Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 58 in total

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  1. Tappe D, Nachtigall S, Kapaun A, Schnitzler P, Günther S, Schmidt-Chanasit J
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2015 May;21(5): 911–3.
    PMID: 25898277 DOI: 10.3201/eid2105.141960
  2. Fornace KM, Abidin TR, Alexander N, Brock P, Grigg MJ, Murphy A, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2016 Feb;22(2):201-8.
    PMID: 26812373 DOI: 10.3201/eid2202.150656
    The zoonotic malaria species Plasmodium knowlesi has become the main cause of human malaria in Malaysian Borneo. Deforestation and associated environmental and population changes have been hypothesized as main drivers of this apparent emergence. We gathered village-level data for P. knowlesi incidence for the districts of Kudat and Kota Marudu in Sabah state, Malaysia, for 2008-2012. We adjusted malaria records from routine reporting systems to reflect the diagnostic uncertainty of microscopy for P. knowlesi. We also developed negative binomial spatial autoregressive models to assess potential associations between P. knowlesi incidence and environmental variables derived from satellite-based remote-sensing data. Marked spatial heterogeneity in P. knowlesi incidence was observed, and village-level numbers of P. knowlesi cases were positively associated with forest cover and historical forest loss in surrounding areas. These results suggest the likelihood that deforestation and associated environmental changes are key drivers in P. knowlesi transmission in these areas.
  3. Latif B, Heo CC, Razuin R, Shamalaa DV, Tappe D
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2013 Aug;19(8):1340-1.
    PMID: 23876448 DOI: 10.3201/eid1908.121710
  4. William T, Thevarajah B, Lee SF, Suleiman M, Jeffree MS, Menon J, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2015 Jan;21(1):142-5.
    PMID: 25531078 DOI: 10.3201/eid2101.141092
    Of the ≈400 cases of avian influenza (H7N9) diagnosed in China since 2003, the only travel-related cases have been in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Detection of a case in a Chinese tourist in Sabah, Malaysia, highlights the ease with which emerging viral respiratory infections can travel globally.
  5. Muhammad Ismail HI, Tan KK, Lee YL, Pau WS, Razali KA, Mohamed T, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2011 Apr;17(4):708-10.
    PMID: 21470467 DOI: 10.3201/eid1704.101212
    To determine effects of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 on children in the tropics, we examined characteristics of children hospitalized for this disease in Malaysia. Of 1,362 children, 51 (3.7%) died, 46 of whom were in an intensive care unit. Although disease was usually mild, ≥ 1 concurrent conditions were associated with higher death rates.
  6. Rahman SA, Hassan SS, Olival KJ, Mohamed M, Chang LY, Hassan L, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2010 Dec;16(12):1990-3.
    PMID: 21122240 DOI: 10.3201/eid1612.091790
    We isolated and characterized Nipah virus (NiV) from Pteropus vampyrus bats, the putative reservoir for the 1998 outbreak in Malaysia, and provide evidence of viral recrudescence. This isolate is monophyletic with previous NiVs in combined analysis, and the nucleocapsid gene phylogeny species.
  7. Lo MK, Lowe L, Hummel KB, Sazzad HM, Gurley ES, Hossain MJ, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2012 Feb;18(2):248-55.
    PMID: 22304936 DOI: 10.3201/eid1802.111492
    Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans. The initial outbreak of NiV infection occurred in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-1999; relatively small, sporadic outbreaks among humans have occurred in Bangladesh since 2001. We characterized the complete genomic sequences of identical NiV isolates from 2 patients in 2008 and partial genomic sequences of throat swab samples from 3 patients in 2010, all from Bangladesh. All sequences from patients in Bangladesh comprised a distinct genetic group. However, the detection of 3 genetically distinct sequences from patients in the districts of Faridpur and Gopalganj indicated multiple co-circulating lineages in a localized region over a short time (January-March 2010). Sequence comparisons between the open reading frames of all available NiV genes led us to propose a standardized protocol for genotyping NiV; this protcol provides a simple and accurate way to classify current and future NiV sequences.
  8. Sam IC, Chua CL, Rovie-Ryan JJ, Fu JY, Tong C, Sitam FT, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2015 Sep;21(9):1683-5.
    PMID: 26291585 DOI: 10.3201/eid2109.150439
  9. Tun MM, Thant KZ, Inoue S, Nabeshima T, Aoki K, Kyaw AK, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2014 Aug;20(8):1378-81.
    PMID: 25062511 DOI: 10.3201/eid2008.131431
    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.
  10. Divis PCS, Hu TH, Kadir KA, Mohammad DSA, Hii KC, Daneshvar C, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2020 Jul;26(7):1392-1398.
    PMID: 32568035 DOI: 10.3201/eid2607.190924
    Population genetic analysis revealed that Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Malaysian Borneo are caused by 2 divergent parasites associated with long-tailed (cluster 1) and pig-tailed (cluster 2) macaques. Because the transmission ecology is likely to differ for each macaque species, we developed a simple genotyping PCR to efficiently distinguish between and survey the 2 parasite subpopulations. This assay confirmed differences in the relative proportions in areas of Kapit division of Sarawak state, consistent with multilocus microsatellite analyses. Analyses of 1,204 human infections at Kapit Hospital showed that cluster 1 caused approximately two thirds of cases with no significant temporal changes from 2000 to 2018. We observed an apparent increase in overall numbers in the most recent 2 years studied, driven mainly by increased cluster 1 parasite infections. Continued monitoring of the frequency of different parasite subpopulations and correlation with environmental alterations are necessary to determine whether the epidemiology will change substantially.
  11. AbuBakar S, Sam IC, Yusof J, Lim MK, Misbah S, MatRahim N, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2009 Jan;15(1):79-82.
    PMID: 19116058 DOI: 10.3201/eid1501.080264
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) outbreaks occur periodically in the Asia-Pacific region. In 2006, Brunei reported its first major outbreak of EV71 infections, associated with fatalities from neurologic complications. Isolated EV71 strains formed a distinct lineage with low diversity within subgenogroup B5, suggesting recent introduction and rapid spread within Brunei.
  12. Van Tu P, Thao NTT, Perera D, Truong KH, Tien NTK, Thuong TC, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2007 Nov;13(11):1733-41.
    PMID: 18217559 DOI: 10.3201/eid1311.070632
    During 2005, 764 children were brought to a large children's hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, with a diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease. All enrolled children had specimens (vesicle fluid, stool, throat swab) collected for enterovirus isolation by cell culture. An enterovirus was isolated from 411 (53.8%) of the specimens: 173 (42.1%) isolates were identified as human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) and 214 (52.1%) as coxsackievirus A16. Of the identified HEV71 infections, 51 (29.5%) were complicated by acute neurologic disease and 3 (1.7%) were fatal. HEV71 was isolated throughout the year, with a period of higher prevalence in October-November. Phylogenetic analysis of 23 HEV71 isolates showed that during the first half of 2005, viruses belonging to 3 subgenogroups, C1, C4, and a previously undescribed subgenogroup, C5, cocirculated in southern Vietnam. In the second half of the year, viruses belonging to subgenogroup C5 predominated during a period of higher HEV71 activity.
  13. Rajahram GS, Barber BE, William T, Grigg MJ, Menon J, Yeo TW, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2016 Jan;22(1):41-8.
    PMID: 26690736 DOI: 10.3201/eid2201.151305
    Deaths from Plasmodium knowlesi malaria have been linked to delayed parenteral treatment. In Malaysia, early intravenous artesunate is now recommended for all severe malaria cases. We describe P. knowlesi fatalities in Sabah, Malaysia, during 2012-2014 and report species-specific fatality rates based on 2010-2014 case notifications. Sixteen malaria-associated deaths (caused by PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi [7], P. falciparum [7], and P. vivax [1] and microscopy-diagnosed "P. malariae" [1]) were reported during 2012-2014. Six patients with severe P. knowlesi malaria received intravenous artesunate at hospital admission. For persons ≥15 years of age, overall fatality rates during 2010-2014 were 3.4, 4.2, and 1.0 deaths/1,000 P. knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax notifications, respectively; P. knowlesi-associated fatality rates fell from 9.2 to 1.6 deaths/1,000 notifications. No P. knowlesi-associated deaths occurred among children, despite 373 notified cases. Although P. knowlesi malaria incidence is rising, the notification-fatality rate has decreased, likely due to improved use of intravenous artesunate.
  14. Epstein JH, Abdul Rahman S, Zambriski JA, Halpin K, Meehan G, Jamaluddin AA, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2006 Jul;12(7):1178-9.
    PMID: 16848051
  15. Harcourt BH, Lowe L, Tamin A, Liu X, Bankamp B, Bowden N, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2005 Oct;11(10):1594-7.
    PMID: 16318702
    Until 2004, identification of Nipah virus (NV)-like outbreaks in Bangladesh was based on serology. We describe the genetic characterization of a new strain of NV isolated during outbreaks in Bangladesh (NV-B) in 2004, which confirms that NV was the etiologic agent responsible for these outbreaks.
  16. Gaudino M, Aurine N, Dumont C, Fouret J, Ferren M, Mathieu C, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2020 Jan;26(1):104-113.
    PMID: 31855143 DOI: 10.3201/eid2601.191284
    We conducted an in-depth characterization of the Nipah virus (NiV) isolate previously obtained from a Pteropus lylei bat in Cambodia in 2003 (CSUR381). We performed full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses and confirmed CSUR381 is part of the NiV-Malaysia genotype. In vitro studies revealed similar cell permissiveness and replication of CSUR381 (compared with 2 other NiV isolates) in both bat and human cell lines. Sequence alignments indicated conservation of the ephrin-B2 and ephrin-B3 receptor binding sites, the glycosylation site on the G attachment protein, as well as the editing site in phosphoprotein, suggesting production of nonstructural proteins V and W, known to counteract the host innate immunity. In the hamster animal model, CSUR381 induced lethal infections. Altogether, these data suggest that the Cambodia bat-derived NiV isolate has high pathogenic potential and, thus, provide insight for further studies and better risk assessment for future NiV outbreaks in Southeast Asia.
  17. Yusof MA, Rashid TR, Thayan R, Othman KA, Hasan NA, Adnan N, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2012 May;18(5):852-4.
    PMID: 22515984 DOI: 10.3201/eid1805.110865
    In March 2011, an outbreak of acute respiratory disease was reported at the Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) Police Training Centre. Approximately 100 trainees were hospitalized and 5 were admitted to the intensive care unit. Three of these 5 trainees died. Human adenovirus type 7 was identified as the etiologic agent.
  18. Blyth CC, Foo H, van Hal SJ, Hurt AC, Barr IG, McPhie K, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2010 May;16(5):809-15.
    PMID: 20409371 DOI: 10.3201/eid1605.091136
    Influenza outbreaks during mass gatherings have been rarely described, and detailed virologic assessment is lacking. An influenza outbreak occurred during World Youth Day in Sydney, Australia, July 2008 (WYD2008). We assessed epidemiologic data and respiratory samples collected from attendees who sought treatment for influenza-like illness at emergency clinics in Sydney during this outbreak. Isolated influenza viruses were compared with seasonal influenza viruses from the 2008 influenza season. From 100 infected attendees, numerous strains were identified: oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H1N1) viruses, oseltamivir-sensitive influenza A (H1N1) viruses, influenza A (H3N2) viruses, and strains from both influenza B lineages (B/Florida/4/2006-like and B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like). Novel viruses were introduced, and pre-WYD2008 seasonal viruses were amplified. Viruses isolated at mass gatherings can have substantial, complex, and unpredictable effects on community influenza activity. Greater flexibility by public health authorities and hospitals is required to appropriately manage and contain these outbreaks.
  19. AbuBakar S, Chang LY, Ali AR, Sharifah SH, Yusoff K, Zamrod Z
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2004 Dec;10(12):2228-30.
    PMID: 15663869
    Nipah viruses from pigs from a Malaysian 1998 outbreak were isolated and sequenced. At least two different Nipah virus strains, including a previously unreported strain, were identified. The findings highlight the possibility that the Malaysia outbreaks had two origins of Nipah virus infections.
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