Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 84 in total

  1. Albahri OS, Al-Obaidi JR, Zaidan AA, Albahri AS, Zaidan BB, Salih MM, et al.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2020 Nov;196:105617.
    PMID: 32593060 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2020.105617
    CONTEXT: People who have recently recovered from the threat of deteriorating coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have antibodies to the coronavirus circulating in their blood. Thus, the transfusion of these antibodies to deteriorating patients could theoretically help boost their immune system. Biologically, two challenges need to be surmounted to allow convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion to rescue the most severe COVID-19 patients. First, convalescent subjects must meet donor selection plasma criteria and comply with national health requirements and known standard routine procedures. Second, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems should be considered in the selection of the most suitable CP and the prioritisation of patients with COVID-19.

    OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a rescue framework for the transfusion of the best CP to the most critical patients with COVID-19 on the basis of biological requirements by using machine learning and novel MCDM methods.

    METHOD: The proposed framework is illustrated on the basis of two distinct and consecutive phases (i.e. testing and development). In testing, ABO compatibility is assessed after classifying donors into the four blood types, namely, A, B, AB and O, to indicate the suitability and safety of plasma for administration in order to refine the CP tested list repository. The development phase includes patient and donor sides. In the patient side, prioritisation is performed using a contracted patient decision matrix constructed between 'serological/protein biomarkers and the ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to fractional inspired oxygen criteria' and 'patient list based on novel MCDM method known as subjective and objective decision by opinion score method'. Then, the patients with the most urgent need are classified into the four blood types and matched with a tested CP list from the test phase in the donor side. Thereafter, the prioritisation of CP tested list is performed using the contracted CP decision matrix.

    RESULT: An intelligence-integrated concept is proposed to identify the most appropriate CP for corresponding prioritised patients with COVID-19 to help doctors hasten treatments.

    DISCUSSION: The proposed framework implies the benefits of providing effective care and prevention of the extremely rapidly spreading COVID-19 from affecting patients and the medical sector.

  2. Corda JV, Shenoy BS, Ahmad KA, Lewis L, K P, Khader SMA, et al.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2022 Feb;214:106538.
    PMID: 34848078 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106538
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Neonates are preferential nasal breathers up to 3 months of age. The nasal anatomy in neonates and infants is at developing stages whereas the adult nasal cavities are fully grown which implies that the study of airflow dynamics in the neonates and infants are significant. In the present study, the nasal airways of the neonate, infant and adult are anatomically compared and their airflow patterns are investigated.

    METHODS: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach is used to simulate the airflow in a neonate, an infant and an adult in sedentary breathing conditions. The healthy CT scans are segmented using MIMICS 21.0 (Materialise, Ann arbor, MI). The patient-specific 3D airway models are analyzed for low Reynolds number flow using ANSYS FLUENT 2020 R2. The applicability of the Grid Convergence Index (GCI) for polyhedral mesh adopted in this work is also verified.

    RESULTS: This study shows that the inferior meatus of neonates accounted for only 15% of the total airflow. This was in contrast to the infants and adults who experienced 49 and 31% of airflow at the inferior meatus region. Superior meatus experienced 25% of total flow which is more than normal for the neonate. The highest velocity of 1.8, 2.6 and 3.7 m/s was observed at the nasal valve region for neonates, infants and adults, respectively. The anterior portion of the nasal cavity experienced maximum wall shear stress with average values of 0.48, 0.25 and 0.58 Pa for the neonates, infants and adults.

    CONCLUSIONS: The neonates have an underdeveloped nasal cavity which significantly affects their airway distribution. The absence of inferior meatus in the neonates has limited the flow through the inferior regions and resulted in uneven flow distribution.

  3. Kiah ML, Haiqi A, Zaidan BB, Zaidan AA
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2014 Nov;117(2):360-82.
    PMID: 25070757 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2014.07.002
    The use of open source software in health informatics is increasingly advocated by authors in the literature. Although there is no clear evidence of the superiority of the current open source applications in the healthcare field, the number of available open source applications online is growing and they are gaining greater prominence. This repertoire of open source options is of a great value for any future-planner interested in adopting an electronic medical/health record system, whether selecting an existent application or building a new one. The following questions arise. How do the available open source options compare to each other with respect to functionality, usability and security? Can an implementer of an open source application find sufficient support both as a user and as a developer, and to what extent? Does the available literature provide adequate answers to such questions? This review attempts to shed some light on these aspects.
  4. Acharya UR, Raghavendra U, Koh JEW, Meiburger KM, Ciaccio EJ, Hagiwara Y, et al.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2018 Nov;166:91-98.
    PMID: 30415722 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2018.10.006
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Liver fibrosis is a type of chronic liver injury that is characterized by an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix protein. Early detection of liver fibrosis may prevent further growth toward liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the past, the only method to assess liver fibrosis was through biopsy, but this examination is invasive, expensive, prone to sampling errors, and may cause complications such as bleeding. Ultrasound-based elastography is a promising tool to measure tissue elasticity in real time; however, this technology requires an upgrade of the ultrasound system and software. In this study, a novel computer-aided diagnosis tool is proposed to automatically detect and classify the various stages of liver fibrosis based upon conventional B-mode ultrasound images.

    METHODS: The proposed method uses a 2D contourlet transform and a set of texture features that are efficiently extracted from the transformed image. Then, the combination of a kernel discriminant analysis (KDA)-based feature reduction technique and analysis of variance (ANOVA)-based feature ranking technique was used, and the images were then classified into various stages of liver fibrosis.

    RESULTS: Our 2D contourlet transform and texture feature analysis approach achieved a 91.46% accuracy using only four features input to the probabilistic neural network classifier, to classify the five stages of liver fibrosis. It also achieved a 92.16% sensitivity and 88.92% specificity for the same model. The evaluation was done on a database of 762 ultrasound images belonging to five different stages of liver fibrosis.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the proposed method can be useful to automatically detect and classify liver fibrosis, which would greatly assist clinicians in making an accurate diagnosis.

  5. Hariharan M, Sindhu R, Yaacob S
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2012 Nov;108(2):559-69.
    PMID: 21824676 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2011.07.010
    Crying is the most noticeable behavior of infancy. Infant cry signals can be used to identify physical or psychological status of an infant. Recently, acoustic analysis of infant cry signal has shown promising results and it has been proven to be an excellent tool to investigate the pathological status of an infant. This paper proposes short-time Fourier transform (STFT) based time-frequency analysis of infant cry signals. Few statistical features are derived from the time-frequency plot of infant cry signals and used as features to quantify infant cry signals. General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) is employed as a classifier for discriminating infant cry signals. Two classes of infant cry signals are considered such as normal cry signals and pathological cry signals from deaf infants. To prove the reliability of the proposed features, two neural network models such as Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Time-Delay Neural Network (TDNN) trained by scaled conjugate gradient algorithm are also used as classifiers. The experimental results show that the GRNN classifier gives very promising classification accuracy compared to MLP and TDNN and the proposed method can effectively classify normal and pathological infant cries.
  6. Teoh YX, Othmani A, Lai KW, Goh SL, Usman J
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2023 Dec;242:107807.
    PMID: 37778138 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2023.107807
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating musculoskeletal disorder that causes functional disability. Automatic knee OA diagnosis has great potential of enabling timely and early intervention, that can potentially reverse the degenerative process of knee OA. Yet, it is a tedious task, concerning the heterogeneity of the disorder. Most of the proposed techniques demonstrated single OA diagnostic task widely based on Kellgren Lawrence (KL) standard, a composite score of only a few imaging features (i.e. osteophytes, joint space narrowing and subchondral bone changes). However, only one key disease pattern was tackled. The KL standard fails to represent disease pattern of individual OA features, particularly osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, and pain intensity that play a fundamental role in OA manifestation. In this study, we aim to develop a multitask model using convolutional neural network (CNN) feature extractors and machine learning classifiers to detect nine important OA features: KL grade, knee osteophytes (both knee, medial fibular: OSFM, medial tibial: OSTM, lateral fibular: OSFL, and lateral tibial: OSTL), joint-space narrowing (medial: JSM, and lateral: JSL), and patient-reported pain intensity from plain radiography.

    METHODS: We proposed a new feature extraction method by replacing fully-connected layer with global average pooling (GAP) layer. A comparative analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy of 16 different convolutional neural network (CNN) feature extractors and three machine learning classifiers.

    RESULTS: Experimental results revealed the potential of CNN feature extractors in conducting multitask diagnosis. Optimal model consisted of VGG16-GAP feature extractor and KNN classifier. This model not only outperformed the other tested models, it also outperformed the state-of-art methods with higher balanced accuracy, higher Cohen's kappa, higher F1, and lower mean squared error (MSE) in seven OA features prediction.

    CONCLUSIONS: The proposed model demonstrates pain prediction on plain radiographs, as well as eight OA-related bony features. Future work should focus on exploring additional potential radiological manifestations of OA and their relation to therapeutic interventions.

  7. Syed-Mohamad SM
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2009 Jan;93(1):83-92.
    PMID: 18789553 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2008.07.011
    To develop and implement a collective web-based system to monitor child growth in order to study children with malnutrition.
  8. Al-Qaysi ZT, Zaidan BB, Zaidan AA, Suzani MS
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2018 Oct;164:221-237.
    PMID: 29958722 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2018.06.012
    CONTEXT: Intelligent wheelchair technology has recently been utilised to address several mobility problems. Techniques based on brain-computer interface (BCI) are currently used to develop electric wheelchairs. Using human brain control in wheelchairs for people with disability has elicited widespread attention due to its flexibility.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the background of recent studies on wheelchair control based on BCI for disability and map the literature survey into a coherent taxonomy. The study intends to identify the most important aspects in this emerging field as an impetus for using BCI for disability in electric-powered wheelchair (EPW) control, which remains a challenge. The study also attempts to provide recommendations for solving other existing limitations and challenges.

    METHODS: We systematically searched all articles about EPW control based on BCI for disability in three popular databases: ScienceDirect, IEEE and Web of Science. These databases contain numerous articles that considerably influenced this field and cover most of the relevant theoretical and technical issues.

    RESULTS: We selected 100 articles on the basis of our inclusion and exclusion criteria. A large set of articles (55) discussed on developing real-time wheelchair control systems based on BCI for disability signals. Another set of articles (25) focused on analysing BCI for disability signals for wheelchair control. The third set of articles (14) considered the simulation of wheelchair control based on BCI for disability signals. Four articles designed a framework for wheelchair control based on BCI for disability signals. Finally, one article reviewed concerns regarding wheelchair control based on BCI for disability signals.

    DISCUSSION: Since 2007, researchers have pursued the possibility of using BCI for disability in EPW control through different approaches. Regardless of type, articles have focused on addressing limitations that impede the full efficiency of BCI for disability and recommended solutions for these limitations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Studies on wheelchair control based on BCI for disability considerably influence society due to the large number of people with disability. Therefore, we aim to provide researchers and developers with a clear understanding of this platform and highlight the challenges and gaps in the current and future studies.

  9. Acharya UR, Sree SV, Muthu Rama Krishnan M, Krishnananda N, Ranjan S, Umesh P, et al.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2013 Dec;112(3):624-32.
    PMID: 23958645 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2013.07.012
    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), caused by the buildup of plaque on the inside of the coronary arteries, has a high mortality rate. To efficiently detect this condition from echocardiography images, with lesser inter-observer variability and visual interpretation errors, computer based data mining techniques may be exploited. We have developed and presented one such technique in this paper for the classification of normal and CAD affected cases. A multitude of grayscale features (fractal dimension, entropies based on the higher order spectra, features based on image texture and local binary patterns, and wavelet based features) were extracted from echocardiography images belonging to a huge database of 400 normal cases and 400 CAD patients. Only the features that had good discriminating capability were selected using t-test. Several combinations of the resultant significant features were used to evaluate many supervised classifiers to find the combination that presents a good accuracy. We observed that the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) classifier trained with a feature subset made up of nine significant features presented the highest accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of 100%. We have also developed a novel, highly discriminative HeartIndex, which is a single number that is calculated from the combination of the features, in order to objectively classify the images from either of the two classes. Such an index allows for an easier implementation of the technique for automated CAD detection in the computers in hospitals and clinics.
  10. Acharya UR, Faust O, Sree V, Swapna G, Martis RJ, Kadri NA, et al.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2014;113(1):55-68.
    PMID: 24119391 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2013.08.017
    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the dangerous cardiac disease, often may lead to sudden cardiac death. It is difficult to diagnose CAD by manual inspection of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. To automate this detection task, in this study, we extracted the heart rate (HR) from the ECG signals and used them as base signal for further analysis. We then analyzed the HR signals of both normal and CAD subjects using (i) time domain, (ii) frequency domain and (iii) nonlinear techniques. The following are the nonlinear methods that were used in this work: Poincare plots, Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) parameters, Shannon entropy, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), Sample Entropy (SampEn), Higher Order Spectra (HOS) methods, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Cumulants, and Correlation Dimension. As a result of the analysis, we present unique recurrence, Poincare and HOS plots for normal and CAD subjects. We have also observed significant variations in the range of these features with respect to normal and CAD classes, and have presented the same in this paper. We found that the RQA parameters were higher for CAD subjects indicating more rhythm. Since the activity of CAD subjects is less, similar signal patterns repeat more frequently compared to the normal subjects. The entropy based parameters, ApEn and SampEn, are lower for CAD subjects indicating lower entropy (less activity due to impairment) for CAD. Almost all HOS parameters showed higher values for the CAD group, indicating the presence of higher frequency content in the CAD signals. Thus, our study provides a deep insight into how such nonlinear features could be exploited to effectively and reliably detect the presence of CAD.
  11. Palaniappan R, Sundaraj K, Sundaraj S
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2017 Jul;145:67-72.
    PMID: 28552127 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2017.04.013
    BACKGROUND: The monitoring of the respiratory rate is vital in several medical conditions, including sleep apnea because patients with sleep apnea exhibit an irregular respiratory rate compared with controls. Therefore, monitoring the respiratory rate by detecting the different breath phases is crucial.

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to segment the breath cycles from pulmonary acoustic signals using the newly developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based on breath phase detection and to subsequently evaluate the performance of the system.

    METHODS: The normalised averaged power spectral density for each segment was fuzzified, and a set of fuzzy rules was formulated. The ANFIS was developed to detect the breath phases and subsequently perform breath cycle segmentation. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient values were calculated and analysed, and the proposed method was then validated using data collected at KIMS Hospital and the RALE standard dataset.

    RESULTS: The analysis of the correlation coefficient of the neuro-fuzzy model, which was performed to evaluate its performance, revealed a correlation strength of r = 0.9925, and the RMSE for the neuro-fuzzy model was found to equal 0.0069.

    CONCLUSION: The proposed neuro-fuzzy model performs better than the fuzzy inference system (FIS) in detecting the breath phases and segmenting the breath cycles and requires less rules than FIS.

  12. Ibrahim NA, Suliadi S
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2011 Dec;104(3):e122-32.
    PMID: 21764167 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2011.06.003
    Correlated ordinal data are common in many areas of research. The data may arise from longitudinal studies in biology, medical, or clinical fields. The prominent characteristic of these data is that the within-subject observations are correlated, whilst between-subject observations are independent. Many methods have been proposed to analyze correlated ordinal data. One way to evaluate the performance of a proposed model or the performance of small or moderate size data sets is through simulation studies. It is thus important to provide a tool for generating correlated ordinal data to be used in simulation studies. In this paper, we describe a macro program on how to generate correlated ordinal data based on R language and SAS IML.
  13. Ibrahim F, Taib MN, Abas WA, Guan CC, Sulaiman S
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2005 Sep;79(3):273-81.
    PMID: 15925426
    Dengue fever (DF) is an acute febrile viral disease frequently presented with headache, bone or joint and muscular pains, and rash. A significant percentage of DF patients develop a more severe form of disease, known as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). DHF is the complication of DF. The main pathophysiology of DHF is the development of plasma leakage from the capillary, resulting in haemoconcentration, ascites, and pleural effusion that may lead to shock following defervescence of fever. Therefore, accurate prediction of the day of defervescence of fever is critical for clinician to decide on patient management strategy. To date, no known literature describes of any attempt to predict the day of defervescence of fever in DF patients. This paper describes a non-invasive prediction system for predicting the day of defervescence of fever in dengue patients using artificial neural network. The developed system bases its prediction solely on the clinical symptoms and signs and uses the multilayer feed-forward neural networks (MFNN). The results show that the proposed system is able to predict the day of defervescence in dengue patients with 90% prediction accuracy.
  14. Acharya UR, Oh SL, Hagiwara Y, Tan JH, Adeli H, Subha DP
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2018 Jul;161:103-113.
    PMID: 29852953 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2018.04.012
    In recent years, advanced neurocomputing and machine learning techniques have been used for Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based diagnosis of various neurological disorders. In this paper, a novel computer model is presented for EEG-based screening of depression using a deep neural network machine learning approach, known as Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The proposed technique does not require a semi-manually-selected set of features to be fed into a classifier for classification. It learns automatically and adaptively from the input EEG signals to differentiate EEGs obtained from depressive and normal subjects. The model was tested using EEGs obtained from 15 normal and 15 depressed patients. The algorithm attained accuracies of 93.5% and 96.0% using EEG signals from the left and right hemisphere, respectively. It was discovered in this research that the EEG signals from the right hemisphere are more distinctive in depression than those from the left hemisphere. This discovery is consistent with recent research and revelation that the depression is associated with a hyperactive right hemisphere. An exciting extension of this research would be diagnosis of different stages and severity of depression and development of a Depression Severity Index (DSI).
  15. Hariharan M, Polat K, Sindhu R
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2014 Mar;113(3):904-13.
    PMID: 24485390 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2014.01.004
    Elderly people are commonly affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) which is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders due to the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. People with PD's (PWP) may have difficulty in walking, talking or completing other simple tasks. Variety of medications is available to treat PD. Recently, researchers have found that voice signals recorded from the PWP is becoming a useful tool to differentiate them from healthy controls. Several dysphonia features, feature reduction/selection techniques and classification algorithms were proposed by researchers in the literature to detect PD. In this paper, hybrid intelligent system is proposed which includes feature pre-processing using Model-based clustering (Gaussian mixture model), feature reduction/selection using principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), sequential forward selection (SFS) and sequential backward selection (SBS), and classification using three supervised classifiers such as least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM), probabilistic neural network (PNN) and general regression neural network (GRNN). PD dataset was used from University of California-Irvine (UCI) machine learning database. The strength of the proposed method has been evaluated through several performance measures. The experimental results show that the combination of feature pre-processing, feature reduction/selection methods and classification gives a maximum classification accuracy of 100% for the Parkinson's dataset.
  16. Boon KH, Khalil-Hani M, Malarvili MB, Sia CW
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2016 Oct;134:187-96.
    PMID: 27480743 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2016.07.016
    This paper proposes a method that predicts the onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF), using heart rate variability (HRV) segments that are shorter than those applied in existing methods, while maintaining good prediction accuracy. PAF is a common cardiac arrhythmia that increases the health risk of a patient, and the development of an accurate predictor of the onset of PAF is clinical important because it increases the possibility to stabilize (electrically) and prevent the onset of atrial arrhythmias with different pacing techniques. We investigate the effect of HRV features extracted from different lengths of HRV segments prior to PAF onset with the proposed PAF prediction method. The pre-processing stage of the predictor includes QRS detection, HRV quantification and ectopic beat correction. Time-domain, frequency-domain, non-linear and bispectrum features are then extracted from the quantified HRV. In the feature selection, the HRV feature set and classifier parameters are optimized simultaneously using an optimization procedure based on genetic algorithm (GA). Both full feature set and statistically significant feature subset are optimized by GA respectively. For the statistically significant feature subset, Mann-Whitney U test is used to filter non-statistical significance features that cannot pass the statistical test at 20% significant level. The final stage of our predictor is the classifier that is based on support vector machine (SVM). A 10-fold cross-validation is applied in performance evaluation, and the proposed method achieves 79.3% prediction accuracy using 15-minutes HRV segment. This accuracy is comparable to that achieved by existing methods that use 30-minutes HRV segments, most of which achieves accuracy of around 80%. More importantly, our method significantly outperforms those that applied segments shorter than 30 minutes.
  17. Mirza IA, Abdulhameed M, Vieru D, Shafie S
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2016 Dec;137:149-166.
    PMID: 28110721 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2016.09.014
    Therapies with magnetic/electromagnetic field are employed to relieve pains or, to accelerate flow of blood-particles, particularly during the surgery. In this paper, a theoretical study of the blood flow along with particles suspension through capillary was made by the electro-magneto-hydrodynamic approach. Analytical solutions to the non-dimensional blood velocity and non-dimensional particles velocity are obtained by means of the Laplace transform with respect to the time variable and the finite Hankel transform with respect to the radial coordinate. The study of thermally transfer characteristics is based on the energy equation for two-phase thermal transport of blood and particles suspension with viscous dissipation, the volumetric heat generation due to Joule heating effect and electromagnetic couple effect. The solution of the nonlinear heat transfer problem is derived by using the velocity field and the integral transform method. The influence of dimensionless system parameters like the electrokinetic width, the Hartman number, Prandtl number, the coefficient of heat generation due to Joule heating and Eckert number on the velocity and temperature fields was studied using the Mathcad software. Results are presented by graphical illustrations.
  18. Cimr D, Fujita H, Tomaskova H, Cimler R, Selamat A
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2023 Feb;229:107277.
    PMID: 36463672 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2022.107277
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nowadays, an automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is an approach that plays an important role in the detection of health issues. The main advantages should be in early diagnosis, including high accuracy and low computational complexity without loss of the model performance. One of these systems type is concerned with Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and seizure detection. We designed a CAD system approach for seizure detection that optimizes the complexity of the required solution while also being reusable on different problems.

    METHODS: The methodology is built-in deep data analysis for normalization. In comparison to previous research, the system does not necessitate a feature extraction process that optimizes and reduces system complexity. The data classification is provided by a designed 8-layer deep convolutional neural network.

    RESULTS: Depending on used data, we have achieved the accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of 98%, 98%, and 98.5% on the short-term Bonn EEG dataset, and 96.99%, 96.89%, and 97.06% on the long-term CHB-MIT EEG dataset.

    CONCLUSIONS: Through the approach to detection, the system offers an optimized solution for seizure diagnosis health problems. The proposed solution should be implemented in all clinical or home environments for decision support.

  19. Faizal WM, Ghazali NNN, Badruddin IA, Zainon MZ, Yazid AA, Ali MAB, et al.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2019 Oct;180:105036.
    PMID: 31430594 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105036
    Obstructive sleep apnea is one of the most common breathing disorders. Undiagnosed sleep apnea is a hidden health crisis to the patient and it could raise the risk of heart diseases, high blood pressure, depression and diabetes. The throat muscle (i.e., tongue and soft palate) relax narrows the airway and causes the blockage of the airway in breathing. To understand this phenomenon computational fluid dynamics method has emerged as a handy tool to conduct the modeling and analysis of airflow characteristics. The comprehensive fluid-structure interaction method provides the realistic visualization of the airflow and interaction with the throat muscle. Thus, this paper reviews the scientific work related to the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) for the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea, using computational techniques. In total 102 articles were analyzed, each article was evaluated based on the elements related with fluid-structure interaction of sleep apnea via computational techniques. In this review, the significance of FSI for the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea has been critically examined. Then the flow properties, boundary conditions and validation of the model are given due consideration to present a broad perspective of CFD being applied to study sleep apnea. Finally, the challenges of FSI simulation methods are also highlighted in this article.
  20. Faizal WM, Ghazali NNN, Khor CY, Badruddin IA, Zainon MZ, Yazid AA, et al.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2020 Nov;196:105627.
    PMID: 32629222 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2020.105627
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Human upper airway (HUA) has been widely investigated by many researchers covering various aspects, such as the effects of geometrical parameters on the pressure, velocity and airflow characteristics. Clinically significant obstruction can develop anywhere throughout the upper airway, leading to asphyxia and death; this is where recognition and treatment are essential and lifesaving. The availability of advanced computer, either hardware or software, and rapid development in numerical method have encouraged researchers to simulate the airflow characteristics and properties of HUA by using various patient conditions at different ranges of geometry and operating conditions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has emerged as an efficient alternative tool to understand the airflow of HUA and in preparing patients to undergo surgery. The main objective of this article is to review the literature that deals with the CFD approach and modeling in analyzing HUA.

    METHODS: This review article discusses the experimental and computational methods in the study of HUA. The discussion includes computational fluid dynamics approach and steps involved in the modeling used to investigate the flow characteristics of HUA. From inception to May 2020, databases of PubMed, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, BioMed Central, and Web of Science have been utilized to conduct a thorough investigation of the literature. There had been no language restrictions in publication and study design of the database searches. A total of 117 articles relevant to the topic under investigation were thoroughly and critically reviewed to give a clear information about the subject. The article summarizes the review in the form of method of studying the HUA, CFD approach in HUA, and the application of CFD for predicting HUA obstacle, including the type of CFD commercial software are used in this research area.

    RESULTS: This review found that the human upper airway was well studied through the application of computational fluid dynamics, which had considerably enhanced the understanding of flow in HUA. In addition, it assisted in making strategic and reasonable decision regarding the adoption of treatment methods in clinical settings. The literature suggests that most studies were related to HUA simulation that considerably focused on the aspects of fluid dynamics. However, there is a literature gap in obtaining information on the effects of fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The application of FSI in HUA is still limited in the literature; as such, this could be a potential area for future researchers. Furthermore, majority of researchers present the findings of their work through the mechanism of airflow, such as that of velocity, pressure, and shear stress. This includes the use of Navier-Stokes equation via CFD to help visualize the actual mechanism of the airflow. The above-mentioned technique expresses the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in its result to demonstrate the real mechanism of the airflow. Apart from that, key result such as wall shear stress (WSS) can be revealed via turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulent energy dissipation (TED), where it can be suggestive of wall injury and collapsibility tissue to the HUA.

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