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  1. Abbasi MA, Raza H, Rehman AU, Siddiqui SZ, Nazir M, Mumtaz A, et al.
    Drug Res (Stuttg), 2019 Feb;69(2):111-120.
    PMID: 30086567 DOI: 10.1055/a-0654-5074
    In this study, a new series of sulfonamides derivatives was synthesized and their inhibitory effects on DPPH and jack bean urease were evaluated. The in silico studies were also applied to ascertain the interactions of these molecules with active site of the enzyme. Synthesis was initiated by the nucleophilic substitution reaction of 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-ethanamine (1: ) with 4-(acetylamino)benzenesulfonyl chloride (2): in aqueous sodium carbonate at pH 9. Precipitates collected were washed and dried to obtain the parent molecule, N-(4-{[(4-methoxyphenethyl)amino]sulfonyl}phenyl)acetamide (3): . Then, this parent was reacted with different alkyl/aralkyl halides, (4A-M: ), using dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent and LiH as an activator to produce a series of new N-(4-{[(4-methoxyphenethyl)-(substituted)amino]sulfonyl}phenyl)acetamides (5A-M: ). All the synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, EI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and CHN analysis data. All of the synthesized compounds showed higher urease inhibitory activity than the standard thiourea. The compound 5 F: exhibited very excellent enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 0.0171±0.0070 µM relative to standard thiourea having IC50 value of 4.7455±0.0546 µM. Molecular docking studies suggested that ligands have good binding energy values and bind within the active region of taget protein. Chemo-informatics properties were evaluated by computational approaches and it was found that synthesized compounds mostly obeyed the Lipinski' rule.
  2. Rehman K, Tan CM, Zulfakar MH
    Drug Res (Stuttg), 2014 Mar;64(3):159-65.
    PMID: 24026957 DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1355351
    Topical keratolytic agents such as benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) are one of the common treatments for inflammatory skin diseases. However, the amount of drug delivery through the skin is limited due to the stratum corneum. The purposes of this study were to investigate the ability of fish oil to act as penetration enhancer for topical keratolytic agents and to determine the suitable gelator for formulating stable fish oil oleogels. 2 types of gelling agents, beeswax and sorbitan monostearate (Span 60), were used to formulate oleogels. To investigate the efficacy of fish oil oleogel permeation, commercial hydrogels of benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) were used as control, and comparative analysis was performed using Franz diffusion cell. Stability of oleogels was determined by physical assessments at 20°C and 40°C storage. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) fish oil oleogels containing beeswax were considered as better formulations in terms of drug permeation and cumulative drug release. All the results were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05, ANOVA) and it was concluded that the beeswax-fish oil combination in oleogel can prove to be beneficial in terms of permeation across the skin and stability.
  3. Rehman K, Amin MC, Muda S
    Drug Res (Stuttg), 2013 Dec;63(12):657-62.
    PMID: 23842943 DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1349129
    The increase in diseases of the colon underscores the need to develop cost-effective site-directed therapies. We formulated a polysaccharide-based matrix system that could release ibuprofen under conditions simulating those in the colon by employing a wet granulation method. Tablets were prepared in a series of formulations containing a polysaccharide (beta-cyclodextrin and chitosan) matrix system along with ethylcellulose. We characterized physicochemical properties and performed an in vitro drug release assay in the absence and presence of digestive enzymes to assess the ability of the polysaccharides to function as a protective barrier against the upper gastrointestinal environment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed no chemical interaction between ibuprofen and polysaccharides; however, spectrum analysis suggested the formation of an inclusion complex of beta-cyclodextrin with ibuprofen. The formulations contained 50% ethylcellulose and 50% beta-cyclodextrins (1:1) were proven to be the better formulation that slowly released the drug until 24 h (101.04 ± 0.65% maximum drug release in which 83.08 ± 0.89% drug was released in colonic medium) showed better drug release profiles than the formulations containing chitosan. We conclude that a beta-cyclodextrin drug carrier system may represent an effective approach for treatment of diseases of the colon.
  4. Rohilla P, Deep A, Kamra M, Narasimhan B, Ramasamy K, Mani V, et al.
    Drug Res (Stuttg), 2014 Oct;64(10):505-9.
    PMID: 24992500 DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1368720
    A series of N'-(substituted benzylidene)-2-(benzo[d]oxazol-3(2H)-yl)acetohydrazide derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for its in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Antimicrobial activity results revealed that compound 12 was found to be the most potent antimicrobial agent. Results of anticancer study indicated that the synthesized compounds exhibited average anticancer potential. Compound 7 (IC 50 =3.12 µM) and compound 16 (IC 50 =2.88 µM) were found to be most potent against breast cancer (MCF7) cell lines. In conclusion, compound 12 and 16 have the potential to be selected as lead compound for the developing of novel antimicrobial and anticancer agents respectively.
  5. Saidi M, Sadeghifard N, Kazemian H, Sekawi Z, Badakhsh B, Friadian S, et al.
    Drug Res (Stuttg), 2016 Sep 14.
    PMID: 27626607
    Herbal medicines are defined as traditionally used natural products. The current study in an attempt try to investigate the antibacterial activity on extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), methalo beta-lactamases (MBL) producing gram negative bacteria and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and subsequently, to determine the antioxidant activity of Thymus daenensis. For this reasons, firstly cytotoxicity of T. daenensis was determined by MTT assay. Then, essential oil was subjected for antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Our results demonstrated that 15 mg/ml concentration of T. daenensis inhibited both P. aeruginosa producing MBL and E.coli producing ESBL, while this value was 25 mg/ml concentration for MRSA inhibition. The association between phenolic compound and antioxidant activity was found for the ABTS(•+) method (43.52%) in the lowest level, while, for FRAD and DPPH(•) methods the opposite story occurred (70.5% correlation for DPPH(•) and 50.9% for FRAD). Our findings suggested that T. daenensis has a potential herbal medicine that should be considered as an antibacterial and antioxidant with very low toxicity.
  6. Valizadeh N, Valian F, Sadeghifard N, Karami S, Pakzad I, Kazemian H, et al.
    Drug Res (Stuttg), 2017 Jul;67(7):385-387.
    PMID: 28320039 DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-102060
    Toxin antitoxin system is a regulatory system that antitoxin inhibits the toxin. We aimed to determine the role of TA loci in biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae clinical and environmental isolates; also inhibition of biofilm formation by Peganum harmala. So, 40 K. pneumoniae clinical and environmental isolates were subjected for PCR to determine the frequency of mazEF, relEB, and mqsRA TA loci. Biofilm formation assay subjected for all isolates. Then, P. harmala was tested against positive biofilm formation strains. Our results demonstrated that relBE TA loci were dominant TA loci; whereas mqsRA TA loci were negative in all isolates. The most environmental isolates showed weak and no biofilm formation while strong and moderate biofilm formation observed in clinical isolates. Biofilm formations by K. pneumoniae in 9 ug/ml concentration were inhibited by P. harmala. In vivo study suggested to be performed to introduce Peganum harmala as anti-biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae.
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