Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 62 in total

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  1. Zeeshan F, Madheswaran T, Pandey M, Gorain B
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(42):5019-5028.
    PMID: 30621558 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190101111525
    BACKGROUND: The conventional dosage forms cannot be administered to all patients because of interindividual variability found among people of different race coupled with different metabolism and cultural necessities. Therefore, to address this global issue there is a growing focus on the fabrication of new drug delivery systems customised to individual needs. Medicinal products printed using 3-D technology are transforming the current medicine business to a plausible alternative of conventional medicines.

    METHODS: The PubMed database and Google scholar were browsed by keywords of 3-D printing, drug delivery, and personalised medicine. The data about techniques employed in the manufacturing of 3-D printed medicines and the application of 3-D printing technology in the fabrication of individualised medicine were collected, analysed and discussed.

    RESULTS: Numerous techniques can fabricate 3-D printed medicines however, printing-based inkjet, nozzle-based deposition and laser-based writing systems are the most popular 3-D printing methods which have been employed successfully in the development of tablets, polypills, implants, solutions, nanoparticles, targeted and topical dug delivery. In addition, the approval of Spritam® containing levetiracetam by FDA as the primary 3-D printed drug product has boosted its importance. However, some drawbacks such as suitability of manufacturing techniques and the available excipients for 3-D printing need to be addressed to ensure simple, feasible, reliable and reproducible 3-D printed fabrication.

    CONCLUSION: 3-D printing is a revolutionary in pharmaceutical technology to cater the present and future needs of individualised medicines. Nonetheless, more investigations are required on its manufacturing aspects in terms cost effectiveness, reproducibility and bio-equivalence.

  2. Zahedifard M, Faraj FL, Paydar M, Looi CY, Hasandarvish P, Hajrezaie M, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(23):3417-26.
    PMID: 25808938
    The anti-carcinogenic effect of the new quinazolinone compound, named MMD, was tested on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. The synthesis of quinazolinone-based compounds attracted strong attention over the past few decades as an alternative mean to produce analogues of natural products. Quinazolinone compounds sharing the main principal core structures are currently introduced in the clinical trials and pharmaceutical markets as anti-cancer agents. Thus, it is of high clinical interest to identify a new drug that could be used to control the growth and expansion of cancer cells. Quinazolinone is a metabolite derivative resulting from the conjugation of 2-aminobenzoyhydrazide and 5-methoxy-2- hydroxybenzaldehyde based on condensation reactions. In the present study, we analysed the influence of MMD on breast cancer adenoma cell morphology, cell cycle arrest, DNA fragmentation, cytochrome c release and caspases activity. MCF-7 is a type of cell line representing the breast cancer adenoma cells that can be expanded and differentiated in culture. Using different in vitro strategies and specific antibodies, we demonstrate a novel role for MMD in the inhibition of cell proliferation and initiation of the programmed cell death. MMD was found to increase cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol and this effect was enhanced over time with effective IC50 value of 5.85 ± 0.71 μg/mL detected in a 72-hours treatment. Additionally, MMD induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and caused DNA fragmentation with obvious activation of caspase-9 and caspases-3/7. Our results demonstrate a novel role of MMD as an anti-proliferative agent and imply the involvement of mitochondrial intrinsic pathway in the observed apoptosis.
  3. Yee PT, Poh CL
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(44):6694-6700.
    PMID: 27510488 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160720165613
    The Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackieviruses. Common HFMD symptoms are high fever (≥ 39°C), rashes, and ulcers but complications due to virulent EV-A71 may arise leading to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The lack of vaccines and antiviral drugs against EV-A71 highlights the urgency of developing preventive and treatment agents. Recent studies have reported the emergence of novel antiviral agents and vaccines that utilize microRNAs (miRNAs). They belong to a class of small (19-24 nt) non coding RNA molecules. As miRNAs play a major role in the host regulatory system, there is a huge opportunity for interplay between host miRNAs and EV-A71 expressions. A total of 42 out of 64 miRNAs were up-regulated in EV-A71-infected cells. There was consistent up-regulation of miR-1246 gene expression that targeted the DLG3 gene which contributes to neurological pathogenesis. In contrast, miR-30a that targets calcium channels for membrane transportation was down-regulated. This leads to repression of EV-A71 replication. The impact of host miRNAs on immune activation, shutdown of host protein synthesis, apoptosis, signal transduction and viral replication are discussed. miRNAs have been used in the construction of live attenuated vaccines (LAV) such as the poliovirus LAV that has miRNA binding sites for let-7a or miR-124a. The miRNAbearing vaccine will not replicate in neuronal cells carrying the corresponding miRNA but could still replicate in the gastrointestinal tract and hence remains to act as immunogens. As such, miRNAs are attractive candidates to be developed as vaccines and antivirals.
  4. Yap PR, Goh KL
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(35):5073-81.
    PMID: 26369685
    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most prescribed group of drugs in the world. They are used primarily for pain relief in chronic inflammatory joint disease and act by inhibiting enzymes COX1 and COX2 and ultimately preventing the production of active prostanoids which are required for the innate inflammatory pathway. The use of NSAIDs have been associated with the development of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms ranging from simple dyspepsia to life threatening GI bleeds and perforations. The definition of dyspepsia has evolved over the years and this has hampered accurate studies on the prevalence of dyspepsia as different studies used varying criteria to define dyspepsia. It is now known that NSAIDs significantly increase the risk of dyspepsia.The risk of developing peptic ulcer disease vary with specific NSAIDs and dosages but there is no correlation between the symptoms of dyspepsia and underlying peptic ulcers. The pathogenesis of dyspepsia with NSAIDs is not completely understood. Peptic ulceration alone is not able to account for the majority of dyspepsia symptoms encountered by NSAIDs users. Erosive oesophagitis secondary to NSAIDs may be contributing factor to the prevalence of dyspepsia in NSAIDs users. Altered gut permeability and changes in gastric mechanosensory function due to NSAIDs may also be a contributory factor. Management of NSAID induced dyspepsia is involves a multipronged approach. Drug avoidance if possible would be ideal. Other options include using the lowest effective dose, changing to an NSAIDs with a safer GI risk profile, avoiding concurrent use with other NSAIDs or if the patient has a previous history of peptic ulcer disease, and co-prescribing with anti-secretory medications such as proton pump inhibitors. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori has a protective role against developing peptic ulcers and may also improve symptoms of NSAIDs induced dyspepsia.
  5. Vijayan V, Shalini K, Yugesvaran V, Yee TH, Balakrishnan S, Palanimuthu VR
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(28):3366-3375.
    PMID: 30179118 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666180903110301
    BACKGROUND: Triple-Negative Breast Cancer is an aggressive type of breast cancer, which is not treatable by chemotherapy drugs, due to the lack of Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) on the cell surface.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of paclitaxel loaded PLGA nanoparticle (PTX-NPs) on the cytotoxicity and apoptosis of the different MDA-MB type of cell lines.

    METHOD: PTX-NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and characterized earlier. The cytotoxicity of PTX-NPs was evaluated by MTT and LDH assay, later apoptosis was calculated by flow cytometry analysis.

    RESULTS: The prepared NP size of 317.5 nm and zetapontial of -12.7 mV showed drug release of 89.1 % at 48 h. MDA-MB-231 type cell showed significant cytotoxicity by MTT method of 47.4 ± 1.2 % at 24 h, 34.6 ± 0.8 % at 48 h and 23.5 ± 0.5 % at 72 h and LDH method of 35.9 ± 1.5 % at 24 h, 25.4 ± 0.6 % at 48 h and 19.8 ± 2.2 % at 72 h with apoptosis of 47.3 ± 0.4 %.

    CONCLUSION: We have found that PTX-NPs showed the cytotoxic effect on all the MDA-MB cancer cell lines and showed potent anticancer activities against MDA-MB-231 cell line via induction of apoptosis.

  6. Tiash S, Chowdhury ME
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(37):5752-5759.
    PMID: 26864311
    Despite being widely used for treating cancer, chemotherapy is accompanied by numerous adverse effects as a result of systemic distribution and nonspecific interactions of the drugs with healthy tissues, eventually leading to therapeutic inefficacy and chemoresistance. Cyclophosphamide (Cyp) as one of the chemotherapeutic pro-drugs is activated in liver and used to treat breast cancer in high dose and in combination with other drugs. In an attempt to reduce the off-target effects and enhance the therapeutic efficacy, pH-sensitive carbonate apatite nanoparticles that had predominantly and size-dependently been localized in liver following intravenous administration, were employed to electrostatically immobilize Cyp and purposely deliver it to the liver for activation. Cyp-loaded particles formed by simple 30 min incubation at 37ºC of the DMEM (pH 7.4) medium containing CaCl2 and Cyp, enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity at different degrees depending on the cell types. The size of the particles could be tightly controlled by the amount of CaCl2 required to prepare the particles and thus the bio-distribution pattern inside different organs of the body. Unlike the small particles (~ 200 nm), the large size particles (~ 600 nm) which were more efficiently accumulated in liver, significantly reduced the tumor volume following intravenous injection in 4T1-induced murine breast cancer model at a very low dose (0.17 mg/Kg) of the drug initially added for complex formation, thus shedding light on the potential applications of the Cyp-loaded nano-formulations in the treatment of breast cancer.
  7. Teoh SL, Das S
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(12):1845-1859.
    PMID: 28231756 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161027120043
    The incidence and mortality due to breast cancer is increasing worldwide. There is a constant quest to know the underlying molecular biology of breast cancer in order to arrive at diagnosis and plan better treatment options. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding and single stranded RNAs which influence the gene expression and physiological condition in any tumor. The miRNAs may act on different pathways in various cancers. Recently, there are research reports on various miRNAs being linked to breast cancers. The important miRNAs associated with breast cancers include miR-21, miR-155, miR-27a, miR-205, miR-145 and miR-320a. In the present review we discuss the role of miRNAs in breast cancer, its importance as diagnostic markers, prognosis and metastasis markers. We also highlight the role of miRNAs with regard to resistance to few anticancerous drugs such as Tamoxifen and Trastuzumab. The role of miRNA in resistance to treatment is one of the core issues discussed in the present review. Much information on the miRNA roles is available particularly in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy setting, because this protocol allows the rapid association of miRNA expression with the treatment response. This review opens the door for designing better therapeutic options in drug resistance cases in breast cancer.
  8. Tekade RK, Maheshwari RG, Sharma PA, Tekade M, Chauhan AS
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(31):4614-36.
    PMID: 26486147
    siRNA technology presents a helpful means of gene silencing in mammalian cells. Advancement in the field includes enhanced attentiveness in the characterization of target and off-target effects employing suitable controls and gene expression microarrays. These will permit expansion in the measurement of single and multiple target combinations and also permit comprehensive efforts to understand mammalian cell processes. Another fact is that the delivery of siRNA requires the creation of a nanoparticulate vector with controlled structural geometry and surface modalities inside the targeted cells. On the other hand, dendrimers represent the class of carrier system where massive control over size, shape and physicochemical properties makes this delivery vector exceptional and favorable in genetic transfection applications. The siRNA therapeutics may be incorporated inside the geometry of the density controlled dendrimers with the option of engineering the structure to the specific needs of the genetic material and its indication. The existing reports on the siRNA carrying and deliverance potential of dendrimers clearly suggest the significance of this novel class of polymeric architecture and certainly elevate the futuristic use of this highly branched vector as genetic material delivery system.
  9. Sridevi V, Naveen P, Karnam VS, Reddy PR, Arifullah M
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(6):802-815.
    PMID: 32942973 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826999200917154747
    BACKGROUND: Phytoestrogens are non-endocrine, non-steroidal secondary derivatives of plants and consumed through a plant-based diet also named as "dietary estrogens". The major sources of phytoestrogens are soy and soy-based foods, flaxseed, chickpeas, green beans, dairy products, etc. The dietary inclusion of phytoestrogen based foods plays a crucial role in the maintenance of metabolic syndrome cluster, including obesity, diabetes, blood pressure, cancer, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, postmenopausal ailments and their complications. In recent days, phytoestrogens are the preferred molecules for hormone replacement therapy. On the other hand, they act as endocrine disruptors via estrogen receptor-mediated pathways. These effects are not restricted to adult males or females and identified even in development.

    OBJECTIVE: Since phytoestrogenic occurrence is high at daily meals for most people worldwide, they focused to study for its beneficiary effects towards developing pharmaceutical drugs for treating various metabolic disorders by observing endocrine disruption.

    CONCLUSION: The present review emphasizes the pros and cons of phytoestrogens on human health, which may help to direct the pharmaceutical industry to produce various phytoestrongen based drugs against various metabolic disorders.

  10. Soni N, Tekade M, Kesharwani P, Bhattacharya P, Maheshwari R, Dua K, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017 08 30;23(21):3084-3098.
    PMID: 28356042 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170329150201
    BACKGROUND: Disseminated metastatic cancer requires insistent management owing to its reduced responsiveness for chemotherapeutic agents, toxicity to normal cells consequently lower survival rate and hampered quality of life of patients.

    METHODS: Dendrimer mediated cancer therapy is advantageous over conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical resection due to reduced systemic toxicity, and molecular level cell injury to cancerous mass, for an appreciable survival of the subject. Recently used dendrimer mediated nanotechnology for oncology aims to conquer these challenges. Dendrimers based nano-constructs are having architectures comparable to that of biological vesicles present in the human body.

    RESULTS: Operating with dendrimer technology, proffers the exclusive and novel strategies with numerous applications in cancer management involving diagnostics, therapeutics, imaging, and prognostics by sub-molecular interactions. Dendrimers are designed to acquire the benefits of the malignant tumor morphology and characteristics, i.e. leaky vasculature of tumor, expression of specific cell surface antigen, and rapid proliferation.

    CONCLUSION: Dendrimers mediated targeted therapy recommends innovatory function equally in diagnostics (imaging, immune-detection) as well as chemotherapy. Currently, dendrimers as nanomedicine has offered a strong assurance and advancement in drastically varying approaches towards cancer imaging and treatment. The present review discusses different approaches for cancer diagnosis and treatment such as, targeted and control therapy, photodynamic therapy, photo-thermal therapy, gene therapy, antiangiogenics therapy, radiotherapy etc.

  11. Soliman AM, Teoh SL, Das S
    Curr Pharm Des, 2022 Jan 28.
    PMID: 35088658 DOI: 10.2174/1381612828666220128103725
    Gelatin is obtained via partial denaturation of collagen and is extensively used in various industries. The majority of gelatin utilized globally is derived from a mammalian source. Several health and religious concerns associated with porcine/bovine gelatin were reported. Therefore, gelatin from a marine source is widely being investigated for its efficiency and utilization in a variety of applications as a potential substitute for porcine/bovine gelatin. Although fish gelatin is less durable and possesses lower melting and gelling temperatures compared to mammal-derived gelatin, various modifications are being reported to promote its rheological and functional properties to be efficiently employed. The present review describes in detail the current innovative applications of fish gelatin involving the food industry, drug delivery and possible therapeutic applications. Gelatin bioactive molecules may be utilized as carriers for drug delivery. Due to its versatility, gelatin can be used in different carrier systems, such as microparticles, nanoparticles, fibers and hydrogels. The present review also provides a perspective on the other potential pharmaceutical applications of fish gelatin, such as tissue regeneration, antioxidant supplementation, antihypertensive and anticancer treatments.
  12. Solayman M, Ali Y, Alam F, Islam MA, Alam N, Khalil MI, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(5):549-65.
    PMID: 26601968
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders. In addition to exercise and diet, oral anti-diabetic drugs have been used as a part of the management strategy worldwide. Unfortunately, none of the conventional anti-diabetic drugs are without side effects, and these drugs pose an economic burden. Therefore, the investigation of novel anti-diabetic regimens is a major challenge for researchers, in which nature has been the primary resource for the discovery of potential therapeutics. Many plants have been shown to act as anti-diabetic agents, in which the main active constituents are believed to be polyphenols. Natural products containing high polyphenol levels can control carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as protecting and restoring beta-cell integrity, enhancing insulin releasing activity, and increasing cellular glucose uptake. Blackberries, red grapes, apricots, eggplant and popular drinks such as coffee, cocoa and green tea are all rich in polyphenols, which may dampen insulin resistance and be natural alternatives in the treatment of diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this review is to report on the available anti-diabetic polyphenols (medicinal plants, fruits and vegetables), their mechanisms in the various pathways of DM and their correlations with DM. Additionally, this review emphasizes the types of polyphenols that could be potential future resources in the treatment of DM via either novel regimens or as supplementary agents.
  13. Sharma PA, Maheshwari R, Tekade M, Tekade RK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(30):4465-78.
    PMID: 26354926
    The increasing prevalence and complexity of cardiovascular diseases demand innovative strategies for diagnostic and therapeutic applications to improve patient care/prognoses. Additionally, various factors constrain present cardiovascular therapies, including low aqueous drug solubility, early metabolism, short half-life and drug delivery limitations. The efficient treatment of cardiovascular diseases requires improvement of traditional drug delivery systems. This can be accomplished by using novel nanomaterial that can incorporate diverse bio-actives along with diagnostic agents in a single carrier, referred to as theranostics. This review discusses the state of the art in the applications to diagnosis and therapy of innovative, nanomaterial- based strategies such as lipid based carriers, nanocapsules, magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, protein conjugated nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon-based nanoformulations with a special emphasis on how they can contribute to improving the management of cardiovascular disease.
  14. Shadab M, Haque S, Sheshala R, Meng LW, Meka VS, Ali J
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(3):440-453.
    PMID: 27784250 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161026163201
    BACKGROUND: The drug delivery of macromolecules such as proteins and peptides has become an important area of research and represents the fastest expanding share of the market for human medicines. The most common method for delivering macromolecules is parenterally. However parenteral administration of some therapeutic macromolecules has not been effective because of their rapid clearance from the body. As a result, most macromolecules are only therapeutically useful after multiple injections, which causes poor compliance and systemic side effects.

    METHOD: Therefore, there is a need to improve delivery of therapeutic macromolecules to enable non-invasive delivery routes, less frequent dosing through controlled-release drug delivery, and improved drug targeting to increase efficacy and reduce side effects.

    RESULT: Non-invasive administration routes such as intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, ocular and oral delivery have been attempted intensively by formulating macromolecules into nanoparticulate carriers system such as polymeric and lipidic nanoparticles.

    CONCLUSION: This review discusses barriers to drug delivery and current formulation technologies to overcome the unfavorable properties of macromolecules via non-invasive delivery (mainly intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal oral and ocular) with a focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems. This review also provided a summary and discussion of recent data on non-invasive delivery of macromolecules using nanoparticulate formulations.

  15. Satija S, Sharma P, Kaur H, Dhanjal DS, Chopra RS, Khurana N, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(43):4376-4387.
    PMID: 34459378 DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210830100907
    With an estimated failure rate of about 90%, immunotherapies that are intended for the treatment of solid tumors have caused an anomalous rise in the mortality rate over the past decades. It is apparent that resistance towards such therapies primarily occurs due to elevated levels of HIF-1 (Hypoxia-induced factor) in tumor cells, which are caused by disrupted microcirculation and diffusion mechanisms. With the advent of nanotechnology, several innovative advances were brought to the fore; and, one such promising direction is the use of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles in the management of solid tumors. Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles enhance the response of hypoxia-based agents (HBAs) within the tumor cells and have been found to augment the entry of HBAs into the tumor micro-environment. The heightened penetration of HBAs causes chronic hypoxia, thus aiding in the process of cell quiescence. In addition, this technology has also been applied in photodynamic therapy, where oxygen self-enriched photosensitizers loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles are employed. The resulting processes initiate a cascade, depleting tumour oxygen and turning it into a reactive oxygen species eventually to destroy the tumour cell. This review elaborates on the multiple applications of nanotechnology based perfluorocarbon formulations that are being currently employed in the treatment of tumour hypoxia.
  16. Rezayi M, Farjami Z, Hosseini ZS, Ebrahimi N, Abouzari-Lotf E
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(39):4675-4680.
    PMID: 30636591 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190111144525
    Small noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are known as noninvasive biomarkers for early detection in various cancers. In fact, miRNAs have key roles in carcinogenicity process such as proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis. After cardiovascular disease, cancer is the second cause of death in the world with an estimated 9.6 million deaths in 2018. So, early diagnosis of cancer is critical for successful treatment. To date, several selective and sensitive laboratory-based methods have been applied for the detection of circulating miRNA, but a simple, short assay time and low-cost method such as a biosensor method as an alternative approach to monitor cancer biomarker is required. In this review, we have highlighted recent advances in biosensors for circulating miRNA detection.
  17. Reginald K, Chan Y, Plebanski M, Poh CL
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(11):1157-1173.
    PMID: 28914200 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170913163904
    Dengue is one of the most important arboviral infections worldwide, infecting up to 390 million people and causing 25,000 deaths annually. Although a licensed dengue vaccine is available, it is not efficacious against dengue serotypes that infect people living in South East Asia, where dengue is an endemic disease. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient dengue vaccine for this region. Data from different clinical trials indicate that a successful dengue vaccine must elicit both neutralizing antibodies and cell mediated immunity. This can be achieved by designing a multi-epitope peptide vaccine comprising B, CD8+ and CD4+ T cell epitopes. As recognition of T cell epitopes are restricted by human leukocyte antigens (HLA), T cell epitopes which are able to recognize several major HLAs will be preferentially included in the vaccine design. While peptide vaccines are safe, biocompatible and cost-effective, it is poorly immunogenic. Strategies to improve its immunogenicity by the use of long peptides, adjuvants and nanoparticle delivery mechanisms are discussed.
  18. Perumalsamy S, Aqilah Mohd Zin NA, Widodo RT, Wan Ahmad WA, Vethakkan SRDB, Huri HZ
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(25):3689-3698.
    PMID: 28625137 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170616081256
    BACKGROUND: Chemerin is an adipokine that induces insulin resistance by the mechanism of inflammation in adipose tissue but these are still unclear. A high level of chemerin in humans is considered as a marker of inflammation in insulin resistance and obesity as well as in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite the role of chemerin in insulin resistance progression, chemerin as one of the novel adipokines is proposed to be involved in high cancer risk and mortality.

    AIM: The aim of this paper was to review the role of CMKLR-1 receptor and the potential therapeutic target in the management of chemerin induced type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer.

    PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: Increased chemerin secretion activates an inflammatory response. The inflammatory response will increase the oxidative stress in adipose tissue and consequently results in an insulin-resistant state. The occurrence of inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance leads to the progression of cancers.

    CONCLUSION: Chemerin is one of the markers that may involve in development of both cancer and insulin resistance. Chemokine like receptor- 1 (CMKLR-1) receptor that regulates chemerin levels exhibits a potential therapeutic target for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cancer treatment.

  19. Ng PQ, Ling LSC, Chellian J, Madheswaran T, Panneerselvam J, Kunnath AP, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(36):4580-4590.
    PMID: 32520681 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200610111013
    Many plant-based bioactive compounds have been serving as the origin of drugs since long ago and many of them have been proven to have medicinal value against various chronic diseases, including, cancer, arthritis, hepatic diseases, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, their clinical applications have been limited due to their poor water solubility, stability, low bioavailability and extensive transformation due to the first-pass metabolism. The applications of nanocarriers have been proven to be able to improve the delivery of bioactive phytoconstituents, resulting in the enhancement of various pharmacokinetic properties and thereby increasing the therapeutic value of phytoconstituents. These biocompatible nanocarriers also exert low toxicity to healthy cells. This review focuses on the uses and applications of different types of nanocarriers to enhance the delivery of phytoconstituents for the treatment of various chronic diseases, along with comparisons related to bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of nano phytoconstituents with native phytoconstituents.
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