Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 80 in total

  1. Vinjamuri KS, Mhawish A, Banerjee T, Sorek-Hamer M, Broday DM, Mall RK, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Feb;257:113377.
    PMID: 31672363 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113377
    Attenuated backscatter profiles retrieved by the space borne active lidar CALIOP on-board CALIPSO satellite were used to measure the vertical distribution of smoke aerosols and to compare it against the ECMWF planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) over the smoke dominated region of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), South Asia. Initially, the relative abundance of smoke aerosols was investigated considering multiple satellite retrieved aerosol optical properties. Only the upper IGP was selectively considered for CALIPSO retrieval based on prevalence of smoke aerosols. Smoke extinction was found to contribute 2-50% of the total aerosol extinction, with strong seasonal and altitudinal attributes. During winter (DJF), smoke aerosols contribute almost 50% of total aerosol extinction only near to the surface while in post-monsoon (ON) and monsoon (JJAS), relative contribution of smoke aerosols to total extinction was highest at about 8 km height. There was strong diurnal variation in smoke extinction, evident throughout the year, with frequent abundance of smoke particles at lower height (<4 km) during daytime compared to higher height during night (>4 km). Smoke injection height also varied considerably during rice (ON: 0.71 ± 0.65 km) and wheat (AM: 2.34 ± 1.34 km) residue burning period having a significant positive correlation with prevailing PBLH. Partitioning smoke AOD against PBLH into the free troposphere (FT) and boundary layer (BL) yield interesting results. BL contribute 36% (16%) of smoke AOD during daytime (nighttime) and the BL-FT distinction increased particularly at night. There was evidence that despite travelling efficiently to FT, major proportion of smoke AOD (50-80%) continue to remain close to the surface (<3 km) thereby, may have greater implications on regional climate, air quality, smoke transport and AOD-particulate modelling.
  2. Chen WH, Lo HJ, Yu KL, Ong HC, Sheen HK
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Sep 15;285:117196.
    PMID: 33962308 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117196
    This research aims to study the wet torrefaction (WT) and saccharification of sorghum distillery residue (SDR) towards hydrochar and bioethanol production. The experiments are designed by Box-Behnken design from response surface methodology where the operating conditions include sulfuric acid concentration (0, 0.01, and 0.02 M), amyloglucosidase concentration (36, 51, and 66 IU), and saccharification time (120, 180, and 240 min). Compared to conventional dry torrefaction, the hydrochar yield is between 13.24 and 14.73%, which is much lower than dry torrefaction biochar (yield >50%). The calorific value of the raw SDR is 17.15 MJ/kg, which is significantly enhanced to 22.36-23.37 MJ/kg after WT. When the sulfuric acid concentration increases from 0 to 0.02 M, the glucose concentration in the product increases from 5.59 g/L to 13.05 g/L. The prediction of analysis of variance suggests that the best combination to maximum glucose production is 0.02 M H2SO4, 66 IU enzyme concentration, and 120 min saccharification time, and the glucose concentration is 30.85 g/L. The maximum bioethanol concentration of 19.21 g/L is obtained, which is higher than those from wheat straw (18.1 g/L) and sweet sorghum residue (16.2 g/L). A large amount of SDR is generated in the kaoliang liquor production process, which may cause environmental problems if it is not appropriately treated. This study fulfills SDR valorization for hydrochar and bioenergy to lower environmental pollution and even achieve a circular economy.
  3. Baskaran SM, Zakaria MR, Mukhlis Ahmad Sabri AS, Mohamed MS, Wasoh H, Toshinari M, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Feb 13;276:116742.
    PMID: 33621735 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116742
    Biodiesel side stream waste glycerol was identified as a cheap carbon source for rhamnolipids (RLs) production which at the same time could improve the management of waste. The present study aimed to produce RLs by using Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS6 utilizing waste glycerol as a substrate and to evaluate their physico-chemicals properties. Fermentation conditions such as temperature, initial medium pH, waste glycerol concentration, nitrogen sources and concentrations resulted in different compositions of the mono- and di-RLs produced. The maximum RLs production of 2.73 g/L was obtained when P. aeruginosa RS6 was grown in a basal salt medium supplemented with 1% waste glycerol and 0.2 M sodium nitrate at 35 °C and pH 6.5. At optimal fermentation conditions, the emulsification index (E24) values of cooking oil, diesel oil, benzene, olive oil, petroleum, and kerosene were all above E24=50%. The surface tension reduction obtained from 72.13 mN/m to 29.4-30.4 mN/m was better than the surface activity of some chemical-based surfactants. The RLs produced possessed antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with values ranging from 37% to 77% of growth inhibition when 1 mg/mL of RLs was used. Concentrations of RLs below 1500 μg/mL did not induce phytotoxicity effects on the tested seeds (Vigna radiata) compared to the chemical-based- surfactant, SDS. Furthermore, RLs tested on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos only exhibited low acute toxicity with an LC50 value of 72.97 μg/mL at 48 h of exposure suggesting a green and eco-biochemical worthy of future applications to replace chemical-based surfactants.
  4. Su G, Ong HC, Ibrahim S, Fattah IMR, Mofijur M, Chong CT
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Jun 15;279:116934.
    PMID: 33744627 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116934
    The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted great shocks and challenges to the environment, society and economy. Simultaneously, an intractable issue appeared: a considerable number of hazardous medical wastes have been generated from the hospitals, clinics, and other health care facilities, constituting a serious threat to public health and environmental sustainability without proper management. Traditional disposal methods like incineration, landfill and autoclaving are unable to reduce environmental burden due to the issues such as toxic gas release, large land occupation, and unsustainability. While the application of clean and safe pyrolysis technology on the medical wastes treatment to produce high-grade bioproducts has the potential to alleviate the situation. Besides, medical wastes are excellent and ideal raw materials, which possess high hydrogen, carbon content and heating value. Consequently, pyrolysis of medical wastes can deal with wastes and generate valuable products like bio-oil and biochar. Consequently, this paper presents a critical and comprehensive review of the pyrolysis of medical wastes. It demonstrates the feasibility of pyrolysis, which mainly includes pyrolysis characteristics, product properties, related problems, the prospects and future challenges of pyrolysis of medical wastes.
  5. Arya S, Patel A, Kumar S, Pau-Loke S
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Aug 15;283:117033.
    PMID: 33887669 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117033
    Waste residues and acidic effluents (post-processing of E-waste) released into the local surroundings cause perilous environmental threats and potential risks to human health. Only limited research and information are available toward the sustainable management of waste residues generated post resource recovery of E-waste components. In the present study, the manual processing of obsolete computer (keyboard, monitor, CPU, and mouse) and chemical leaching of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) (motherboard, hard drive, DVD drive, and power supply) were performed for urban mining. The toxicity characteristics of typical pollutants in the residues of the WPCBs (post chemical leaching) were studied by toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) test. Manual dismantling techniques resulted in an efficient urban mining concept with an overall average profit estimation of INR 2513.73/US$ 34.59. The chemical leaching of WPCBs showed a high concentration of metal leaching like Cu (229662 ± 575.3 mg/kg) and Pb (36785.67 ± 13.07 mg/kg) in the motherboard after stripping epoxy coating. The toxicity test revealed that the concentration of Cu (245.746 ± 0.016 mg/l) in the treated waste residue and Cu (430.746 ± 0.0015 mg/l) and Pb (182.09 ± 0.0035 mg/l) in the non-treated waste residue exceeded the threshold limit. The concentrations of other elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ag, Mn, Zn, Ni, Fe, Se, and In were within the permissible limit. Hence, the waste residue stands non-hazardous except Cu and Pb. Stripping out the epoxy coating of WPCBs enhances the metal leaching concentrations. The study highlighted that efficient and appropriate E-waste urban mining has immense potential in tracing the waste scrap into secondary resources. This study also emphasized that the final processed waste residue (left unattended or discarded due to lack of appropriate skill and technology) can be taken into consideration and exploited for value-added materials.
  6. Yusuf A, Sodiq A, Giwa A, Eke J, Pikuda O, Eniola JO, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2022 Jan 01;292(Pt B):118421.
    PMID: 34756874 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118421
    The gravity of the impending threats posed by microplastics (MPs) pollution in the environment cannot be over-emphasized. Several research studies continue to stress how important it is to curb the proliferation of these small plastic particles with different physical and chemical properties, especially in aquatic environments. While several works on how to monitor, detect and remove MPs from the aquatic environment have been published, there is still a lack of explicit regulatory framework for mitigation of MPs globally. A critical review that summarizes recent advances in MPs research and emphasizes the need for regulatory frameworks devoted to MPs is presented in this paper. These frameworks suggested in this paper may be useful for reducing the proliferation of MPs in the environment. Based on all reviewed studies related to MPs research, we discussed the occurrence of MPs by identifying the major types and sources of MPs in water bodies; examined the recent ways of detecting, monitoring, and measuring MPs routinely to minimize projected risks; and proposed recommendations for consensus regulatory actions that will be effective for MPs mitigation.
  7. Tong SL, Pang FY, Phang SM, Lai HC
    Environ Pollut, 1996;91(2):209-16.
    PMID: 15091442
    The occurrence of tributyltin (TBT) is reported in the coastal waters of a few selected sites in Peninsular Malaysia. Water, bivalves and sediment samples collected were analysed specifically for TBT using sensitive analytical methods which involved a solvent extraction procedure with appropriate clean-up followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric measurements. The levels of TBT in the seawater in unexposed areas were found in the range from <3.4 to 20 ng litre(-1) as compared to coastal areas with high boat and ship activities where TBT levels in seawater were generally above 30 ng litre(-1), with the highest level found at 281.8 ng litre(-1). TBT levels in the tissues of random cockle and soft-shell clam samples from local markets were found in the range from <0.5 to 3.7 ng g(-1) wet weight. The levels of TBT found in green mussel samples both from the market (23.5 ng g(-1) wet weight) and those from a mussel farm (14.2 ng g(-1) wet weight) indicate slight accumulation of TBT. In sediments, TBT levels were found ranging from <0.7 ng g(-1) dry weight in unexposed coastal sites to as high as 216.5 ng g(-1) dry weight for a site within a port area.
  8. Othman J, Sahani M, Mahmud M, Ahmad MK
    Environ Pollut, 2014 Jun;189:194-201.
    PMID: 24682070 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2014.03.010
    This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD).
  9. Law AT
    Environ Pollut, 1995;88(3):341-3.
    PMID: 15091547
    The effect of the oil-spill dispersant Corexit 9527 on egg-hatching rate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) was studied by using an innovated flow-through bioassay technique. This bioassay method relies on the fact that M. rosenbergii fertilized eggs when detached from the mother prawn were able to hatch artificially. The flow-through system generated a stable and good water quality environment for hatching the eggs successfully. The Corexit 9527 had a pronounced effect on hatching rate of the M. rosenbergii eggs. In the control, the hatching rate of the eggs was 95.55% +/- 1.74%. However, it was reduced drastically with increasing concentrations of Corexit 9527. A 100% inhibition of egg hatchability was found when the level of Corexit 9527 was higher than 250 mg litre(-1). The EC(50) and the EC(95) values estimated by the probit method were 80.4 +/- 5.5 mg litre(-1) and 193.5 +/- 39.9 mg litre(-1) respectively (P = 0.05). The recommended safety level of Corexit 9527 for M. rosenbergii in Malaysian estuarine waters is below 40 mg litre(-1).
  10. Priya AK, Pachaiappan R, Kumar PS, Jalil AA, Vo DN, Rajendran S
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Apr 15;275:116598.
    PMID: 33581625 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116598
    Anthropogenic activities and population growth have resulted in a reduced availability of drinking water. To ensure consistency in the existence of drinking water, it is inevitable to establish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). 70% of India's rural population was found to be without WWTP, waste disposal, and good sanitation. Wastewater has emerged from kitchens, washrooms, etc., with industry activities. This scenario caused severe damage to water resources, leading to degradation of water quality and pathogenic insects. Thus, it is a need of an hour to prompt for better WWTPs for both rural and urban areas. Many parts of the world have started to face severe water shortages in recent years, and wastewater reuse methods need to be updated. Clean water supply is not enough to satisfy the needs of the planet as a whole, and the majority of freshwater in the polar regions takes the form of ice and snow. The increasing population requires clean water for drinks, hygiene, irrigation, and various other applications. Lack of water and contamination of water result from human activities. 90% of wastewater is released to water systems without treatment in developing countries. Studies show that about 730 megatons of waste are annually discharged into water from sewages and other effluents. The sustenance of water resources, applying wastewater treatment technologies, and calling down the percentage of potable water has to be strictly guided by mankind. This review compares the treatment of domestic sewage to its working conditions, energy efficiency, etc. In this review, several treatment methods with different mechanisms involved in waste treatment, industrial effluents, recovery/recycling were discussed. The feasibility of bioaugmentation should eventually be tested through data from field implementation as an important technological challenge, and this analysis identifies many promising areas to be explored in the future.
  11. Chia WY, Chew KW, Le CF, Lam SS, Chee CSC, Ooi MSL, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Dec;267:115662.
    PMID: 33254731 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115662
    Acceleration of urbanization and industrialization has resulted in the drastic rise of waste generation with majority of them being biowaste. This constitutes a global challenge since conventional waste management methods (i.e., landfills) present environmental issues including greenhouse gases emissions, leachate formation and toxins release. A sustainable and effective approach to treat biowaste is through composting. Various aspects of composting such as compost quality, composting systems and compost pelletization are summarized in this paper. Common application of compost as fertilizer or soil amendment is presented with focus on the low adoption level of organic waste compost in reality. Rarely known, compost which is easily combustible can be utilized to generate electricity. With the analysis on critical approaches, this review aims to provide a comprehensive study on energy content of compost pellets, which has never been reviewed before. Environmental impacts and future prospects are also highlighted to provide further insights on application of this technology to close the loop of circular bioeconomy.
  12. Babar M, Mubashir M, Mukhtar A, Saqib S, Ullah S, Bustam MA, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Jun 15;279:116924.
    PMID: 33751951 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116924
    In this study, a sustainable NH2-MIL-101(Al) is synthesized and subjected to characterization for cryogenic CO2 adsorption, isotherms, and thermodynamic study. The morphology revealed a highly porous surface. The XRD showed that NH2-MIL-101(Al) was crystalline. The NH2-MIL-101(Al) decomposes at a temperature (>500 °C) indicating excellent thermal stability. The BET investigation revealed the specific surface area of 2530 m2/g and the pore volume of 1.32 cm3/g. The CO2 adsorption capacity was found to be 9.55 wt% to 2.31 wt% within the investigated temperature range. The isotherms revealed the availability of adsorption sites with favorable adsorption at lower temperatures indicating the thermodynamically controlled process. The thermodynamics showed that the process is non-spontaneous, endothermic, with fewer disorders, chemisorption. Finally, the breakthrough time of NH2-MIL-101(Al) is 31.25% more than spherical glass beads. The CO2 captured by the particles was 2.29 kg m-3. The CO2 capture using glass packing was 121% less than NH2-MIL-101(Al) under similar conditions of temperature and pressure.
  13. Nguyen TTN, Pham HV, Lasko K, Bui MT, Laffly D, Jourdan A, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2019 Dec;255(Pt 1):113106.
    PMID: 31541826 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113106
    Satellite observations for regional air quality assessment rely on comprehensive spatial coverage, and daily monitoring with reliable, cloud-free data quality. We investigated spatiotemporal variation and data quality of two global satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products derived from MODIS and VIIRS imagery. AOD is considered an essential atmospheric parameter strongly related to ground Particulate Matter (PM) in Southeast Asia (SEA). We analyze seasonal variation, urban/rural area influence, and biomass burning effects on atmospheric pollution. Validation indicated a strong relationship between AERONET ground AOD and both MODIS AOD (R2 = 0.81) and VIIRS AOD (R2 = 0.68). The monthly variation of satellite AOD and AERONET AOD reflects two seasonal trends of air quality separately for mainland countries including Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Taiwan, Hong Kong, and for maritime countries consisting of Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, and Timor Leste. The mainland SEA has a pattern of monthly AOD variation in which AODs peak in March/April, decreasing during wet season from May-September, and increasing to the second peak in October. However, in maritime SEA, AOD concentration peaks in October. The three countries with the highest annual satellite AODs are Singapore, Hong Kong, and Vietnam. High urban population proportions in Singapore (40.7%) and Hong Kong (21.6%) were associated with high AOD concentrations as expected. AOD values in SEA urban areas were a factor of 1.4 higher than in rural areas, with respective averages of 0.477 and 0.336. The AOD values varied proportionately to the frequency of biomass burning in which both active fires and AOD peak in March/April and September/October. Peak AOD in September/October in some countries could be related to pollutant transport of Indonesia forest fires. This study analyzed satellite aerosol product quality in relation to AERONET in SEA countries and highlighted framework of air quality assessment over a large, complicated region.
  14. Chen HL, Gibbins CN, Selvam SB, Ting KN
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Nov 15;289:117895.
    PMID: 34364115 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117895
    Microplastic pollution is widely recognised as a global issue, posing risks to natural ecosystems and human health. The combination of rapid industrial and urban development and relatively limited environmental regulation in many tropical countries may increase the amount of microplastic entering rivers, but basic data on contamination levels are lacking. This is especially the case in tropical South East Asian countries. In this paper, the abundance, composition and spatio-temporal variation of microplastic in the Langat River, Malaysia, were assessed, and the relationship between microplastic concentration and river discharge was investigated. Water samples were collected over a 12-month period from 8 sampling sites on the Langat, extending from forested to heavily urbanised and industrial areas. All 508 water samples collected over this period contained microplastic; mean concentration across all sites and times was 4.39 particles/L but extended up to 90.00 particles/L in some urban tributaries. Most microplastics were secondary in origin, and dominated by fibres. Microplastic counts correlated directly with river discharge, and counts increased and decreased in response to changes in flow. A time-integrated assessment of the microplastic load conveyed by the Langat suggested that the river is typically (50 % of the time) delivering around 5 billion particles per day to the ocean. The positive correlation between the concentration of microplastics and suspended sediments in the Langat suggested that continuously logging turbidity sensors could be used to provide better estimates of microplastic loads and improve assessment of human and ecological health risks.
  15. Wan Mohtar WHM, Abdul Maulud KN, Muhammad NS, Sharil S, Yaseen ZM
    Environ Pollut, 2019 May;248:133-144.
    PMID: 30784832 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.02.011
    Malaysia depends heavily on rivers as a source for water supply, irrigation, and sustaining the livelihood of local communities. The evolution of land use in urban areas due to rapid development and the continuous problem of illegal discharge have had a serious adverse impact on the health of the country's waterways. Klang River requires extensive rehabilitation and remediation before its water could be utilised for a variety of purposes. A reliable and rigorous remediation work plan is needed to identify the sources and locations of streams that are constantly polluted. This study attempts to investigate the feasibility of utilising a temporal and spatial risk quotient (RQ) based analysis to make an accurate assessment of the current condition of the tributaries in the Klang River catchment area. The study relies on existing data sets on Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and Ammonia (NH3) to evaluate the water quality at thirty strategic locations. Analysis of ammonia pollution is not only based on the limit established for river health but was expanded to include the feasibility of using the water for water intake, recreational activities, and sustaining fish population. The temporal health of Klang River was evaluated using the Risk Matrix Approach (RMA) based on the frequency of RQ > 1 and associated colour-coded hazard impacts. By using the developed RMA, the hazard level for each parameter at each location was assessed and individually mapped using Geographic Information System (GIS). The developed risk hazard mapping has high potential as one of the essential tools in making decisions for a cost-effective river restoration and rehabilitation.
  16. Tan WT, Tan GS, Nather Khan IS
    Environ Pollut, 1988;52(3):221-35.
    PMID: 15092608
    Chemical forms of copper and lead in river water of the Linggi River Basin have been fractionated into ASV labile, moderately labile, slowly labile, and inert metal species, based on a previously proposed scheme. Free (hydrated) metal ions were identified by a potentiometric method using an ion selective electrode. Speciation results showed that the soluble copper and lead species occurred mainly in the moderately labile and slowly labile fractions. The speciation results are primarily interpreted in terms of organic interaction due to agricultural based and light industries, and urban discharges. The measured metal complexing capacity (MCC) of the samples reveals consistency of the results with the nature of the discharge. MCC correlates reasonably well with the value from the permanganate test on the river water. In general, the speciation pattern was found to be consistent with the findings of other workers.
  17. Aziz FFA, Jalil AA, Hassan NS, Fauzi AA, Azami MS
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Sep 15;285:117490.
    PMID: 34091265 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117490
    The co-existence of heavy metals and organic compounds including Cr(VI) and p-cresol (pC) in water environment becoming a challenge in the treatment processes. Herein, the synchronous photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of pC by silver oxide decorated on fibrous silica zirconia (AgO/FSZr) was reported. In this study, the catalysts were successfully developed using microemulsion and electrochemical techniques with various AgO loading (1, 5 and 10 wt%) and presented as 1, 5 and 10-AgO/FSZr. Catalytic activity was tested towards simultaneous photoredox of hexavalent chromium and p-cresol (Cr(VI)/pC) and was ranked as followed: 5-AgO/FSZr (96/78%) > 10-AgO/FSZr (87/61%) > 1-AgO/FSZr (47/24%) > FSZr (34/20%). The highest photocatalytic activity of 5-AgO/FSZr was established due to the strong interaction between FSZr and AgO and the lowest band gap energy, which resulted in less electron-hole recombination and further enhanced the photoredox activity. Cr(VI) ions act as a bridge between the positive charge of catalyst and cationic pC in pH 1 solution which can improve the photocatalytic reduction and oxidation of Cr(VI) and pC, respectively. The scavenger experiments further confirmed that the photogenerated electrons (e-) act as the main species for Cr(VI) to be reduced to Cr(III) while holes (h+) and hydroxyl radicals are domain for photooxidation of pC. The 5-AgO/FSZr was stable after 5 cycles of reaction, suggesting its potential for removal of Cr(VI) and pC simultaneously in the chemical industries.
  18. Surif S, Chai CY
    Environ Pollut, 1995;88(2):177-81.
    PMID: 15091558
    The study of lead exposure among workers in Selangor and the Federal Territory was carried out based on the delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) level in urine. Occupations which are expected to have higher lead exposure were chosen in this research. The ALA level in the workers' urine was linked to a few variables which may contribute to the lead level in the body. The result of this study showed that the ALA level of the urine of university students (0.352 +/- 0.038 mg/100 ml) < clerical staff (0.560 +/- 0.043 mg/100 ml) < traffic police (0.612 +/- 0.064 mg/100 ml) < vehicle workshop workers (0.673 +/- 0.099 mg/100 ml) < petrol kiosk workers (0.717 +/- 0.069 mg/100 ml) < bus drivers/conductors (0.850 +/- 0.055 mg/100 ml) which was similar to workers in the printing industry (0.852 +/- 0.110 mg/100 ml). The ALA levels in the urine of the exposed workers were significantly different from the control group (university students). However, results obtained from clerical staff revealed that they were also in the exposed group category. Analysis of variance showed that the exposed groups are in a population which is different from the control population. Correlation tests suggest that there is no significant connection between the ALA level in the urine and the variables tested. Furthermore, Duncan's Multiple Range Test showed no significant differences between the smoking/non smoking group, alcoholic/non-alcoholic group, race and sex (p > 0.05).
  19. Auta HS, Emenike CU, Fauziah SH
    Environ Pollut, 2017 Dec;231(Pt 2):1552-1559.
    PMID: 28964604 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.09.043
    The continuous accumulation of microplastics in the environment poses ecological threats and has been an increasing problem worldwide. In this study, eight bacterial strains were isolated from mangrove sediment in Peninsular Malaysia to mitigate the environmental impact of microplastics and develop a clean-up option. The bacterial isolates were screened for their potential to degrade UV-treated microplastics from polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS). Only two isolates, namely, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus gottheilii, grew on a synthetic medium containing different microplastic polymers as the sole carbon source. A shake flask experiment was carried out to further evaluate the biodegradability potential of the isolates. Degradation was monitored by recording the weight loss of microplastics and the growth pattern of the isolates in the mineral medium. The biodegradation extent was validated by assessment of the morphological and structural changes through scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. The calculated weight loss percentages of the microplastic particles by B. cereus after 40 days were 1.6%, 6.6%, and 7.4% for PE, PET, and PS, respectively. B. gottheilii recorded weight loss percentages of 6.2%, 3.0%, 3.6%, and 5.8% for PE, PET, PP, and PS, respectively. The designated isolates degraded the microplastic material and exhibited potential for remediation of microplastic-contaminated environment. Biodegradation tests must be conducted to characterize the varied responses of microbes toward pollutants, such as microplastics. Hence, a novel approach for biodegradation of microplastics must be developed to help mitigate the environmental impact of plastics and microplastic polymers.
  20. Ahmad Kamal N, Muhammad NS, Abdullah J
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Apr;259:113909.
    PMID: 31927277 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.113909
    Malaysia is a tropical country that is highly dependent on surface water for its raw water supply. Unfortunately, surface water is vulnerable to pollution, especially in developed and dense urban catchments. Therefore, in this study, a methodology was developed for an extensive temporal water quality index (WQI) and classification analysis, simulations of various pollutant discharge scenarios using QUAL2K software, and maps with NH3-N as the core pollutant using an integrated QUAL2K-GIS. It was found that most of the water quality stations are categorized as Class III (slightly polluted to polluted). These stations are surrounded by residential areas, industries, workshops, restaurants and wet markets that contribute to the poor water quality levels. Additionally, low WQI values were reported in 2010 owing to development and agricultural activities. However, the WQI values improved during the wet season. High concentrations of NH3-N were found in the basin, especially during dry weather conditions. Three scenarios were simulated, i.e. 10%, 50% and 70% of pollution discharge into Skudai river using a calibrated and validated QUAL2K model. Model performance was evaluated using the relative percentage difference. An inclusive graph showing the current conditions and pollution reduction scenarios with respect to the distance of Skudai river and its tributaries is developed to determine the WQI classification. Comprehensive water quality maps based on NH3-N as the core pollutant are developed using integrated QUAL2K-GIS to illustrate the overall condition of the Skudai river. High NH3-N in the Skudai River affects water treatment plant operations. Pollution control of more than 90% is required to improve the water quality classification to Class II. The methodology and analysis developed in this study can assist various stakeholders and authorities in identifying problematic areas and determining the required percentage of pollution reduction to improve the Skudai River water quality.
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