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  1. Tan PC, Omar SZ
    Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol., 2011 Apr;23(2):87-93.
    PMID: 21297474 DOI: 10.1097/GCO.0b013e328342d208
    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) affects 90% of pregnant women and its impact is often underappreciated. Hyperemesis gravidarum, the most severe end of the spectrum, affects 0.5-2% of pregnancies. The pathogenesis of this condition remains obscure and its management has largely been empirical. This review aims to provide an update on advances in pregnancy hyperemesis focusing on papers published within the past 2 years.
  2. Hii LY, Sung CA, Shaw SW
    Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol., 2020 04;32(2):147-151.
    PMID: 32004173 DOI: 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000614
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the advance of maternal--fetal surgery, the research of stem cell transplantation and tissue engineering in prenatal management of fetal meningomyelocele (fMMC).

    RECENT FINDINGS: Advance in the imaging study provides more accurate assessment of fMMC in utero. Prenatal maternal--fetal surgery in fMMC demonstrates favourable postnatal outcome. Minimally invasive fetal surgery minimizes uterine wall disruption. Endoscopic fetal surgery is performed via laparotomy-assisted or entirely percutaneous approach. The postnatal outcome for open and endoscopic fetal surgery shares no difference. Single layer closure during repair of fMMC is preferred to reduce postnatal surgical intervention. All maternal--fetal surgeries impose anesthetic and obstetric risk to pregnant woman. Ruptured of membrane and preterm delivery are common complications. Trans-amniotic stem cell therapy (TRASCET) showed potential tissue regeneration in animal models. Fetal tissue engineering with growth factors and dura substitutes with biosynthetic materials promote spinal cord regeneration. This will overcome the challenge of closure in large fMMC. Planning of the maternal--fetal surgery should adhere to ethical framework to minimize morbidity to both fetus and mother.

    SUMMARY: Combination of endoscopic fetal surgery with TRASCET or tissue engineering will be a new vision to achieve to improve the outcome of prenatal intervention in fMMC.

  3. Sivanesaratnam V
    Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol., 2001 Apr;13(2):121-5.
    PMID: 11315864
    A malignancy discovered in pregnancy is often difficult to manage; the optimal maternal therapy has to be balanced with the fetal well-being. Generally, the cancer is managed as though the patient is not pregnant. For the various site-specific cancers, surgery is the main modality of treatment; this should be individualized. Chemotherapeutic agents are highly teratogenic in the first trimester, with some adverse effects when used after 12 weeks' gestation. The overall survival rate for pregnancy-associated breast cancer is poor; the reasons for this are discussed. For cervical cancer, delivery by caesarean section appears to be the method of choice, with significantly better survival rates compared with those who deliver vaginally. Other gynaecological and non-gynaecological malignancies are discussed.
  4. Knox B, Azurah AG, Grover SR
    Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol., 2015 Oct;27(5):309-14.
    PMID: 26208045 DOI: 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000199
    Menstrual problems are known to be common amongst teenagers, but adequate recognition of the impact this may have on the adolescent and appropriate interventions that are focussed on the needs of the adolescents are limited.
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