Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 80 in total

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  1. Cui J, Zhou F, Gao M, Zhang L, Zhang L, Du K, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2018 Oct;241:810-820.
    PMID: 29909307 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.06.028
    Six different approaches are applied in the present study to apportion the sources of precipitation nitrogen making use of precipitation data of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, including NO3- and NH4+), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and δ15N signatures of DIN collected at six sampling sites in the mountain region of Southwest China. These approaches include one quantitative approach running a Bayesian isotope mixing model (SIAR model) and five qualitative approaches based on in-situ survey (ISS), ratio of NH4+/NO3- (RN), principal component analysis (PCA), canonical-correlation analysis (CCA) and stable isotope approach (SIA). Biomass burning, coal combustion and mobile exhausts in the mountain region are identified as major sources for precipitation DIN while biomass burning and volatilization sources such as animal husbandries are major ones for DON. SIAR model results suggest that mobile exhausts, biomass burning and coal combustion contributed 25.1 ± 14.0%, 26.0 ± 14.1% and 27.0 ± 12.6%, respectively, to NO3- on the regional scale. Higher contributions of both biomass burning and coal combustion appeared at rural and urban sites with a significant difference between Houba (rural) and the wetland site (p 
  2. Raksasat R, Lim JW, Kiatkittipong W, Kiatkittipong K, Ho YC, Lam MK, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Dec;267:115488.
    PMID: 32891050 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115488
    The increase of annual organic wastes generated worldwide has become a major problem for many countries since the mismanagement could bring about negative effects on the environment besides, being costly for an innocuous disposal. Recently, insect larvae have been investigated to valorize organic wastes. This entomoremediation approach is rising from the ability of the insect larvae to convert organic wastes into its biomass via assimilation process as catapulted by the natural demand to complete its lifecycle. Among the insect species, black soldier fly or Hermetia illucens is widely researched since the larvae can grow in various environments while being saprophagous in nature. Even though black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) can ingest various decay materials, some organic wastes such as sewage sludge or lignocellulosic wastes such as waste coconut endosperm are destitute of decent nutrients that could retard the BSFL growth. Hence, blending with nutrient-rich low-cost substrates such as palm kernel expeller, soybean curd residue, etc. is employed to fortify the nutritional contents of larval feeding substrates prior to administering to the BSFL. Alternatively, microbial fermentation can be adopted to breakdown the lignocellulosic wastes, exuding essential nutrients for growing BSFL. Upon reaching maturity, the BSFL can be harvested to serve as the protein and lipid feedstock. The larval protein can be made into insect meal for farmed animals, whilst the lipid source could be extracted and transesterified into larval biodiesel to cushion the global energy demands. Henceforth, this review presents the influence of various organic wastes introduced to feed BSFL, targeting to reduce wastes and producing biochemicals from mature larvae through entomoremediation. Modification of recalcitrant organic wastes via fermentation processes is also unveiled to ameliorate the BSFL growth. Lastly, the sustainable applications of harvested BSFL biomass are as well covered together with the immediate shortcomings that entail further researches.
  3. Kurniawan TA, Lo W, Singh D, Othman MHD, Avtar R, Hwang GH, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2021 May 15;277:116741.
    PMID: 33652179 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116741
    Recently Xiamen (China) has encountered various challenges of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) such as lack of a complete garbage sorting and recycling system, the absence of waste segregation between organic and dry waste at source, and a shortage of complete and clear information about the MSW generated. This article critically analyzes the existing bottlenecks in its waste management system and discusses the way forward for the city to enhance its MSWM by drawing lessons from Hong Kong's effectiveness in dealing with the same problems over the past decades. Solutions to the MSWM problem are not only limited to technological options, but also integrate environmental, legal, and institutional perspectives. The solutions include (1) enhancing source separation and improving recycling system; (2) improving the legislation system of the MSWM; (3) improvement of terminal disposal facilities in the city; (4) incorporating digitization into MSWM; and (5) establishing standards and definitions for recycled products and/or recyclable materials. We also evaluate and compare different aspects of MSWM in Xiamen and Hong Kong SAR (special administrative region) under the framework of 'One Country, Two Systems' concerning environmental policies, generation, composition, characteristics, treatment, and disposal of their MSW. The nexus of society, economics of the MSW, and the environment in the sustainability sphere are established by promoting local recycling industries and the standardization of recycled products and/or recyclable materials. The roles of digitization technologies in the 4th Industrial Revolution for waste reduction in the framework of circular economy (CE) are also elaborated. This technological solution may improve the city's MSWM in terms of public participation in MSW separation through reduction, recycle, reuse, recovery, and repair (5Rs) schemes. To meet top-down policy goals such as a 35% recycling rate for the generated waste by 2030, incorporating digitization into the MSWM provides the city with technology-driven waste solutions.
  4. Alahmad B, Al-Hemoud A, Kang CM, Almarri F, Kommula V, Wolfson JM, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Aug 01;282:117016.
    PMID: 33848912 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117016
    BACKGROUND: Kuwait and the Gulf region have a desert, hyper-arid and hot climate that makes outdoor air sampling challenging. The region is also affected by intense dust storms. Monitoring challenges from the harsh climate have limited data needed to inform appropriate regulatory actions to address air pollution in the region.

    OBJECTIVES: To compare gravimetric measurements with existing networks that rely on beta-attenuation measurements in a desert climate; determine the annual levels of PM2.5 and PM10 over a two-year period in Kuwait; assess compliance with air quality standards; and identify and quantify PM2.5 sources.

    METHODS: We custom-designed particle samplers that can withstand large quantities of dust without their inlet becoming overloaded. The samplers were placed in two populated residential locations, one in Kuwait City and another near industrial and petrochemical facilities in Ali Sabah Al-Salem (ASAS) to collect PM2.5 and PM10 samples for mass and elemental analysis. We used positive matrix factorization to identify PM2.5 sources and apportion their contributions.

    RESULTS: We collected 2339 samples during the period October 2017 through October 2019. The beta-attenuation method in measuring PM2.5 consistently exceeded gravimetric measurements, especially during dust events. The annual levels for PM2.5 in Kuwait City and ASAS were 41.6 ± 29.0 and 47.5 ± 27.6 μg/m3, respectively. Annual PM2.5 levels in Kuwait were nearly four times higher than the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Regional pollution was a major contributor to PM2.5 levels in both locations accounting for 44% in Kuwait City and 46% in ASAS. Dust storms and re-suspended road dust were the second and third largest contributors to PM2.5, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The premise that frequent and extreme dust storms make air quality regulation futile is dubious. In this comprehensive particulate pollution analysis, we show that the sizeable regional anthropogenic particulate sources warrant national and regional mitigation strategies to ensure compliance with air quality standards.

  5. Chew KW, Chia SR, Chia WY, Cheah WY, Munawaroh HSH, Ong WJ
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Mar 01;278:116836.
    PMID: 33689952 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116836
    The remarkable journey of progression of mankind has created various impacts in the form of polluted environment, amassed heavy metals and depleting resources. This alarming situation demands sustainable energy resources and approaches to deal with these environmental hazards and power deficit. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis address both energy and environmental issues caused by civilization and industrialization. The processes use hazardous waste materials including waste tires, plastic and medical waste, and biomass waste such as livestock waste and agricultural waste as feedstock to produce gas, char and pyrolysis oil for energy production. Usage of hazardous materials as pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis feedstock reduces disposal of harmful substances into environment, reducing occurrence of soil and water pollution, and substituting the non-renewable feedstock, fossil fuels. As compared to combustion, pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis have less emission of air pollutants and act as alternative options to landfill disposal and incineration for hazardous materials and biomass waste. Hence, stabilizing heavy metals and solving the energy and waste management problems. This review discusses the pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of biomass and harmful wastes to strive towards circular economy and eco-friendly, cleaner energy with minimum waste disposal, reducing negative impact on the planet and creating future possibilities.
  6. Karami A, Romano N, Hamzah H, Simpson SL, Yap CK
    Environ Pollut, 2016 May;212:155-165.
    PMID: 26845363 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.01.055
    Information on the biological responses of polyploid animals towards environmental contaminants is scarce. This study aimed to compare reproductive axis-related gene expressions in the brain, plasma biochemical responses, and the liver and gill histopathological alterations in diploid and triploid full-sibling juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 96 h to one of the two waterborne phenanthrene (Phe) concentrations [mean measured (SD): 6.2 (2.4) and 76 (4.2) μg/L]. In triploids, exposure to 76 μg/L Phe increased mRNA level of fushi tarazu-factor 1 (ftz-f1). Expression of tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2) was also elevated in both ploidies following the exposure to 76 μg/L Phe compared to the solvent control. In triploids, 76 μg/L Phe increased plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels compared to the other Phe-exposed group. It also elevated lactate and glucose contents relative to the other groups. In diploids, however, biochemical biomarkers did not change. Phenanthrene exposures elevated glycogen contents and the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the liver and gills of both ploidies. This study showed substantial differences between diploids and triploids on biochemical and molecular biomarker responses, but similar histopathological alterations following acute Phe exposures.
  7. Lawal AA, Hassan MA, Ahmad Farid MA, Tengku Yasim-Anuar TA, Samsudin MH, Mohd Yusoff MZ, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Jan 15;269:116197.
    PMID: 33316496 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116197
    In order to meet the growing demand for adsorbents to treat wastewater effectively, there has been increased interest in using sustainable biomass feedstocks. In this present study, the dermal tissue of oil palm frond was pyrolyzed with superheated steam at 500 °C to produce nanoporous biochar as bioadsorbent. The effect of operating conditions was investigated to understand the adsorption mechanism and to enhance the adsorption of phenol and tannic acid. The biochar had a microporous structure with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 422 m2/g containing low polar groups. The adsorption capacity of 62.89 mg/g for phenol and 67.41 mg/g for tannic acid were obtained using 3 g/L biochar dosage after 8 h of treatment at solution pH of 6.5 and temperature of 45 °C. The Freundlich model had the best fit to the isotherm data of phenol (R2 of 0.9863), while the Langmuir model best elucidated the isotherm data of tannic acid (R2 of 0.9632). These indicated that the biochar-phenol interface was associated with a heterogeneous multilayer sorption mechanism, while the biochar-tannic acid interface had a nonspecific monolayer sorption mechanism. The residual concentration of 26.3 mg/L phenol and 23.1 mg/L tannic acid was achieved when treated from 260 mg/L three times consecutively with 1 g/L biochar dosage, compared to a reduction to 72.3 mg/L phenol and 69.9 mg/L tannic acid using 3 g/L biochar dosage in a single treatment. The biochar exhibited effective adsorption of phenol and tannic acid, making it possible to treat effluents that contain varieties of phenolic compounds.
  8. Karami A, Karbalaei S, Zad Bagher F, Ismail A, Simpson SL, Courtenay SC
    Environ Pollut, 2016 Aug;215:170-177.
    PMID: 27182978 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.05.014
    Skin is a major by-product of the fisheries and aquaculture industries and is a valuable source of gelatin. This study examined the effect of triploidization on gelatin yield and proximate composition of the skin of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). We further investigated the effects of two commonly used pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and butachlor (BUC), on the skin gelatin yield and amino acid composition in juvenile full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish. In two separate experiments, diploid and triploid C. gariepinus were exposed for 21 days to graded CPF [mean measured: 10, 16, or 31 μg/L] or BUC concentrations [Mean measured: 22, 44, or 60 μg/L]. No differences in skin gelatin yield, amino acid or proximate compositions were observed between diploid and triploid control groups. None of the pesticide treatments affected the measured parameters in diploid fish. In triploids, however, gelatin yield was affected by CPF treatments while amino acid composition remained unchanged. Butachlor treatments did not alter any of the measured variables in triploid fish. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate changes in the skin gelatin yield and amino acid composition in any animal as a response to polyploidization and/or contaminant exposure.
  9. Vadrevu KP, Lasko K, Giglio L, Justice C
    Environ Pollut, 2014 Dec;195:245-56.
    PMID: 25087199 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2014.06.017
    In this study, we assess the intense pollution episode of June 2013, in Riau province, Indonesia from land clearing. We relied on satellite retrievals of aerosols and Carbon monoxide (CO) due to lack of ground measurements. We used both the yearly and daily data for aerosol optical depth (AOD), fine mode fraction (FMF), aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) and UV aerosol index (UVAI) for characterizing variations. We found significant enhancement in aerosols and CO during the pollution episode. Compared to mean (2008-2012) June AOD of 0.40, FMF-0.39, AAOD-0.45, UVAI-1.77 and CO of 200 ppbv, June 2013 values reached 0.8, 0.573, 0.672, 1.77 and 978 ppbv respectively. Correlations of fire counts with AAOD and UVAI were stronger compared to AOD and FMF. Results from a trajectory model suggested transport of air masses from Indonesia towards Malaysia, Singapore and southern Thailand. Our results highlight satellite-based mapping and monitoring of pollution episodes in Southeast Asia.
  10. Mengting Z, Kurniawan TA, Fei S, Ouyang T, Othman MHD, Rezakazemi M, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2019 Dec;255(Pt 1):113182.
    PMID: 31541840 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113182
    Methylene blue (MB) is a dye pollutant commonly present in textile wastewater. We investigate and critically evaluate the applicability of BaTiO3/GO composite for photodegradation of MB in synthetic wastewater under UV-vis irradiation. To enhance its performance, the BaTiO3/GO composite is varied based on the BaTiO3 weight. To compare and evaluate any changes in their morphologies and crystalline structures before and after treatment, BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), XRD (X-ray diffraction), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) tests are conducted, while the effects of reaction time, pH, dose of photocatalyst and initial MB concentration on its photodegradation by the composite are also investigated under identical conditions. The degradation pathways and removal mechanisms of MB by the BaTiO3/GO are elaborated. It is evident from this study that the BaTiO3/GO composite is promising for MB photodegradation through ·OH. Under optimized conditions (0.5 g/L of dose, pH 9.0, and 5 mg/L of MB concentration), the composite with 1:2 dose ratio of BaTiO3/GO has the highest MB degradation rate (95%) after 3 h of UV vis irradiation. However, its treated effluents still could not comply with the discharge standard limit of less than 0.2 mg/L imposed by national environmental legislation. This suggests that additional biological treatments are still required to deal with the remaining oxidation by-products of MB, still present in the wastewater samples such as 3,7-bis (dimethyl-amino)-10H-phenothiazine 5-oxide.
  11. Aziz NIHA, Hanafiah MM
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Jan 01;268(Pt B):115948.
    PMID: 33187839 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115948
    The sustainability performance of the desalination processes has received increasing attention in recent years. In this study, the current progress and future perspective of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of desalination technology in 62 previous studies have been reviewed for the period 2004-2019. It was found that the number of LCA studies related to seawater reverse osmosis has gained popularity compared to other types of desalination technologies. The review emphasized the application of LCA to desalination by means of research objective, scope of study, life stages, and impact assessment. Although previous LCA studies were conducted to assess the environmental performance of the desalination technology, little attention was given to evaluating the impact of other sustainability aspects (i.e., economic and social). The latter part of this study discusses the challenges, feasibility, and recommendations for future LCA studies on desalination technology. The integration of the LCA approach with other approaches allows a comprehensive assessment of the sustainability performance of desalination technology. Thus, the combined approaches should be explored in future studies to gain insight into the sensitivity and uncertainty of the data to make an assessment that can be useful in policy-making.
  12. Chang KF, Fang GC, Chen JC, Wu YS
    Environ Pollut, 2006 Aug;142(3):388-96.
    PMID: 16343719
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in both gaseous and particulate phases. These compounds are considered to be atmospheric contaminants and are human carcinogens. Many studies have monitored atmospheric particulate and gaseous phases of PAH in Asia over the past 5 years. This work compares and discusses different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods. The main PAH sources are traffic exhausts (AcPy, FL, Flu, PA, Pyr, CHR, BeP) and industrial emissions (BaP, BaA, PER, BeP, COR, CYC). PAH concentrations are highest in areas of traffic, followed by the urban sites, and lowest in rural sites. Meteorological conditions, such as temperature, wind speed and humidity, strongly affect PAH concentrations at all sampling sites. This work elucidates the characteristics, sources and distribution, and the healthy impacts of atmospheric PAH species in Asia.
  13. Kee SH, Chiongson JBV, Saludes JP, Vigneswari S, Ramakrishna S, Bhubalan K
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Feb 15;271:116311.
    PMID: 33383425 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116311
    Global increase in demand for food supply has resulted in surplus generation of wastes. What was once considered wastes, has now become a resource. Studies were carried out on the conversion of biowastes into wealth using methods such as extraction, incineration and microbial intervention. Agro-industry biowastes are promising sources of carbon for microbial fermentation to be transformed into value-added products. In the era of circular economy, the goal is to establish an economic system which aims to eliminate waste and ensure continual use of resources in a close-loop cycle. Biowaste collection is technically and economically practicable, hence it serves as a renewable carbon feedstock. Biowastes are commonly biotransformed into value-added materials such as bioethanol, bioplastics, biofuels, biohydrogen, biobutanol and biogas. This review reveals the recent developments on microbial transformation of biowastes into biotechnologically important products. This approach addresses measures taken globally to valorize waste to achieve low carbon economy. The sustainable use of these renewable resources is a positive approach towards waste management and promoting circular economy.
  14. Karami A, Groman DB, Wilson SP, Ismail P, Neela VK
    Environ Pollut, 2017 Apr;223:466-475.
    PMID: 28129952 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.01.047
    There are serious concerns over the adverse impacts of microplastics (MPs) on living organisms. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of MPs on the total length, weight, condition factor (CF), transcriptional level of antioxidant, anti and pro-apoptotic, and neurotransmitter genes, and the histopathology of the gill, liver, brain, kidney, and intestine in the larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were exposed to one of three levels of pristine low-density polyethylene (LDPE) fragments (5, 50, or 500 μg/L) for 10 or 20 days. No significant changes were observed in any of the selected biomarkers across MP concentrations at days 10 or 20. The expression of casp9 (caspase 9, apoptosis-related cysteine protease), casp3a (caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine protease a) and cat (catalase), however, were significantly lower in the larvae sampled at day 20 than day 10. We provide evidence that virgin short-term exposure to LDPE fragments has minimal impact on biomarker responses in D. rerio larvae.
  15. Ratnasari A, Syafiuddin A, Zaidi NS, Hong Kueh AB, Hadibarata T, Prastyo DD, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2022 Jan 01;292(Pt B):118474.
    PMID: 34763013 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118474
    The emergence and continual accumulation of industrial micropollutants such as dyes, heavy metals, organic matters, and pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) in the ecosystem pose an alarming hazard to human health and the general wellbeing of global flora and fauna. To offer eco-friendly solutions, living and non-living algae have lately been identified and broadly practiced as promising agents in the bioremediation of micropollutants. The approach is promoted by recent findings seeing better removal performance, higher efficiency, surface area, and binding affinity of algae in various remediation events compared to bacteria and fungi. To give a proper and significant insight into this technology, this paper comprehensively reviews its current applications, removal mechanisms, comparative efficacies, as well as future outlooks and recommendations. In conducting the review, the secondary data of micropollutants removal have been gathered from numerous sources, from which their removal performances are analyzed and presented in terms of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT), to specifically examine their suitability for selected micropollutants remediation. Based on kinetic, isotherm, thermodynamic, and SWOT analysis, non-living algae are generally more suitable for dyes and heavy metals removal, meanwhile living algae are appropriate for removal of organic matters and PhACs. Moreover, parametric effects on micropollutants removal are evaluated, highlighting that pH is critical for biodegradation activity. For selective pollutants, living and non-living algae show recommendable prospects as agents for the efficient cleaning of industrial wastewaters while awaiting further supporting discoveries in encouraging technology assurance and extensive applications.
  16. Mahpudz A, Lim SL, Inokawa H, Kusakabe K, Tomoshige R
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Aug 24;290:117990.
    PMID: 34523515 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117990
    Catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is a promising method to provide clean hydrogen (H2) energy for portable devices. Therefore, designing a non-noble metal catalyst that performs well in this hydrolysis is essential. Cobalt-nanoparticles (Co-NPs) supported on magnesium-aluminium layered double hydroxide (LDH) with various mean diameter were synthesized by changing concentration of cobalt-citrate anion (Co-citrate) precursor used for ion exchange with the LDH host. Then the Co-citrate intercalated LDHs were reduced with NaBH4 to form Co-NPs. Evidence of successful intercalation was shown by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Scanning TEM (STEM) observations revealed that Co-NPs were in metallic state and their mean diameter increased with the concentration of Co-citrate solution. Nitrogen physisorption isotherms showed that the surface structure of LDHs transformed from non-porous to mesoporous after chemical reduction, which indicated that the Co-NPs were formed in the interlayer of LDHs. Catalytic hydrolysis of NaBH4 at 25 °C clarified that the catalyst synthesized from 6 mM Co-citrate solution showed the highest H2 generation rate of 4520 ± 251 mL min-1·gCo-1, indicating the catalyst had the optimum size of Co-NP. This activity could be considered relatively higher compared to unsupported cobalt and many other supported cobalt-base catalysts previously reported. It was also clearly shown that size of Co-NPs supported on LDH could be a significant parameter as it allowed better accessibility of reactants to the active catalyst surface to obtain maximum activity. For this optimum catalyst, the activation energy was evaluated to be 56.9 kJ mol-1. Although the catalyst was able to achieve almost the same conversion when the catalyst was repeatedly tested five times under the same condition, the catalytic activity decreased gradually. Overall, it could be revealed that Co-NPs supported on LDHs have a huge potential to be used for H2 energy production.
  17. Sudaryanto A, Takahashi S, Iwata H, Tanabe S, Ismail A
    Environ Pollut, 2004 Aug;130(3):347-58.
    PMID: 15182968
    Concentration of butyltin compounds (BTs), including tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) and total tin (SigmaSn) were determined in green mussel (Perna viridis), 10 species of muscle fish and sediment from coastal waters of Malaysia. BTs were detected in all these samples ranging from 3.6 to 900 ng/g wet wt., 3.6 to 210 ng/g wet wt., and 18 to 1400 ng/g dry wt. for mussels, fish and sediments, respectively. The concentrations of BTs in several locations of this study were comparable with the reported values from some developed countries and highest among Asian developing nations. Considerable concentration of BTs in several locations might have ecotoxicological consequences and may cause concern to human health. The parent compound TBT was found to be highest than those of its degradation compounds, DBT and MBT, suggesting recent input of TBT to the Malaysian marine environment. Significant positive correlation (Spearman rank correlation: r2=0.82, P<0.0001) was found between BTs and SigmaSn, implying considerable anthropogenic input of butyltin compounds to total tin contamination levels. Enormous boating activities may be a major source of BTs in this country, although aquaculture activities may not be ignored.
  18. Xu D, Yang L, Zhao M, Zhang J, Syed-Hassan SSA, Sun H, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Feb 01;270:116120.
    PMID: 33341552 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116120
    Understanding the migration and conversion of nitrogen in wood-based panels (WBPs) during pyrolysis is fundamentally important for potentially transforming the N-containing species into valuable material-based products. This review firstly summarizes the commonly used methods for examining N evolution during the WBPs pyrolysis before probing into the association between the wood and adhesives.The potential effects of wood-adhesive interaction on the pyrolysis process are subsequently analyzed. Furthermore, the controversial statements from literature on the influence of adhesives on wood pyrolysis behavior are discussed, which is followed by the detailed investigation into the distribution and evolution of N-containing species in gas, liquid and char, respectively, during WBPs pyrolysis in recent studies. The differences in N species due to the heating sources (i.e. electrical heating vs microwave heating) are particularly compared. Finally, based on the characteristics of staged pyrolysis, co-pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis, the converting pathways for WBPs are proposed with an emphasis on the production of value-added chemicals and carbon materials, simultaneously mitigating NOx emission.
  19. Hashiguchi Y, Zakaria MR, Toshinari M, Mohd Yusoff MZ, Shirai Y, Hassan MA
    Environ Pollut, 2021 May 15;277:116780.
    PMID: 33640825 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116780
    Most palm oil mills adopted conventional ponding system, including anaerobic, aerobic, facultative and algae ponds, for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). Only a few mills installed a bio-polishing plant to treat POME further before its final discharge. The present study aims to determine the quality and toxicity levels of POME final discharge from three different mills by using conventional chemical analyses and fish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity (FET) test. The effluent derived from mill A which installed with a bio-polishing plant had lower values of BOD, COD and TSS at 45 mg/L, 104 mg/L, and 27 mg/L, respectively. Only mill A nearly met the industrial effluent discharge standard for BOD. In FET test, effluent from mill A recorded low lethality and most of the embryos were malformed after hatching (half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) = 20%). The highest toxicity was observed from the effluent of mill B and all embryos were coagulated after 24 h in samples greater than 75% of effluent (38% of half-maximal lethal concentration (LC50) at 96 h). The embryos in the effluent from mill C recorded high mortality after hatching, and the survivors were malformed after 96 h exposure (LC50 = 26%). Elemental analysis of POME final discharge samples showed Cu, Zn, and Fe concentrations were in the range of 0.10-0.32 mg/L, 0.01-0.99 mg/L, and 0.94-4.54 mg/L, respectively and all values were below the effluent permissible discharge limits. However, the present study found these metals inhibited D. rerio embryonic development at 0.12 mg/L of Cu, and 4.9 mg/L of Fe for 96 h-EC50. The present study found that bio-polishing plant installed in mill A effectively removing pollutants especially BOD and the FET test was a useful method to monitor quality and toxicity of the POME final discharge samples.
  20. Mehdizadeh H, Jia X, Mo KH, Ling TC
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Jul 01;280:116914.
    PMID: 33774540 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116914
    Recently, the use of accelerated carbonation curing has attracted wide attention as a promising method to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and improve the mechanical properties of cement-based materials. However, the diffusion mechanism of CO2 in the matrix and the content of hydration products are the key factors that restrict the carbonation reaction rate. To understand the combined behavior of hydration and carbonation reactions, this paper investigates the influence of cement hydration induced by water-to-cement ratio (w/c) (ranging from 0.25 to 0.45) on microstructure and microhardness properties of cement paste. The experimental results demonstrated that carbonation only occurred at the surface layer of cement paste samples and carbonation efficiency was significantly influenced by greater hydration due to higher w/c. The carbonation depth of the sample with 0.45 w/c was about 6 times higher than that of sample with 0.25 w/c after 28 days of CO2 curing. XRD results revealed that calcite-type calcium carbonate is the main carbonation product and consumption of clinker phases (C2S and C3S) during the hydration enhanced the calcite precipitation in the pores of the surface layer. According to FTIR, with increasing w/c, the position of Si-O-Si stretching bond of the carbonated surface changed from Q2 to Q3, confirming the formation of amorphous silica-rich gel, along with the appearance of CO32- bonds related to calcite. In overall, the micro-mechanical analysis in this study showed that the carbonation significantly improved the surface microhardness of cement paste samples, while the refinement of capillary pores due to carbonation also decreased the negative impact of large pores formed in the matrix of cement paste prepared with high w/c.
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