OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a rescue framework for the transfusion of the best CP to the most critical patients with COVID-19 on the basis of biological requirements by using machine learning and novel MCDM methods.
METHOD: The proposed framework is illustrated on the basis of two distinct and consecutive phases (i.e. testing and development). In testing, ABO compatibility is assessed after classifying donors into the four blood types, namely, A, B, AB and O, to indicate the suitability and safety of plasma for administration in order to refine the CP tested list repository. The development phase includes patient and donor sides. In the patient side, prioritisation is performed using a contracted patient decision matrix constructed between 'serological/protein biomarkers and the ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to fractional inspired oxygen criteria' and 'patient list based on novel MCDM method known as subjective and objective decision by opinion score method'. Then, the patients with the most urgent need are classified into the four blood types and matched with a tested CP list from the test phase in the donor side. Thereafter, the prioritisation of CP tested list is performed using the contracted CP decision matrix.
RESULT: An intelligence-integrated concept is proposed to identify the most appropriate CP for corresponding prioritised patients with COVID-19 to help doctors hasten treatments.
DISCUSSION: The proposed framework implies the benefits of providing effective care and prevention of the extremely rapidly spreading COVID-19 from affecting patients and the medical sector.
METHODS: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach is used to simulate the airflow in a neonate, an infant and an adult in sedentary breathing conditions. The healthy CT scans are segmented using MIMICS 21.0 (Materialise, Ann arbor, MI). The patient-specific 3D airway models are analyzed for low Reynolds number flow using ANSYS FLUENT 2020 R2. The applicability of the Grid Convergence Index (GCI) for polyhedral mesh adopted in this work is also verified.
RESULTS: This study shows that the inferior meatus of neonates accounted for only 15% of the total airflow. This was in contrast to the infants and adults who experienced 49 and 31% of airflow at the inferior meatus region. Superior meatus experienced 25% of total flow which is more than normal for the neonate. The highest velocity of 1.8, 2.6 and 3.7 m/s was observed at the nasal valve region for neonates, infants and adults, respectively. The anterior portion of the nasal cavity experienced maximum wall shear stress with average values of 0.48, 0.25 and 0.58 Pa for the neonates, infants and adults.
CONCLUSIONS: The neonates have an underdeveloped nasal cavity which significantly affects their airway distribution. The absence of inferior meatus in the neonates has limited the flow through the inferior regions and resulted in uneven flow distribution.
METHODS: The proposed method uses a 2D contourlet transform and a set of texture features that are efficiently extracted from the transformed image. Then, the combination of a kernel discriminant analysis (KDA)-based feature reduction technique and analysis of variance (ANOVA)-based feature ranking technique was used, and the images were then classified into various stages of liver fibrosis.
RESULTS: Our 2D contourlet transform and texture feature analysis approach achieved a 91.46% accuracy using only four features input to the probabilistic neural network classifier, to classify the five stages of liver fibrosis. It also achieved a 92.16% sensitivity and 88.92% specificity for the same model. The evaluation was done on a database of 762 ultrasound images belonging to five different stages of liver fibrosis.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the proposed method can be useful to automatically detect and classify liver fibrosis, which would greatly assist clinicians in making an accurate diagnosis.
METHODS: We proposed a new feature extraction method by replacing fully-connected layer with global average pooling (GAP) layer. A comparative analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy of 16 different convolutional neural network (CNN) feature extractors and three machine learning classifiers.
RESULTS: Experimental results revealed the potential of CNN feature extractors in conducting multitask diagnosis. Optimal model consisted of VGG16-GAP feature extractor and KNN classifier. This model not only outperformed the other tested models, it also outperformed the state-of-art methods with higher balanced accuracy, higher Cohen's kappa, higher F1, and lower mean squared error (MSE) in seven OA features prediction.
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed model demonstrates pain prediction on plain radiographs, as well as eight OA-related bony features. Future work should focus on exploring additional potential radiological manifestations of OA and their relation to therapeutic interventions.
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the background of recent studies on wheelchair control based on BCI for disability and map the literature survey into a coherent taxonomy. The study intends to identify the most important aspects in this emerging field as an impetus for using BCI for disability in electric-powered wheelchair (EPW) control, which remains a challenge. The study also attempts to provide recommendations for solving other existing limitations and challenges.
METHODS: We systematically searched all articles about EPW control based on BCI for disability in three popular databases: ScienceDirect, IEEE and Web of Science. These databases contain numerous articles that considerably influenced this field and cover most of the relevant theoretical and technical issues.
RESULTS: We selected 100 articles on the basis of our inclusion and exclusion criteria. A large set of articles (55) discussed on developing real-time wheelchair control systems based on BCI for disability signals. Another set of articles (25) focused on analysing BCI for disability signals for wheelchair control. The third set of articles (14) considered the simulation of wheelchair control based on BCI for disability signals. Four articles designed a framework for wheelchair control based on BCI for disability signals. Finally, one article reviewed concerns regarding wheelchair control based on BCI for disability signals.
DISCUSSION: Since 2007, researchers have pursued the possibility of using BCI for disability in EPW control through different approaches. Regardless of type, articles have focused on addressing limitations that impede the full efficiency of BCI for disability and recommended solutions for these limitations.
CONCLUSIONS: Studies on wheelchair control based on BCI for disability considerably influence society due to the large number of people with disability. Therefore, we aim to provide researchers and developers with a clear understanding of this platform and highlight the challenges and gaps in the current and future studies.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to segment the breath cycles from pulmonary acoustic signals using the newly developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based on breath phase detection and to subsequently evaluate the performance of the system.
METHODS: The normalised averaged power spectral density for each segment was fuzzified, and a set of fuzzy rules was formulated. The ANFIS was developed to detect the breath phases and subsequently perform breath cycle segmentation. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient values were calculated and analysed, and the proposed method was then validated using data collected at KIMS Hospital and the RALE standard dataset.
RESULTS: The analysis of the correlation coefficient of the neuro-fuzzy model, which was performed to evaluate its performance, revealed a correlation strength of r = 0.9925, and the RMSE for the neuro-fuzzy model was found to equal 0.0069.
CONCLUSION: The proposed neuro-fuzzy model performs better than the fuzzy inference system (FIS) in detecting the breath phases and segmenting the breath cycles and requires less rules than FIS.
METHODS: The methodology is built-in deep data analysis for normalization. In comparison to previous research, the system does not necessitate a feature extraction process that optimizes and reduces system complexity. The data classification is provided by a designed 8-layer deep convolutional neural network.
RESULTS: Depending on used data, we have achieved the accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of 98%, 98%, and 98.5% on the short-term Bonn EEG dataset, and 96.99%, 96.89%, and 97.06% on the long-term CHB-MIT EEG dataset.
CONCLUSIONS: Through the approach to detection, the system offers an optimized solution for seizure diagnosis health problems. The proposed solution should be implemented in all clinical or home environments for decision support.
METHODS: This review article discusses the experimental and computational methods in the study of HUA. The discussion includes computational fluid dynamics approach and steps involved in the modeling used to investigate the flow characteristics of HUA. From inception to May 2020, databases of PubMed, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, BioMed Central, and Web of Science have been utilized to conduct a thorough investigation of the literature. There had been no language restrictions in publication and study design of the database searches. A total of 117 articles relevant to the topic under investigation were thoroughly and critically reviewed to give a clear information about the subject. The article summarizes the review in the form of method of studying the HUA, CFD approach in HUA, and the application of CFD for predicting HUA obstacle, including the type of CFD commercial software are used in this research area.
RESULTS: This review found that the human upper airway was well studied through the application of computational fluid dynamics, which had considerably enhanced the understanding of flow in HUA. In addition, it assisted in making strategic and reasonable decision regarding the adoption of treatment methods in clinical settings. The literature suggests that most studies were related to HUA simulation that considerably focused on the aspects of fluid dynamics. However, there is a literature gap in obtaining information on the effects of fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The application of FSI in HUA is still limited in the literature; as such, this could be a potential area for future researchers. Furthermore, majority of researchers present the findings of their work through the mechanism of airflow, such as that of velocity, pressure, and shear stress. This includes the use of Navier-Stokes equation via CFD to help visualize the actual mechanism of the airflow. The above-mentioned technique expresses the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in its result to demonstrate the real mechanism of the airflow. Apart from that, key result such as wall shear stress (WSS) can be revealed via turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulent energy dissipation (TED), where it can be suggestive of wall injury and collapsibility tissue to the HUA.