditional magnetized biochar production, and improved the adsorption capacity of Pb2+, which was 29.90% higher than that of RB by ICP-OES. Further, the Pb2+ (10 mg/L) adsorption capacity of CMC-Fe3O4-RB reached the highest level in 2 h at the dosage of 0.01 g/L, and remained stable at 52.987 mg/g after five cycles of adsorption and desorption. This research aided in the creation of a strategy for GBBs zero waste multistage usage and a circular economic model for GBBs industry development, which can be promoted and applied to the fields of food industry and environment improvement.
This study examined the impact of wood fuel consumption on health outcomes, specifically under-five and adult mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, where wood usage for cooking and heating is on the increase. Generalized method of moment (GMM) estimators were used to estimate the impact of wood fuel consumption on under-five and adult mortality (and also male and female mortality) in the region. The findings revealed that wood fuel consumption had significant positive impact on under-five and adult mortality. It suggests that over the studied period, an increase in wood fuel consumption has increased the mortality of under-five and adult. Importantly, it indicated that the magnitude of the effect of wood fuel consumption was more on the under-five than the adults. Similarly, assessing the effect on a gender basis, it was revealed that the effect was more on female than male adults. This finding suggests that the resultant mortality from wood smoke related infections is more on under-five children than adults, and also are more on female adults than male adults. We, therefore, recommended that an alternative affordable, clean energy source for cooking and heating should be provided to reduce the wood fuel consumption.
Currently, heavy metals and dyes are some of the most critical pollutants in the aquatic environment. So, in this paper "waste-to-resource conversion", as a new application of modified mine silicate waste to remove Pb2+ ion and methylene blue (MB) dye, adsorption properties, mechanism of action and recycling were studied. Silicate wastes are located in the alteration zone and the margin of molybdenum ore, these wastes are under the influence of hydrothermal solutions which are impregnated with iron and manganese ions. Hence, acid and base modifications have been commonly used. So, in this study, a highly porous nanostructure of modified silicate waste was used to remove MB and Pb2+ ion, in subsequent to our previous study on the application of the raw material of the same in the removal of malachite green. Acid, base, and acid/base treatments were used to activate and modify the adsorbent. Results show a significantly higher potential of modified adsorbent in the removal of MB and Pb2+ compared to the raw material. According to the isotherm and kinetic studies for MB and Pb2+ the Langmuir and Temkin and pseudo-second-order models were investigated with experimental data. Modified nanomaterial was used for several adsorption and desorption processes, without a significant decrease in the capability of the adsorbent in the removal of MB and Pb2+ pollutants. Leached iron and manganese ions (as production of modification) are deposited in the form of sludge using a simple pH adjustment and precipitation process and can be used to recover iron and manganese metals in the long run. The comparison of monolayer adsorption capacity using for Pb2+ ion and MB dye are as ((untreated SW: 29.41, 1.05); (NaOH treated: 21.74, 100); (Nitric Acid treated: 16.67, 142.86); (Citric Acid treated: 40, 125); (Nitric/Citric Acids treated: 15.63, 111.11) and (Nitric/Citric Acids/NaOH treated: 15.15, 83.33)), respectively. Higher adsorption capacity and re-generable properties of this adsorbent suggest the usage of this natural and abundant mine waste to treat wastewater containing toxic elements and dyes.
The optical properties of a ZnO photocatalyst were enhanced with various dopant concentrations of Fe(3+). Doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized via a sol-gel method without the use of capping agents or surfactants and was then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The results showed that ZnO has a wurtzite, hexagonal structure and that the Fe(3+) ions were well incorporated into the ZnO crystal lattice. As the Fe(3+) concentration increased from 0.25 wt.% to 1 wt.%, the crystal size decreased in comparison with the undoped ZnO. The spectral absorption shifts of the visible light region (red shift) and the band gap decreases for each Fe-ZnO sample were investigated. The photocatalytic activities of the ZnO and Fe-ZnO samples were evaluated based on the degradation of 2-chlorophenol in aqueous solution under solar radiation. The samples with a small concentration of Fe(3+) ions showed enhanced photocatalytic activity with an optimal maximum performance at 0.5 wt.%. The results indicated that toxicity removal of 2-chlorophenol at same line of degradation efficiency. Small crystallite size and low band gap were attributed to high activities of Fe-ZnO samples under various concentrations of Fe(3+) ions compared to undoped ZnO.
Vanadia (V2O5)-incorporated fibrous silica-titania (V/FST) catalysts, which were successfully synthesized using a hydrothermal method followed by the impregnation of V2O5. The catalysts were then characterized using numerous techniques, including X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption analyses, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) analyses. The study found that varying the amount of V2O5 (1-10 wt%) had a significant impact on the physicochemical properties of the FST, which in turn improved the photodegradation efficiency of two organic compounds, ciprofloxacin (CIP) and congo red (CR). 5V/FST demonstrated the best performance in degrading 10 mg L-1 of CIP (83%) and CR (100%) at pH 3 using 0.375 g L-1 catalyst under visible light irradiation within 180 min. The highest photoactivity of 5V/FST is mainly due to higher crystallinity and the highest number of V2O5-FST interactions. Furthermore, as demonstrated by PL analysis, the 5V/FST catalyst has the most significant impact on interfacial charge transfer and reduces electron-hole recombination. The photodegradation of both contaminants follows the Langmuir-Hinshelwood pseudo-first-order model, according to the kinetic study. The scavenger investigation demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals and holes dominated species in the system, indicating that the catalyst effectively generated reactive species for pollutant degradation. A possible mechanism was also identified for FST and 5V/FST. Interestingly, V2O5 acts as an electron-hole recombination inhibitor on FST for selective hole oxidation of ciprofloxacin and congo red photodegradation. Finally, the degradation efficiency of the catalyst remained relatively stable even after five cyclic experiments, indicating its potential for long-term use in environmental remediation.
Pyrolysis of agricultural biomass is a promising technique for producing renewable energy and effectively managing solid waste. In this study, groundnut shell (GNS) was processed at 500 °C in an inert gas atmosphere with a gas flow rate and a heating rate of 10 mL/min and 10 °C/min, respectively, in a custom-designed fluidized bed pyrolytic-reactor. Under optimal operating conditions, the GNS-derived pyrolytic-oil yield was 62.8 wt.%, with the corresponding biochar (19.5 wt.%) and biogas yields (17.7 wt.%). The GC-MS analysis of the GNS-based bio-oil confirmed the presence of (trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-amine (18.814%), 2-Fluoroformyl-3,3,4,4-tetrafluoro-1,2-oxazetidine (16.23%), 5,7-dimethyl-1H-Indazole (11.613%), N-methyl-N-nitropropan-2-amine (6.5%) and butyl piperidino sulfone (5.668%) as major components, which are used as building blocks in the biofuel, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Furthermore, a 2 × 5 × 1 artificial neural network (ANN) architecture was developed to predict the decomposition behavior of GNS at heating rates of 5, 10, and 20 °C/min, while the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were estimated using a non-isothermal model-free method. The Popescu method predicted activation energy (Ea) of GNS biomass ranging from 111 kJ/mol to 260 kJ/mol, with changes in enthalpy (ΔH), Gibbs-free energy (ΔG), and entropy (ΔS) ranging from 106 to 254 kJ/mol, 162-241 kJ/mol, and -0.0937 to 0.0598 kJ/mol/K, respectively. The extraction of high-quality precursors from GNS pyrolysis was demonstrated in this study, as well as the usefulness of the ANN technique for thermogravimetric analysis of biomass.
Global solid waste is expected to increase by at least 70% annually until year 2050. The mixture of solid waste including food waste from food industry and domestic diaper waste in landfills is causing environmental and human health issues. Nevertheless, food and diaper waste containing high lignocellulose can easily degrade using lignocellulolytic enzymes thereby converted into energy for the development and growth of mushroom. Therefore, this study explores the potential of recycling biomass waste from coffee ground, banana, eggshell, tea waste, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust and diaper waste as raw material for Lingzhi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) cultivation. Using 2% of diaper core with sawdust biowaste leading to the fastest 100% mushroom mycelium spreading completed in one month. The highest production yield is 71.45 g mushroom; this represents about 36% production biological efficiency compared to only 21% as in commercial substrate. The high mushroom substrate reduction of 73% reflect the valorisation of landfill waste. The metabolomics profiling showed that the Lingzhi mushroom produced is of high quality with a high content of triterpene being the bioactive compounds that are medically important for treating assorted disease and used as health supplement. In conclusion, our study proposed a potential resource management towards zero-waste and circular bioeconomy for high profitable mushroom cultivation.
The ever-growing human population has resulted in the expansion of agricultural activity; evident by the deforestation of rainfoamrests as a means of acquiring fertile land for crops. The crops and fruits produced by such means should be utilized completely; however, there are still losses and under-exploitation of these produces which has resulted in wastes being mounted in landfills. These underutilized agricultural wastes including vegetables and fruits can serve as a potential source for biofuels and green diesel. This paper discusses the main routes (e.g., biological and thermochemical) for producing biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas, bio-oil and green diesel from underutilized crops by emphasizing recent technological innovations for improving biofuels and green diesel yields. The future prospects of a successful production of biofuels and green diesel by this source are also explained. Underutilized lignocelluloses including fruits and vegetables serve as a prospective biofuel and green diesel generation source for the future prosperity of the biofuel industry.
The flow of unprocessed sewage through municipal sewers is a great source of water contamination. This study aims to observe the pollutants removal efficiencies of walnut shells as an efficient low-cost adsorbent material compared to gravel materials as an anaerobic filter medium. Two models of the De-Centralized Wastewater Treatment System (DEWATS) were constructed. The wastewater flowing from toilets and handwashing places was connected to anaerobic filters filled with walnut shells and gravel. The efficiency of both filter media in the removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO43), pH and temperature were observed at the influent of the settler tank and then at the effluent of the collection tank (CT). Temperature and pH were within the acceptable limit of wastewater discharge. The results also indicated that the walnut shells filter media was more efficient at removing organic pollutants (TSS 94%, BOD5 88%, COD 85%, Nitrate 57%, phosphate 46%, and TDS 29%) than the gravel (TSS 81%, BOD5 82%, COD 84%, Nitrate 35%, phosphate 38%, and TDS 26%) at the successive stages. The average removal efficiency of the walnut shell was 88% while in the gravel case, it was 83%. The removal efficiency of walnut shell filters was extensively better over the complete experiment compared to gravel filters for the removal of pollutants, representing the high sorption capability of the walnut shell material. The results of this study show that the walnut shells may be a very useful substitute for other conventional fillers for anaerobic treatment in the anaerobic filter of DEWATS.
In this study, fish scales (Pomadasys kaakan's scales) were used as new biosorbent for removing Ni2+ and Cu2+ ions from wastewater. The effects of electric and magnetic fields on the absorption efficiency were also investigated. The effects of sorbent content, ion concentration, contact time, pH, electric field (EF), and magnetic field (MF) on absorption efficiency were assertained. In addition, the isotherm of absorption was studied in this work. This study revealed that electric field and magnetic field have significant effects on the absorption efficiency of ions from wastewater. An increase in the electric field enhanced the removal percentage of the ions and accelerated the absorption process by up to 40% in comparison with the same condition without an electric field or a magnetic field. By increasing contact time from 10 to 120 min, the removal of Ni2+ ions was increased from 1% to 40% and for Cu2+ ions, the removal increased from 20% to almost 95%, respectively. In addition, increasing pH, ion concentration and scales dose increased removal percentage effectively. The results indicated that using fish scales for Cu2+ ions absorption is ideal due to the very high removal percentage (approximately 95%) without using either an electric or magnetic field.
Toxic elements in drinking water have great effects on human health. However, there is very limited information about toxic elements in drinking water in Afghanistan. In this study, levels of 10 elements (chromium, nickel, copper, arsenic, cadmium, antimony, barium, mercury, lead and uranium) in 227 well drinking water samples in Kabul, Afghanistan were examined for the first time. Chromium (in 0.9% of the 227 samples), arsenic (7.0%) and uranium (19.4%) exceeded the values in WHO health-based guidelines for drinking-water quality. Maximum chromium, arsenic and uranium levels in the water samples were 1.3-, 10.4- and 17.2-fold higher than the values in the guidelines, respectively. We next focused on uranium, which is the most seriously polluted element among the 10 elements. Mean ± SD (138.0 ± 1.4) of the (238)U/(235)U isotopic ratio in the water samples was in the range of previously reported ratios for natural source uranium. We then examined the effect of our originally developed magnesium (Mg)-iron (Fe)-based hydrotalcite-like compounds (MF-HT) on adsorption for uranium. All of the uranium-polluted well water samples from Kabul (mean ± SD = 190.4 ± 113.9 μg/L; n = 11) could be remediated up to 1.2 ± 1.7 μg/L by 1% weight of our MF-HT within 60 s at very low cost (<0.001 cents/day/family) in theory. Thus, we demonstrated not only elevated levels of some toxic elements including natural source uranium but also an effective depurative for uranium in well drinking water from Kabul. Since our depurative is effective for remediation of arsenic as shown in our previous studies, its practical use in Kabul may be encouraged.
Nano/microplastics (NPs/MPs), a tiny particle of plastic pollution, are known as one of the most important environmental threats to marine ecosystems. Wastewater treatment plants can act as entrance routes for NPs/MPs to the aquatic environment as they breakdown of larger fragments of the plastic component during the treatment process; therefore, it is necessary to remove NPs/MPs during the wastewater treatment process. In this study, understanding the effect of water shear force on the fragmentation of larger size MPs into smaller MPs and NPs and their removal by air flotation and nano-ferrofluid (i.e., magnetite and cobalt ferrite particle as a coagulant) and membrane processes were investigated as a proof-of-concept study. It is found that a two-blade mechanical impeller could fragment MPs from 75, 150 and 300 μm into mean size NPs/MPs of 0.74, 1.14 and 1.88 μm, respectively. Results showed that the maximum removal efficiency of polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride and polyester was 85, 82 and 69%, respectively, in the air flotation process. Increasing the dose of behentrimonium chloride surfactant from 2 to 10 mg/L improved the efficiency of the air flotation process for NPs/MPs removal. It is also found that the removal efficiency of NPs/MPs by the air flotation system depends on solution pH, size, and types of NPs/MPs. This study also found a less significant removal efficiency of NPs/MPs by both types of ferrofluid used in this study with an average removal of 43% for magnetite and 55% for cobalt ferrite. All three plastics tested had similar removal efficiency by the nano-ferrofluid particles, meaning that this removal technique does not rely on the plastic component type. Among all the process tested, both ultrafiltration and microfiltration membrane processes were highly effective, removing more than 90% of NPs/MPs fragment particles. Overall, this study has confirmed the effectiveness of using air flotation and the membrane process to remove NPs/MPs from wastewater.
Current study had made a significant progress in microalgal wastewater treatment through the implementation of an economically viable polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membrane derived from plastic bottle waste. The membrane exhibited an exceptional pure water flux of 156.5 ± 0.25 L/m2h and a wastewater flux of 15.37 ± 0.02 L/m2h. Moreover, the membrane demonstrated remarkable efficiency in selectively removing a wide range of residual parameters, achieving rejection rates up to 99%. The reutilization of treated wastewater to grow microalgae had resulted in a marginal decrease in microalgal density, from 10.01 ± 0.48 to 9.26 ± 0.66 g/g. However, this decline was overshadowed by a notable enhancement in lipid production with level rising from 181.35 ± 0.42 to 225.01 ± 0.11 mg/g. These findings signified the membrane's capacity to preserve nutrients availability within the wastewater; thus, positively influencing the lipid synthesis and accumulation within microalgal cells. Moreover, the membrane's comprehensive analysis of cross-sectional and surface topographies revealed the presence of macropores with a highly interconnected framework, significantly amplifying the available surface area for fluid flow. This exceptional structural attribute had substantially contributed to the membrane's efficacy by facilitating superior filtration and separation process. Additionally, the identified functional groups within the membrane aligned consistently with those commonly found in PET polymer, confirming the membrane's compatibility and efficacy in microalgal wastewater treatment.
UV and solar-based photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) as an organic contaminant in ceramics industry wastewater by ZnS and Fe-doped ZnS NPs was the focus of this research. Nanoparticles were prepared using a chemical precipitation process. The cubic, closed-packed structure of undoped ZnS and Fe-doped ZnS NPs was formed in spherical clusters, according to XRD and SEM investigations. According to optical studies, the optical band gaps of pure ZnS and Fe-doped ZnS nanoparticles are 3.35 and 2.51 eV, respectively, and Fe doping increased the number of carriers with high mobility, improved carrier separation and injection efficiency, and increased photocatalytic activity under UV or visible light. Doping of Fe increased the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes and facilitated charge transfer, according to electrochemical impedance spectroscopy investigations. Photocatalytic degradation studies revealed that in the present pure ZnS and Fe-doped ZnS nanoparticles, 100% treatment of 120 mL of 15 mg/L phenolic compound was obtained after 55- and 45-min UV-irradiation, respectively, and complete treatment was attained after 45 and 35-min solar light irradiation, respectively. Because of the synergistic effects of effective surface area, more effective photo-generated electron and hole separation efficiency, and enhanced electron transfer, Fe-doped ZnS demonstrated high photocatalytic degradation performance. The study of Fe-doped ZnS's practical photocatalytic treatment capability for removing 120 mL of 10 mg/L 2,4-DCP solution made from genuine ceramic industrial wastewater revealed Fe-doped ZnS's excellent photocatalytic destruction of 2,4-DCP from real industrial wastewater.
In this study, Hospital wastewater was treated using a submerged aerobic fixed film (SAFF) reactor coupled with tubesettler in series. SAFF consisted of a column with an up-flow biofilter. The biological oxygen demand (BOD)5, chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate and phosphate were the chosen pollutants for evaluation. The pollutants removal efficiency was determined at varying organic loading rates and hydraulic retention time. The organic loading rate was varied between 0.25 and 1.25 kg COD m-3 d-1. The removal efficiency of SAFF and tubesettler combined was 75 % COD, 67 % BOD and 67 % phosphate, respectively. However, nitrate saw an increase in concentration by 25 %. SAFF contribution in the removal of COD, BOD5 and Phosphate was 48 %, 46 % and 29 %, respectively. While for accumulation of nitrate, it was responsible for 56%, respectively. Tubesettler performed better than SAFF with 52 %, 54 % and 69 % reduction of COD, BOD5 and phosphate, respectively. But in terms of nitrate, tubesettler was responsible for 44 % accumulation. The nutrient reduction decreased with an increase in the organic loading rate. Nitrification was observed in the SAFF and tubesettler, which indicated a well-aerated system. An anaerobic unit is required for completing the denitrification process and removing nitrogen from the effluent. The better performance of tubesettler over SAFF calls for necessitates extended retention time over design criteria. Further studies are beneficial to investigate the impact of pharmaceutical compounds on the efficiency of SAFF.
Carbon based materials are emerging as a sustainable alternative to their metal-oxide counterparts. However, their transport behavior under natural aqueous environment is poorly understood. This study investigated the transport and retention profiles of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) and graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) through column experiments in saturated porous media. CNPs and GOQDs (30 mg/L) were dispersed in natural river water (RW) and passed through the column at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, which mimicking the natural water flow rate. After every 10 min, the column effluents were collected and the mass recovery and retention profiles were monitored. Results indicated that the transport of both carbonaceous colloids was predominantly controlled by surface potential and ionic composition of natural water. The CNPs with its high surface potential (-40 mV) exhibited more column transport and was less susceptible to solution pH (5.6-6.8) variation as compared to GOQDs (-24 mV). The results showed that, monovalent salt (NaCl) was one of the dominating factors for the retention and transport of carbonaceous colloids compared to divalent salt (CaCl2). Furthermore, the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) increased the transport of both carbonaceous colloids and thereby decreases the tendency for column retention.
The aquatic ecotoxicity of chemicals involved in the manufacturing process of thin film transistor liquid crystal displays was assessed with a battery of four selected acute toxicity bioassays. We focused on tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH, CAS No. 75-59-2), a widely utilized etchant. The toxicity of TMAH was low when tested in the 72 h-algal growth inhibition test (Pseudokirchneriellia subcapitata, EC50=360 mg L(-1)) and the Microtox® test (Vibrio fischeri, IC50=6.4 g L(-1)). In contrast, the 24h-microcrustacean immobilization and the 96 h-fish mortality tests showed relatively higher toxicity (Daphnia magna, EC50=32 mg L(-1) and Oryzias latipes, LC50=154 mg L(-1)). Isobologram and mixture toxicity index analyses revealed apparent synergism of the mixture of TMAH and potassium iodide when examined with the D. magna immobilization test. The synergistic action was unique to iodide over other halide salts i.e. fluoride, chloride and bromide. Quaternary ammonium ions with longer alkyl chains such as tetraethylammonium and tetrabutylammonium were more toxic than TMAH in the D. magna immobilization test.
The impact of ionic strength (from 0.003 to 500mM) and salt type (NaCl vs MgCl2) on transport and retention of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) in saturated limestone porous media was systematically studied. Vertical columns were packed with limestone grains. The NPs were introduced as a pulse suspended in aqueous solutions and breakthrough curves in the column outlet were generated using an ultraviolent-visible spectrometry. Presence of NaCl and MgCl2 in the suspensions were found to have a significant influence on the electrokinetic properties of the NP aggregates and limestone grains. In NaCl and MgCl2 solutions, the deposition rates of the TiO2-NP aggregates were enhanced with the increase in ionic strength, a trend consistent with traditional Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Furthermore, the NP aggregates retention increased in the porous media with ionic strength. The presence of salts also caused a considerable delay in the NPs breakthrough time. MgCl2 as compared to NaCl was found to be more effective agent for the deposition and retention of TiO2-NPs. The experimental results followed closely the general trends predicted by the filtration and DLVO calculations. Overall, it was found that TiO2-NP mobility in the limestone porous media depends on ionic strength and salt type.
Considering the limitation of fossil fuel resources and their environmental effects, the use of renewable energies is increasing. In the current research, a combined cooling and power production (CCPP) system is investigated, the energy source of which is solar energy. Solar energy absorbs by solar flat plate collectors (SFPC). The system produces power with the help of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). An ejector refrigeration cycle (ERC) system is considered to provide cooling capacity. The motive flow is supplied from the expander extraction in the ERC system. Various working fluids have been applied so far for the ORC-ERC cogeneration system. This research investigates the effect of using two working fluids R-11 and R-2545fa, and the zeotropic mixtures obtained by mixing these two fluids. A multiobjective optimization process is considered to select the appropriate working fluid. In the optimization design process, the goal is to minimize the total cost rate (TCR) and maximize the exergy efficiency of the system. The design variables are the quantity of SFPC, heat recovery vapor generator (HRVG) pressure, ejector motive flow pressure, evaporator pressure, condenser pressure, and entertainment ratio. Finally, it is observed that using zeotropic mixtures obtained from these two refrigerants has a better result than using pure refrigerants. Finally, it is observed that the best performance is achieved when R-11 and R245fa are mixed with a ratio of 80 to 20%, respectively and led to 8.5% improvement in exergy efficiency, while the increase in TCR is only 1.5%.
Efforts to modify cement-based mixtures have continuously engrossed the interest of academics. Favourable impacts of nanoparticles, for instance, fine particle size and great reactivity, have made them be utilized in concrete. Foamed concrete (FC) is immensely porous, and its properties diminish with an increase in the number of pores. To enhance its properties, the FC matrix could be attuned by integrating numerous nanoparticles. The influence of ferrous-ferric oxide nanoparticles (FFO-NP) in FC was not discovered previously in the present body of knowledge. Thus, there is some uncertainty contemplating the mechanism to which extent the FFO-NP can affect the durability properties of FC. Hence, this study focuses on utilizing FFO-NP in the FC matrix. FC specimens with a density of 1000 kg/m3 were cast and tested. The objective was to assess the influence of different FFO-NP weight fractions (0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, and 0.35%) on durability properties such as drying shrinkage, porosity, water absorption and ultrasonic wave propagation velocity of FC. The results implied that the presence of a 0.25% weight fraction of FFO-NP in FC facilitates optimal water absorption, porosity, ultrasonic pulse velocity and drying shrinkage of FC. The presence of FFO-NP alters the microstructural of FC from loose needle-like into a dense cohesive microstructure of the cementitious composite. Besides, FFO-NP augments the FC matrix by filling the voids, microcracks, and spaces within the structure. Further than the ideal weight fraction of FFO-NP addition, the accretion of the FFO-NP was found, which caused a decline in durability properties.