Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 77 in total

Abstract:
Sort:
  1. Agusa T, Kunito T, Sudaryanto A, Monirith I, Kan-Atireklap S, Iwata H, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2007 Feb;145(3):766-77.
    PMID: 16828209
    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people.
  2. Ahmad Kamal N, Muhammad NS, Abdullah J
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Apr;259:113909.
    PMID: 31927277 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.113909
    Malaysia is a tropical country that is highly dependent on surface water for its raw water supply. Unfortunately, surface water is vulnerable to pollution, especially in developed and dense urban catchments. Therefore, in this study, a methodology was developed for an extensive temporal water quality index (WQI) and classification analysis, simulations of various pollutant discharge scenarios using QUAL2K software, and maps with NH3-N as the core pollutant using an integrated QUAL2K-GIS. It was found that most of the water quality stations are categorized as Class III (slightly polluted to polluted). These stations are surrounded by residential areas, industries, workshops, restaurants and wet markets that contribute to the poor water quality levels. Additionally, low WQI values were reported in 2010 owing to development and agricultural activities. However, the WQI values improved during the wet season. High concentrations of NH3-N were found in the basin, especially during dry weather conditions. Three scenarios were simulated, i.e. 10%, 50% and 70% of pollution discharge into Skudai river using a calibrated and validated QUAL2K model. Model performance was evaluated using the relative percentage difference. An inclusive graph showing the current conditions and pollution reduction scenarios with respect to the distance of Skudai river and its tributaries is developed to determine the WQI classification. Comprehensive water quality maps based on NH3-N as the core pollutant are developed using integrated QUAL2K-GIS to illustrate the overall condition of the Skudai river. High NH3-N in the Skudai River affects water treatment plant operations. Pollution control of more than 90% is required to improve the water quality classification to Class II. The methodology and analysis developed in this study can assist various stakeholders and authorities in identifying problematic areas and determining the required percentage of pollution reduction to improve the Skudai River water quality.
  3. Al-Raad AA, Hanafiah MM, Naje AS, Ajeel MA
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Oct;265(Pt B):115049.
    PMID: 32599327 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115049
    In this study, a novel rotating anode-based reactor (RAR) was designed to investigate its effectiveness in removing dissolved salts (i.e., Br-, Cl-, TDS, and SO42-) from saline water samples. Two configurations of an impeller's rotating anode with various operation factors, such as operating time (min), rotating speed (rpm), current density (mA/cm2), temperature (°C), pH, and inter-electrode space (cm), were used in the desalination process. The total cost consumed was calculated on the basis of the energy consumption and aluminum (Al) used in the desalination. In this respect, operating costs were calculated using optimal operating conditions. Salinity was removed electrochemically from saline water through electrocoagulation (EC). Results showed that the optimal adjustments for treating saline water were carried out at the following conditions: 150 and 75 rpm rotating speeds for the impeller's rod anode and plate anode designs, respectively; 2 mA/cm2 current density (I), 1 cm2 inter-electrode space, 25 °C temperature, 10 min operation time, and pH 8. The results indicated that EC technology with impeller plates of rotating anode can be considered a very cost-effective technique for treating saline water.
  4. Alahmad B, Al-Hemoud A, Kang CM, Almarri F, Kommula V, Wolfson JM, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Aug 01;282:117016.
    PMID: 33848912 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117016
    BACKGROUND: Kuwait and the Gulf region have a desert, hyper-arid and hot climate that makes outdoor air sampling challenging. The region is also affected by intense dust storms. Monitoring challenges from the harsh climate have limited data needed to inform appropriate regulatory actions to address air pollution in the region.

    OBJECTIVES: To compare gravimetric measurements with existing networks that rely on beta-attenuation measurements in a desert climate; determine the annual levels of PM2.5 and PM10 over a two-year period in Kuwait; assess compliance with air quality standards; and identify and quantify PM2.5 sources.

    METHODS: We custom-designed particle samplers that can withstand large quantities of dust without their inlet becoming overloaded. The samplers were placed in two populated residential locations, one in Kuwait City and another near industrial and petrochemical facilities in Ali Sabah Al-Salem (ASAS) to collect PM2.5 and PM10 samples for mass and elemental analysis. We used positive matrix factorization to identify PM2.5 sources and apportion their contributions.

    RESULTS: We collected 2339 samples during the period October 2017 through October 2019. The beta-attenuation method in measuring PM2.5 consistently exceeded gravimetric measurements, especially during dust events. The annual levels for PM2.5 in Kuwait City and ASAS were 41.6 ± 29.0 and 47.5 ± 27.6 μg/m3, respectively. Annual PM2.5 levels in Kuwait were nearly four times higher than the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Regional pollution was a major contributor to PM2.5 levels in both locations accounting for 44% in Kuwait City and 46% in ASAS. Dust storms and re-suspended road dust were the second and third largest contributors to PM2.5, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The premise that frequent and extreme dust storms make air quality regulation futile is dubious. In this comprehensive particulate pollution analysis, we show that the sizeable regional anthropogenic particulate sources warrant national and regional mitigation strategies to ensure compliance with air quality standards.

  5. Arku RE, Brauer M, Ahmed SH, AlHabib KF, Avezum Á, Bo J, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Jul;262:114197.
    PMID: 32146361 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114197
    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP) and hypertension, but most research has focused on short-term (hours, days, or months) exposures at relatively low concentrations. We examined the associations between long-term (3-year average) concentrations of outdoor PM2.5 and household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with solid fuels with BP and hypertension in the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Outdoor PM2.5 exposures were estimated at year of enrollment for 137,809 adults aged 35-70 years from 640 urban and rural communities in 21 countries using satellite and ground-based methods. Primary use of solid fuel for cooking was used as an indicator of HAP exposure, with analyses restricted to rural participants (n = 43,313) in 27 study centers in 10 countries. BP was measured following a standardized procedure and associations with air pollution examined with mixed-effect regression models, after adjustment for a comprehensive set of potential confounding factors. Baseline outdoor PM2.5 exposure ranged from 3 to 97 μg/m3 across study communities and was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) of 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.07) for hypertension, per 10 μg/m3 increase in concentration. This association demonstrated non-linearity and was strongest for the fourth (PM2.5 > 62 μg/m3) compared to the first (PM2.5 
  6. Arya S, Patel A, Kumar S, Pau-Loke S
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Aug 15;283:117033.
    PMID: 33887669 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117033
    Waste residues and acidic effluents (post-processing of E-waste) released into the local surroundings cause perilous environmental threats and potential risks to human health. Only limited research and information are available toward the sustainable management of waste residues generated post resource recovery of E-waste components. In the present study, the manual processing of obsolete computer (keyboard, monitor, CPU, and mouse) and chemical leaching of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) (motherboard, hard drive, DVD drive, and power supply) were performed for urban mining. The toxicity characteristics of typical pollutants in the residues of the WPCBs (post chemical leaching) were studied by toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) test. Manual dismantling techniques resulted in an efficient urban mining concept with an overall average profit estimation of INR 2513.73/US$ 34.59. The chemical leaching of WPCBs showed a high concentration of metal leaching like Cu (229662 ± 575.3 mg/kg) and Pb (36785.67 ± 13.07 mg/kg) in the motherboard after stripping epoxy coating. The toxicity test revealed that the concentration of Cu (245.746 ± 0.016 mg/l) in the treated waste residue and Cu (430.746 ± 0.0015 mg/l) and Pb (182.09 ± 0.0035 mg/l) in the non-treated waste residue exceeded the threshold limit. The concentrations of other elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ag, Mn, Zn, Ni, Fe, Se, and In were within the permissible limit. Hence, the waste residue stands non-hazardous except Cu and Pb. Stripping out the epoxy coating of WPCBs enhances the metal leaching concentrations. The study highlighted that efficient and appropriate E-waste urban mining has immense potential in tracing the waste scrap into secondary resources. This study also emphasized that the final processed waste residue (left unattended or discarded due to lack of appropriate skill and technology) can be taken into consideration and exploited for value-added materials.
  7. Auta HS, Emenike CU, Fauziah SH
    Environ Pollut, 2017 Dec;231(Pt 2):1552-1559.
    PMID: 28964604 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.09.043
    The continuous accumulation of microplastics in the environment poses ecological threats and has been an increasing problem worldwide. In this study, eight bacterial strains were isolated from mangrove sediment in Peninsular Malaysia to mitigate the environmental impact of microplastics and develop a clean-up option. The bacterial isolates were screened for their potential to degrade UV-treated microplastics from polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS). Only two isolates, namely, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus gottheilii, grew on a synthetic medium containing different microplastic polymers as the sole carbon source. A shake flask experiment was carried out to further evaluate the biodegradability potential of the isolates. Degradation was monitored by recording the weight loss of microplastics and the growth pattern of the isolates in the mineral medium. The biodegradation extent was validated by assessment of the morphological and structural changes through scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. The calculated weight loss percentages of the microplastic particles by B. cereus after 40 days were 1.6%, 6.6%, and 7.4% for PE, PET, and PS, respectively. B. gottheilii recorded weight loss percentages of 6.2%, 3.0%, 3.6%, and 5.8% for PE, PET, PP, and PS, respectively. The designated isolates degraded the microplastic material and exhibited potential for remediation of microplastic-contaminated environment. Biodegradation tests must be conducted to characterize the varied responses of microbes toward pollutants, such as microplastics. Hence, a novel approach for biodegradation of microplastics must be developed to help mitigate the environmental impact of plastics and microplastic polymers.
  8. Aziz FFA, Jalil AA, Hassan NS, Fauzi AA, Azami MS
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Sep 15;285:117490.
    PMID: 34091265 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117490
    The co-existence of heavy metals and organic compounds including Cr(VI) and p-cresol (pC) in water environment becoming a challenge in the treatment processes. Herein, the synchronous photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of pC by silver oxide decorated on fibrous silica zirconia (AgO/FSZr) was reported. In this study, the catalysts were successfully developed using microemulsion and electrochemical techniques with various AgO loading (1, 5 and 10 wt%) and presented as 1, 5 and 10-AgO/FSZr. Catalytic activity was tested towards simultaneous photoredox of hexavalent chromium and p-cresol (Cr(VI)/pC) and was ranked as followed: 5-AgO/FSZr (96/78%) > 10-AgO/FSZr (87/61%) > 1-AgO/FSZr (47/24%) > FSZr (34/20%). The highest photocatalytic activity of 5-AgO/FSZr was established due to the strong interaction between FSZr and AgO and the lowest band gap energy, which resulted in less electron-hole recombination and further enhanced the photoredox activity. Cr(VI) ions act as a bridge between the positive charge of catalyst and cationic pC in pH 1 solution which can improve the photocatalytic reduction and oxidation of Cr(VI) and pC, respectively. The scavenger experiments further confirmed that the photogenerated electrons (e-) act as the main species for Cr(VI) to be reduced to Cr(III) while holes (h+) and hydroxyl radicals are domain for photooxidation of pC. The 5-AgO/FSZr was stable after 5 cycles of reaction, suggesting its potential for removal of Cr(VI) and pC simultaneously in the chemical industries.
  9. Aziz NIHA, Hanafiah MM
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Jan 01;268(Pt B):115948.
    PMID: 33187839 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115948
    The sustainability performance of the desalination processes has received increasing attention in recent years. In this study, the current progress and future perspective of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of desalination technology in 62 previous studies have been reviewed for the period 2004-2019. It was found that the number of LCA studies related to seawater reverse osmosis has gained popularity compared to other types of desalination technologies. The review emphasized the application of LCA to desalination by means of research objective, scope of study, life stages, and impact assessment. Although previous LCA studies were conducted to assess the environmental performance of the desalination technology, little attention was given to evaluating the impact of other sustainability aspects (i.e., economic and social). The latter part of this study discusses the challenges, feasibility, and recommendations for future LCA studies on desalination technology. The integration of the LCA approach with other approaches allows a comprehensive assessment of the sustainability performance of desalination technology. Thus, the combined approaches should be explored in future studies to gain insight into the sensitivity and uncertainty of the data to make an assessment that can be useful in policy-making.
  10. Babar M, Mubashir M, Mukhtar A, Saqib S, Ullah S, Bustam MA, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Jun 15;279:116924.
    PMID: 33751951 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116924
    In this study, a sustainable NH2-MIL-101(Al) is synthesized and subjected to characterization for cryogenic CO2 adsorption, isotherms, and thermodynamic study. The morphology revealed a highly porous surface. The XRD showed that NH2-MIL-101(Al) was crystalline. The NH2-MIL-101(Al) decomposes at a temperature (>500 °C) indicating excellent thermal stability. The BET investigation revealed the specific surface area of 2530 m2/g and the pore volume of 1.32 cm3/g. The CO2 adsorption capacity was found to be 9.55 wt% to 2.31 wt% within the investigated temperature range. The isotherms revealed the availability of adsorption sites with favorable adsorption at lower temperatures indicating the thermodynamically controlled process. The thermodynamics showed that the process is non-spontaneous, endothermic, with fewer disorders, chemisorption. Finally, the breakthrough time of NH2-MIL-101(Al) is 31.25% more than spherical glass beads. The CO2 captured by the particles was 2.29 kg m-3. The CO2 capture using glass packing was 121% less than NH2-MIL-101(Al) under similar conditions of temperature and pressure.
  11. Balogun AL, Yekeen ST, Pradhan B, Wan Yusof KB
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Jan 01;268(Pt A):115812.
    PMID: 33143984 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115812
    This study develops an oil spill environmental vulnerability model for predicting and mapping the oil slick trajectory pattern in Kota Tinggi, Malaysia. The impact of seasonal variations on the vulnerability of the coastal resources to oil spill was modelled by estimating the quantity of coastal resources affected across three climatic seasons (northeast monsoon, southwest monsoon and pre-monsoon). Twelve 100 m3 (10,000 splots) medium oil spill scenarios were simulated using General National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Operational Oil Modeling Environment (GNOME) model. The output was integrated with coastal resources, comprising biological, socio-economic and physical shoreline features. Results revealed that the speed of an oil slick (40.8 m per minute) is higher during the pre-monsoon period in a southwestern direction and lower during the northeast monsoon (36.9 m per minute). Evaporation, floating and spreading are the major weathering processes identified in this study, with approximately 70% of the slick reaching the shoreline or remaining in the water column during the first 24 h (h) of the spill. Oil spill impacts were most severe during the southwest monsoon, and physical shoreline resources are the most vulnerable to oil spill in the study area. The study concluded that variation in climatic seasons significantly influence the vulnerability of coastal resources to marine oil spill.
  12. Balu S, Chen YL, Juang RC, Yang TC, Juan JC
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Dec;267:115491.
    PMID: 32911336 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115491
    Surface functionalization and shape modifications are the key strategies being utilized to overcome the limitations of semiconductors in advanced oxidation processes (AOP). Herein, the uniform α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals (α-Fe2O3-NCs) were effectively synthesized via a simple solvothermal route. Meanwhile, the sulfonic acid functionalization (SAF) and the impregnation of α-Fe2O3-NCs on g-C3N4 (α-Fe2O3-NCs@CN-SAF) were achieved through complete solvent evaporation technique. The surface functionalization of the sulfonic acid group on g-C3N4 accelerates the faster migration of electrons to the surface owing to robust electronegativity. The incorporation of α-Fe2O3-NCs with CN-SAF significantly enhances the optoelectronic properties, ultrafast spatial charge separation, and rapid charge transportation. The α-Fe2O3-HPs@CN-SAF and α-Fe2O3-NPs@CN-SAF nanocomposites attained 97.41% and 93.64% of Cr (VI) photoreduction in 10 min, respectively. The photocatalytic efficiency of α-Fe2O3-NCs@CN-SAF nanocomposite is 2.4 and 2.1 times higher than that of pure g-C3N4 and α-Fe2O3, respectively. Besides, the XPS, PEC and recycling experiments confirm the excellent photo-induced charge separation via Z-scheme heterostructure and cyclic stability of α-Fe2O3-NCs@CN-SAF nanocomposites.
  13. Baskaran SM, Zakaria MR, Mukhlis Ahmad Sabri AS, Mohamed MS, Wasoh H, Toshinari M, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Feb 13;276:116742.
    PMID: 33621735 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116742
    Biodiesel side stream waste glycerol was identified as a cheap carbon source for rhamnolipids (RLs) production which at the same time could improve the management of waste. The present study aimed to produce RLs by using Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS6 utilizing waste glycerol as a substrate and to evaluate their physico-chemicals properties. Fermentation conditions such as temperature, initial medium pH, waste glycerol concentration, nitrogen sources and concentrations resulted in different compositions of the mono- and di-RLs produced. The maximum RLs production of 2.73 g/L was obtained when P. aeruginosa RS6 was grown in a basal salt medium supplemented with 1% waste glycerol and 0.2 M sodium nitrate at 35 °C and pH 6.5. At optimal fermentation conditions, the emulsification index (E24) values of cooking oil, diesel oil, benzene, olive oil, petroleum, and kerosene were all above E24=50%. The surface tension reduction obtained from 72.13 mN/m to 29.4-30.4 mN/m was better than the surface activity of some chemical-based surfactants. The RLs produced possessed antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with values ranging from 37% to 77% of growth inhibition when 1 mg/mL of RLs was used. Concentrations of RLs below 1500 μg/mL did not induce phytotoxicity effects on the tested seeds (Vigna radiata) compared to the chemical-based- surfactant, SDS. Furthermore, RLs tested on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos only exhibited low acute toxicity with an LC50 value of 72.97 μg/mL at 48 h of exposure suggesting a green and eco-biochemical worthy of future applications to replace chemical-based surfactants.
  14. Bhagat SK, Tiyasha T, Awadh SM, Tung TM, Jawad AH, Yaseen ZM
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Jan 01;268(Pt B):115663.
    PMID: 33120144 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115663
    Hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) models are developed for sediment lead (Pb) prediction in two Bays (i.e., Bramble (BB) and Deception (DB)) stations, Australia. A feature selection (FS) algorithm called extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) is proposed to abstract the correlated input parameters for the Pb prediction and validated against principal component of analysis (PCA), recursive feature elimination (RFE), and the genetic algorithm (GA). XGBoost model is applied using a grid search strategy (Grid-XGBoost) for predicting Pb and validated against the commonly used AI models, artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM). The input parameter selection approaches redimensioned the 21 parameters into 9-5 parameters without losing their learned information over the models' training phase. At the BB station, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values (0.06, 0.32, 0.34, and 0.33) were achieved for the XGBoost-SVM, XGBoost-ANN, XGBoost-Grid-XGBoost, and Grid-XGBoost models, respectively. At the DB station, the lowest MAPE values, 0.25 and 0.24, were attained for the XGBoost-Grid-XGBoost and Grid-XGBoost models, respectively. Overall, the proposed hybrid AI models provided a reliable and robust computer aid technology for sediment Pb prediction that contribute to the best knowledge of environmental pollution monitoring and assessment.
  15. Chai WS, Tan WG, Halimatul Munawaroh HS, Gupta VK, Ho SH, Show PL
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Jan 15;269:116236.
    PMID: 33333449 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116236
    Microalgae have become imperative for biological wastewater treatment. Its capability in biological purification of wastewaters from different origins while utilizing wastewater as the substrate for growth has manifest great potentials as a sustainable and economical wastewater treatment method. The wastewater grown microalgae have also been remarked in research to be a significant source of value-added bioproducts and biomaterial. This paper highlights the multifaceted roles of microalgae in wastewater treatment from the extent of microalgal bioremediation function to environmental amelioration with the involvement of microalgal biomass productivity and carbon dioxide fixation. Besides, the uptake mechanism of microalgae in wastewater treatment was discussed in detail with illustrations for a comprehensive understanding of the removal process of undesirable substances. The performance of different microalgae species in the uptake of various substances was studied and summarized in this review. The correlation of microalgal treatment efficacy with various algal strain types and the bioreactors harnessed for cultivation systems was also discussed. Studies on the alternatives to conventional wastewater treatment processes and the integration of microalgae with accordant wastewater treatment methods are presented. Current research on the biological and technical approaches for the modification of algae-based wastewater system and the maximization of biomass production is also reviewed and discussed. The last portion of the review is dedicated to the assertion of challenges and future perspectives on the development of microalgae-based wastewater treatment technology. This review serves as a useful and informative reference for readers regarding the multifaceted roles of microalgae in the application of wastewater biotreatment with detailed discussion on the uptake mechanism.
  16. Chan YH, Syed Abdul Rahman SNF, Lahuri HM, Khalid A
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Mar 01;278:116843.
    PMID: 33711630 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116843
    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a highly valuable component of syngas which could be used to synthesize various chemicals and fuels. Conventionally, syngas is derived from fossil-based natural gas and coal which are non-renewable. To curb the problem, CO2 gasification offers a win-win solution in which CO2 is converted with wastes to CO, achieving carbon emission mitigation and addressing waste disposal issue simultaneously. In this review, gasification of various wastes by CO2 with particular focus given to generation of CO-rich syngas is presented and critically discussed. This includes the effects of operating parameters (temperature, pressure and physicochemical properties of feedstocks) and advanced CO2 gasification techniques (catalytic CO2 gasification, CO2 co-gasification and microwave-driven CO2 gasification). Furthermore, associated technological challenges are highlighted and way forward in this field are proposed.
  17. Chang JS, Chong MN, Poh PE, Ocon JD, Md Zoqratt MZH, Lee SM
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Apr;259:113867.
    PMID: 31896479 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113867
    This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of morphological-controlled ZnO nanoarchitectures on aerobic microbial communities during real wastewater treatment in an aerobic-photocatalytic system. Results showed that the antibacterial properties of ZnO nanoarchitectures were significantly more overwhelming than their photocatalytic properties. The inhibition of microbial activities in activated sludge by ZnO nanoarchitectures entailed an adverse effect on wastewater treatment efficiency. Subsequently, the 16S sequencing analysis were conducted to examine the impacts of ZnO nanoarchitectures on aerobic microbial communities, and found the significantly lower microbial diversity and species richness in activated sludge treated with 1D-ZnO nanorods as compared to other ZnO nanoarchitectures. Additionally, 1D-ZnO nanorods reduced the highest proportion of Proteobacteria phylum in activated sludge due to its higher proportion of active polar surfaces that facilitates Zn2+ ions dissolution. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that the experimental data obtained from COD removal efficiency and bacterial log reduction were statistically significant (p-value 
  18. Chang KF, Fang GC, Chen JC, Wu YS
    Environ Pollut, 2006 Aug;142(3):388-96.
    PMID: 16343719
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in both gaseous and particulate phases. These compounds are considered to be atmospheric contaminants and are human carcinogens. Many studies have monitored atmospheric particulate and gaseous phases of PAH in Asia over the past 5 years. This work compares and discusses different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods. The main PAH sources are traffic exhausts (AcPy, FL, Flu, PA, Pyr, CHR, BeP) and industrial emissions (BaP, BaA, PER, BeP, COR, CYC). PAH concentrations are highest in areas of traffic, followed by the urban sites, and lowest in rural sites. Meteorological conditions, such as temperature, wind speed and humidity, strongly affect PAH concentrations at all sampling sites. This work elucidates the characteristics, sources and distribution, and the healthy impacts of atmospheric PAH species in Asia.
  19. Chen HL, Gibbins CN, Selvam SB, Ting KN
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Nov 15;289:117895.
    PMID: 34364115 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117895
    Microplastic pollution is widely recognised as a global issue, posing risks to natural ecosystems and human health. The combination of rapid industrial and urban development and relatively limited environmental regulation in many tropical countries may increase the amount of microplastic entering rivers, but basic data on contamination levels are lacking. This is especially the case in tropical South East Asian countries. In this paper, the abundance, composition and spatio-temporal variation of microplastic in the Langat River, Malaysia, were assessed, and the relationship between microplastic concentration and river discharge was investigated. Water samples were collected over a 12-month period from 8 sampling sites on the Langat, extending from forested to heavily urbanised and industrial areas. All 508 water samples collected over this period contained microplastic; mean concentration across all sites and times was 4.39 particles/L but extended up to 90.00 particles/L in some urban tributaries. Most microplastics were secondary in origin, and dominated by fibres. Microplastic counts correlated directly with river discharge, and counts increased and decreased in response to changes in flow. A time-integrated assessment of the microplastic load conveyed by the Langat suggested that the river is typically (50 % of the time) delivering around 5 billion particles per day to the ocean. The positive correlation between the concentration of microplastics and suspended sediments in the Langat suggested that continuously logging turbidity sensors could be used to provide better estimates of microplastic loads and improve assessment of human and ecological health risks.
  20. Chen WH, Lo HJ, Yu KL, Ong HC, Sheen HK
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Sep 15;285:117196.
    PMID: 33962308 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117196
    This research aims to study the wet torrefaction (WT) and saccharification of sorghum distillery residue (SDR) towards hydrochar and bioethanol production. The experiments are designed by Box-Behnken design from response surface methodology where the operating conditions include sulfuric acid concentration (0, 0.01, and 0.02 M), amyloglucosidase concentration (36, 51, and 66 IU), and saccharification time (120, 180, and 240 min). Compared to conventional dry torrefaction, the hydrochar yield is between 13.24 and 14.73%, which is much lower than dry torrefaction biochar (yield >50%). The calorific value of the raw SDR is 17.15 MJ/kg, which is significantly enhanced to 22.36-23.37 MJ/kg after WT. When the sulfuric acid concentration increases from 0 to 0.02 M, the glucose concentration in the product increases from 5.59 g/L to 13.05 g/L. The prediction of analysis of variance suggests that the best combination to maximum glucose production is 0.02 M H2SO4, 66 IU enzyme concentration, and 120 min saccharification time, and the glucose concentration is 30.85 g/L. The maximum bioethanol concentration of 19.21 g/L is obtained, which is higher than those from wheat straw (18.1 g/L) and sweet sorghum residue (16.2 g/L). A large amount of SDR is generated in the kaoliang liquor production process, which may cause environmental problems if it is not appropriately treated. This study fulfills SDR valorization for hydrochar and bioenergy to lower environmental pollution and even achieve a circular economy.
Related Terms
Filters
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links