METHODS: A stochastic model was developed using respiratory elastance (Ers) data from two clinical cohorts and averaged over 30-minute time intervals. The stochastic model was used to generate future Ers data based on current Ers values with added normally distributed random noise. Self-validation of the VPs was performed via Monte Carlo simulation and retrospective Ers profile fitting. A stochastic VP cohort of temporal Ers evolution was synthesised and then compared to an independent retrospective patient cohort data in a virtual trial across several measured patient responses, where similarity of profiles validates the realism of stochastic model generated VP profiles.
RESULTS: A total of 120,000 3-hour VPs for pressure control (PC) and volume control (VC) ventilation modes are generated using stochastic simulation. Optimisation of the stochastic simulation process yields an ideal noise percentage of 5-10% and simulation iteration of 200,000 iterations, allowing the simulation of a realistic and diverse set of Ers profiles. Results of self-validation show the retrospective Ers profiles were able to be recreated accurately with a mean squared error of only 0.099 [0.009-0.790]% for the PC cohort and 0.051 [0.030-0.126]% for the VC cohort. A virtual trial demonstrates the ability of the stochastic VP cohort to capture Ers trends within and beyond the retrospective patient cohort providing cohort-level validation.
CONCLUSION: VPs capable of temporal evolution demonstrate feasibility for use in designing, developing, and optimising bedside MV guidance protocols through in-silico simulation and validation. Overall, the temporal VPs developed using stochastic simulation alleviate the need for lengthy, resource intensive, high cost clinical trials, while facilitating statistically robust virtual trials, ultimately leading to improved patient care and outcomes in mechanical ventilation.
METHODS: In total, 154 patients (wild-type EGFR, 72 patients; Del19 mutation, 45 patients; and L858R mutation, 37 patients) were retrospectively enrolled and randomly divided into 92 training and 62 test cases. Two support vector machine (SVM) models to distinguish between wild-type and mutant EGFR (mutation [M] classification) as well as between the Del19 and L858R subtypes (subtype [S] classification) were trained using 3DBN features. These features were computed from 3DBN maps by using histogram and texture analyses. The 3DBN maps were generated using computed tomography (CT) images based on the Čech complex constructed on sets of points in the images. These points were defined by coordinates of voxels with CT values higher than several threshold values. The M classification model was built using image features and demographic parameters of sex and smoking status. The SVM models were evaluated by determining their classification accuracies. The feasibility of the 3DBN model was compared with those of conventional radiomic models based on pseudo-3D BN (p3DBN), two-dimensional BN (2DBN), and CT and wavelet-decomposition (WD) images. The validation of the model was repeated with 100 times random sampling.
RESULTS: The mean test accuracies for M classification with 3DBN, p3DBN, 2DBN, CT, and WD images were 0.810, 0.733, 0.838, 0.782, and 0.799, respectively. The mean test accuracies for S classification with 3DBN, p3DBN, 2DBN, CT, and WD images were 0.773, 0.694, 0.657, 0.581, and 0.696, respectively.
CONCLUSION: 3DBN features, which showed a radiogenomic association with the characteristics of the EGFR Del19/L858R mutation subtypes, yielded higher accuracy for subtype classifications in comparison with conventional features.
METHODS: Thermomechanical damage-maximum bone temperature, osteonecrosis diameter, osteonecrosis depth, maximum thrust force, and torque-were calculated using the finite element method under various margin heights (0.05-0.25 mm) and widths (0.02-0.26 mm). The simulation results were validated with experimental tests and previous research data.
RESULTS: The effect of margin height in increasing the maximum bone temperature, osteonecrosis diameter, and depth were at least 19.1%, 41.9%, and 59.6%, respectively. The thrust force and torque are highly sensitive to margin height. A higher margin height (0.21-0.25 mm) reduced the thrust force by 54.0% but increased drilling torque by 142.2%. The bone temperature, osteonecrosis diameter, and depth were 16.5%, 56.5%, and 81.4% lower, respectively, with increasing margin width. The minimum thrust force (11.1 N) and torque (41.9 Nmm) were produced with the highest margin width (0.26 mm). The margin height of 0.05-0.13 mm and a margin width of 0.22-0.26 produced the highest sum of weightage.
CONCLUSIONS: A surgical drill bit with a margin height of 0.05-0.13 mm and a margin width of 0.22-0.26 mm can produce minimum thermomechanical damage in cortical bone drilling. The insights regarding the suitable ranges for margin height and width from this study could be adopted in future research devoted to optimizing the margin of the existing surgical drill bit.
METHODS: This paper presents two hybrid methodologies that combines optimal control theory with multi-objective swarm and evolutionary algorithms and compares the performance of these methodologies with multi-objective swarm intelligence algorithms such as MOEAD, MODE, MOPSO and M-MOPSO. The hybrid and conventional methodologies are compared by addressing CMOOP.
RESULTS: The minimized tumor and drug concentration results obtained by the hybrid methodologies demonstrate that they are not only superior to pure swarm intelligence or evolutionary algorithm methodologies but also consumes far less computational time. Further, Second Order Sufficient Condition (SSC) is also used to verify and validate the optimality condition of the constrained multi-objective problem.
CONCLUSION: The proposed methodologies reduce chemo-medicine administration while maintaining effective tumor killing. This will be helpful for oncologist to discover and find the optimum dose schedule of the chemotherapy that reduces the tumor cells while maintaining the patients' health at a safe level.
METHODS: We proposed a new feature extraction method by replacing fully-connected layer with global average pooling (GAP) layer. A comparative analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy of 16 different convolutional neural network (CNN) feature extractors and three machine learning classifiers.
RESULTS: Experimental results revealed the potential of CNN feature extractors in conducting multitask diagnosis. Optimal model consisted of VGG16-GAP feature extractor and KNN classifier. This model not only outperformed the other tested models, it also outperformed the state-of-art methods with higher balanced accuracy, higher Cohen's kappa, higher F1, and lower mean squared error (MSE) in seven OA features prediction.
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed model demonstrates pain prediction on plain radiographs, as well as eight OA-related bony features. Future work should focus on exploring additional potential radiological manifestations of OA and their relation to therapeutic interventions.
METHODS: A 3D model of the liver tissue was developed. Saline infusion was described using the dual porosity model, while RFA was described using the electrostatic and bioheat transfer equations. Three infusion locations were investigated, namely at the proximal end, the middle and the distal end of the electrode. Investigations were carried out numerically using the finite element method.
RESULTS: Results indicated that greater thermal coagulation was found in the region of tissue occupied by the saline bolus. Infusion at the middle of the electrode led to the largest coagulation volume followed by infusion at the proximal and distal ends. It was also found that the ability to delay roll-off, as commonly associated with saline-infused RFA, was true only for the case when infusion is carried out at the middle. When infused at the proximal and distal ends, the occurrence of roll-off was advanced. This may be due to the rapid and more intense heating experienced by the tissue when infusion is carried out at the electrode ends where Joule heating is dominant.
CONCLUSION: Altering the location of saline infusion can influence the shape of the coagulation zone following saline-infused RFA. The ability to 'shift' the coagulation zone to a desired location opens up great opportunities for the development of more precise saline-infused RFA treatment that targets specific regions within the tissue.
METHODS: A total of 1447 ultrasound images, including 767 benign masses and 680 malignant masses were acquired from a tertiary hospital. A semi-supervised GAN model was developed to augment the breast ultrasound images. The synthesized images were subsequently used to classify breast masses using a convolutional neural network (CNN). The model was validated using a 5-fold cross-validation method.
RESULTS: The proposed GAN architecture generated high-quality breast ultrasound images, verified by two experienced radiologists. The improved performance of semi-supervised learning increased the quality of the synthetic data produced in comparison to the baseline method. We achieved more accurate breast mass classification results (accuracy 90.41%, sensitivity 87.94%, specificity 85.86%) with our synthetic data augmentation compared to other state-of-the-art methods.
CONCLUSION: The proposed radiomics model has demonstrated a promising potential to synthesize and classify breast masses on ultrasound in a semi-supervised manner.
METHODS: Continuous raw PPG waveforms were blindly allocated into segments with an equal length (5s) without leveraging any pulse location information and were normalized with Z-score normalization methods. A 1-D-CNN was designed to automatically learn the intrinsic features of the PPG waveform, and perform the required classification. Several training hyperparameters (initial learning rate and gradient threshold) were varied to investigate the effect of these parameters on the performance of the network. Subsequently, this proposed network was trained and validated with 30 subjects, and then tested with eight subjects, with our local dataset. Moreover, two independent datasets downloaded from the PhysioNet MIMIC II database were used to evaluate the robustness of the proposed network.
RESULTS: A 13 layer 1-D-CNN model was designed. Within our local study dataset evaluation, the proposed network achieved a testing accuracy of 94.9%. The classification accuracy of two independent datasets also achieved satisfactory accuracy of 93.8% and 86.7% respectively. Our model achieved a comparable performance with most reported works, with the potential to show good generalization as the proposed network was evaluated with multiple cohorts (overall accuracy of 94.5%).
CONCLUSION: This paper demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of applying blind signal processing and deep learning techniques to PPG motion artifact detection, whereby manual feature thresholding was avoided and yet a high generalization ability was achieved.
METHOD: The CAE model was trained using 12,170,655 simulated SB flow and normal flow data (NB). The paired SB and NB flow data were simulated using a Gaussian Effort Model (GEM) with 5 basis functions. When the CAE model is given a SB flow input, it is capable of predicting a corresponding NB flow for the SB flow input. The magnitude of SB effort (SBEMag) is then quantified as the difference between the SB and NB flows. The CAE model was used to evaluate the SBEMag of 9 pressure control/ support datasets. Results were validated using a mean squared error (MSE) fitting between clinical and training SB flows.
RESULTS: The CAE model was able to produce NB flows from the clinical SB flows with the median SBEMag of the 9 datasets being 25.39% [IQR: 21.87-25.57%]. The absolute error in SBEMag using MSE validation yields a median of 4.77% [IQR: 3.77-8.56%] amongst the cohort. This shows the ability of the GEM to capture the intrinsic details present in SB flow waveforms. Analysis also shows both intra-patient and inter-patient variability in SBEMag.
CONCLUSION: A Convolutional Autoencoder model was developed with simulated SB and NB flow data and is capable of quantifying the magnitude of patient spontaneous breathing effort. This provides potential application for real-time monitoring of patient respiratory drive for better management of patient-ventilator interaction.
METHODS: The governing equations of fluid flow have been transformed in the form of ordinary differential equations. These equations have been solved by two methods namely, shooting method and three-stage Lobatto IIIa formula.
RESULTS: The effects of different parameters on temperature, velocity, concentration profiles, skin friction coefficient, Sherwood number, and reduced Nusselt number were obtained and presented graphically. It was noticed that four solutions existed at definite ranges of the parameters for high suction over both surfaces for the first time. The results of the stability analysis revealed that only the first solution is more stable and possess physical reliability compared to the remaining solutions.
CONCLUSION: The graphs also indicated that the fluid velocity decreases as the thermophoresis parameter increases but the opposite behavior observed for both temperature and concentration profiles in the first solution. Furthermore, it was detected that the concentration profile declined at the higher values of the Brownian motion parameter.
METHODS: This study shows the design and development of the "VENT" protocol, which integrates the single compartment linear lung model with clinical recommendations from landmark studies, to aid clinical decision-making in selecting mechanical ventilation settings. Using retrospective breath data from a cohort of 24 patients, 3,566 and 2,447 clinically implemented VC and PC settings were extracted respectively. Using this data, a VENT protocol application case study and clinical comparison is performed, and the prediction accuracy of the VENT protocol is validated against actual measured outcomes of pressure and volume.
RESULTS: The study shows the VENT protocols' potential use in narrowing an overwhelming number of possible mechanical ventilation setting combinations by up to 99.9%. The comparison with retrospective clinical data showed that only 33% and 45% of clinician settings were approved by the VENT protocol. The unapproved settings were mainly due to exceeding clinical recommended settings. When utilising the single compartment model in the VENT protocol for forecasting peak pressures and tidal volumes, median [IQR] prediction error values of 0.75 [0.31 - 1.83] cmH2O and 0.55 [0.19 - 1.20] mL/kg were obtained.
CONCLUSIONS: Comparing the proposed protocol with retrospective clinically implemented settings shows the protocol can prevent harmful mechanical ventilation setting combinations for which clinicians would be otherwise unaware. The VENT protocol warrants a more detailed clinical study to validate its potential usefulness in a clinical setting.
METHODS: Retrospective data from 210 patients were obtained from a general hospital in Malaysia from May 2014 until June 2015, where 123 patients were having comorbid diabetes mellitus. The comparison of blood glucose control protocol performance between both protocol simulations was conducted through blood glucose fitted with physiological modelling on top of virtual trial simulations, mean calculation of simulation error and several graphical comparisons using stochastic modelling.
RESULTS: Stochastic Targeted Blood Glucose Control Protocol reduces hyperglycaemia by 16% in diabetic and 9% in nondiabetic cohorts. The protocol helps to control blood glucose level in the targeted range of 4.0-10.0 mmol/L for 71.8% in diabetic and 82.7% in nondiabetic cohorts, besides minimising the treatment hour up to 71 h for 123 diabetic patients and 39 h for 87 nondiabetic patients.
CONCLUSION: It is concluded that Stochastic Targeted Blood Glucose Control Protocol is good in reducing hyperglycaemia as compared to the current blood glucose management protocol in the Malaysian intensive care unit. Hence, the current Malaysian intensive care unit protocols need to be modified to enhance their performance, especially in the integration of insulin and nutrition intervention in decreasing the hyperglycaemia incidences. Improvement in Stochastic Targeted Blood Glucose Control Protocol in terms of uen model is also a must to adapt with the diabetic cohort.
METHODS: Gaussian effort model (GEM) is a derivative of the single-compartment model with basis function. GEM model uses a linear combination of basis functions to model the nonlinear pressure waveform of spontaneous breathing patients. The GEM model estimates respiratory mechanics such as Elastance and Resistance along with the magnitudes of basis functions, which accounts for patient inspiratory effort.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The GEM model was tested using both simulated data and a retrospective observational clinical trial patient data. GEM model fitting to the original airway pressure waveform is better than any existing models when reverse triggering asynchrony is present. The fitting error of GEM model was less than 10% for both simulated data and clinical trial patient data.
CONCLUSION: GEM can capture the respiratory mechanics in the presence of patient effect in volume control ventilation mode and also can be used to assess patient-ventilator interaction. This model determines basis functions magnitudes, which can be used to simulate any waveform of patient effort pressure for future studies. The estimation of parameter identification GEM model can further be improved by constraining the parameters within a physiologically plausible range during least-square nonlinear regression.
METHODS: 18 voluntarily participants were recruited from the Canterbury and Otago region of New Zealand to take part in a Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST) clinical trial. A total of 46 DISST data were collected. However, due to ambiguous and inconsistency, 4 data had to be removed. Analysis was done using MATLAB 2020a.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Results show that, with 42 gathered dataset, the ANN generates higher gains, ∅P = 20.73 [12.21, 28.57] mU·L·mmol-1·min-1 and ∅D = 60.42 [26.85, 131.38] mU·L·mmol-1 as compared to the linear least square method, ∅P = 19.67 [11.81, 28.02] mU·L·mmol-1 ·min-1 and ∅D = 46.21 [7.25, 116.71] mU·L·mmol-1. The average value of the insulin sensitivity (SI) of ANN is lower with, SI = 16 × 10-4 L·mU-1 ·min-1 than the linear least square, SI = 17 × 10-4 L·mU-1 ·min-1.
CONCLUSION: Although the ANN analysis provided a lower SI value, the results were more dependable than the linear least square model because the ANN approach yielded a better model fitting accuracy than the linear least square method with a lower residual error of less than 5%. With the implementation of this ANN architecture, it shows that ANN able to produce minimal error during optimization process particularly when dealing with outlying data. The findings may provide extra information to clinicians, allowing them to gain a better knowledge of the heterogenous aetiology of diabetes and therapeutic intervention options.