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  1. Chatterjee J, Dai W, Aziz NHA, Teo PY, Wahba J, Phelps DL, et al.
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2017 07 01;23(13):3453-3460.
    PMID: 27986748 DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-2366
    Purpose: We aimed to establish whether programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, in ovarian cancer tumor tissue and blood, could be used as biomarkers for discrimination of tumor histology and prognosis of ovarian cancer.Experimental Design: Immune cells were separated from blood, ascites, and tumor tissue obtained from women with suspected ovarian cancer and studied for the differential expression of possible immune biomarkers using flow cytometry. PD-L1 expression on tumor-associated inflammatory cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry and tissue microarray. Plasma soluble PD-L1 was measured using sandwich ELISA. The relationships among immune markers were explored using hierarchical cluster analyses.Results: Biomarkers from the discovery cohort that associated with PD-L1+ cells were found. PD-L1+ CD14+ cells and PD-L1+ CD11c+ cells in the monocyte gate showed a distinct expression pattern when comparing benign tumors and epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs)-confirmed in the validation cohort. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed PD-L1+ and PD-L1+ CD14+ cells in the monocyte gate performed better than the well-established tumor marker CA-125 alone. Plasma soluble PD-L1 was elevated in patients with EOC compared with healthy women and patients with benign ovarian tumors. Low total PD-1+ expression on lymphocytes was associated with improved survival.Conclusions: Differential expression of immunological markers relating to the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in blood can be used as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers in EOC. These data have implications for the development and trial of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy in ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 23(13); 3453-60. ©2016 AACR.
  2. Scelo G, Muller DC, Riboli E, Johansson M, Cross AJ, Vineis P, et al.
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2018 11 15;24(22):5594-5601.
    PMID: 30037816 DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-1496
    Purpose: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has the potential for cure with surgery when diagnosed at an early stage. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) has been shown to be elevated in the plasma of RCC patients. We aimed to test whether plasma KIM-1 could represent a means of detecting RCC prior to clinical diagnosis.Experimental Design: KIM-1 concentrations were measured in prediagnostic plasma from 190 RCC cases and 190 controls nested within a population-based prospective cohort study. Cases had entered the cohort up to 5 years before diagnosis, and controls were matched on cases for date of birth, date at blood donation, sex, and country. We applied conditional logistic regression and flexible parametric survival models to evaluate the association between plasma KIM-1 concentrations and RCC risk and survival.Results: The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of RCC for a doubling in KIM-1 concentration was 1.71 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.44-2.03, P = 4.1 × 10-23], corresponding to an IRR of 63.3 (95% CI, 16.2-246.9) comparing the 80th to the 20th percentiles of the KIM-1 distribution in this sample. Compared with a risk model including known risk factors of RCC (age, sex, country, body mass index, and tobacco smoking status), a risk model additionally including KIM-1 substantially improved discrimination between cases and controls (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.8 compared with 0.7). High plasma KIM-1 concentrations were also associated with poorer survival (P = 0.0053).Conclusions: Plasma KIM-1 concentrations could predict RCC incidence up to 5 years prior to diagnosis and were associated with poorer survival. Clin Cancer Res; 24(22); 5594-601. ©2018 AACR.
  3. Gray JE, Okamoto I, Sriuranpong V, Vansteenkiste J, Imamura F, Lee JS, et al.
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2019 11 15;25(22):6644-6652.
    PMID: 31439584 DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-1126
    PURPOSE: To assess the utility of the cobas EGFR Mutation Test, with tissue and plasma, for first-line osimertinib therapy for patients with EGFR-mutated (EGFRm; Ex19del and/or L858R) advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from the FLAURA study (NCT02296125).

    EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumor tissue EGFRm status was determined at screening using the central cobas tissue test or a local tissue test. Baseline circulating tumor (ct)DNA EGFRm status was retrospectively determined with the central cobas plasma test.

    RESULTS: Of 994 patients screened, 556 were randomized (289 and 267 with central and local EGFR test results, respectively) and 438 failed screening. Of those randomized from local EGFR test results, 217 patients had available central test results; 211/217 (97%) were retrospectively confirmed EGFRm positive by central cobas tissue test. Using reference central cobas tissue test results, positive percent agreements with cobas plasma test results for Ex19del and L858R detection were 79% [95% confidence interval (CI), 74-84] and 68% (95% CI, 61-75), respectively. Progression-free survival (PFS) superiority with osimertinib over comparator EGFR-TKI remained consistent irrespective of randomization route (central/local EGFRm-positive tissue test). In both treatment arms, PFS was prolonged in plasma ctDNA EGFRm-negative (23.5 and 15.0 months) versus -positive patients (15.2 and 9.7 months).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results support utility of cobas tissue and plasma testing to aid selection of patients with EGFRm advanced NSCLC for first-line osimertinib treatment. Lack of EGFRm detection in plasma was associated with prolonged PFS versus patients plasma EGFRm positive, potentially due to patients having lower tumor burden.

  4. Tak WY, Lin SM, Wang Y, Zheng J, Vecchione A, Park SY, et al.
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2018 01 01;24(1):73-83.
    PMID: 29018051 DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-2433
    Purpose: Lyso-thermosensitive liposomal doxorubicin (LTLD) consists of doxorubicin contained within a heat-sensitive liposome. When heated to ≥40°C, LTLD locally releases a high concentration of doxorubicin. We aimed to determine whether adding LTLD improves the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions with a maximum diameter (dmax) of 3 to 7 cm.Experimental Design: The HEAT Study was a randomized, double-blind, dummy-controlled trial of RFA ± LTLD. The 701 enrolled patients had to have ≤4 unresectable HCC lesions, at least one of which had a dmax of 3 to 7 cm. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) and a key secondary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Post hoc subset analyses investigated whether RFA duration was associated with efficacy.Results: The primary endpoint was not met; in intention-to-treat analysis, the PFS HR of RFA + LTLD versus RFA alone was 0.96 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79-1.18; P = 0.71], and the OS HR ratio was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.76-1.20; P = 0.67). Among 285 patients with a solitary HCC lesion who received ≥45 minutes RFA dwell time, the OS HR was 0.63 (95% CI, 0.41-0.96; P < 0.05) in favor of combination therapy. RFA + LTLD had reversible myelosuppression similar to free doxorubicin.Conclusions: Adding LTLD to RFA was safe but did not increase PFS or OS in the overall study population. However, consistent with LTLD's heat-based mechanism of action, subgroup analysis suggested that RFA + LTLD efficacy is improved when RFA dwell time for a solitary lesion ≥45 minutes. Clin Cancer Res; 24(1); 73-83. ©2017 AACR.
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