The ability of Pycnoporus sanguineus to adsorb heavy metals from aqueous solution was investigated in fixed-bed column studies. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of important design parameters such as column bed height, flow rate and initial concentration of solution. The breakthrough profiles were obtained in these studies. A mathematical model based on external mass transfer and pore diffusion was used for the prediction of mass transfer coefficient and effective diffusivity of metals in macro-fungi bed. Experimental breakthrough profiles were compared with the simulated breakthrough profiles obtained from the mathematical model. Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model was used to analyse the experimental data and evaluated the performance of biosorption column. The BDST model parameters needed for the design of biosorption columns were evaluated for lead, copper and cadmium removal in the column. The columns were regenerated by eluting the metal ions using 0.1 M hydrochloric acid solution after the adsorption studies. The columns were subjected to repeated cycles of adsorption of same metal ions and desorption to evaluate the removal efficiency after adsorption-desorption.
The detrimental impact of volatile organic compounds on the surroundings is widely acknowledged, and effective solutions must be sought to mitigate their pollution. Adsorption treatment is a cost-effective, energy-saving, and flexible solution that has gained popularity. Biomass is an inexpensive, naturally porous material with exceptional adsorbent properties. This article examines current research on volatile organic compounds adsorption using biomass, including the composition of these compounds and the physical (van der Waals) and chemical mechanisms (Chemical bonding) by which porous materials adsorb them. Specifically, the strategic modification of the surface chemical functional groups and pore structure is explored to facilitate optimal adsorption, including pyrolysis, activation, heteroatom doping and other methods. It is worth noting that biomass adsorbents are emerging as a highly promising strategy for green treatment of volatile organic compounds pollution in the future. Overall, the findings signify that biomass modification represents a viable and competent approach for eliminating volatile organic compounds from the environment.
Zero valent iron-loaded biochar (Fe0-BC) has shown promise for the removal of various organic pollutants, but is restricted by reduced specific surface area, low utilization efficiency and limited production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, iron carbide-loaded activated biochar (Fe3C-AB) with a high surface area was synthesized through the pyrolysis of H3PO4 activated biochar with Fe(NO3)3, tested for removing bisphenol A (BPA) and elucidated the adsorption and degradation mechanisms. As a result, H3PO4 activated biochar was beneficial for the transformation of Fe0 to Fe3C. Fe3C-AB exhibited a significantly higher removal rate and removal capacity for BPA than that of Fe0-BC within a wide pH range of 5.0-11.0, and its performance was maintained even under extremely high salinity and different water sources. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectra and density functional theory calculations confirmed that hydrogen bonds were formed between the COOH groups and BPA. 1O2 was the major reactive species, constituting 37.0% of the removal efficiency in the degradation of BPA by Fe3C-AB. Density functional reactivity theory showed that degradation pathway 2 of BPA was preferentially attacked by ROS. Thus, Fe3C-AB with low cost and excellent recycling performance could be an alternative candidate for the efficient removal of contaminants.
The gravity of the impending threats posed by microplastics (MPs) pollution in the environment cannot be over-emphasized. Several research studies continue to stress how important it is to curb the proliferation of these small plastic particles with different physical and chemical properties, especially in aquatic environments. While several works on how to monitor, detect and remove MPs from the aquatic environment have been published, there is still a lack of explicit regulatory framework for mitigation of MPs globally. A critical review that summarizes recent advances in MPs research and emphasizes the need for regulatory frameworks devoted to MPs is presented in this paper. These frameworks suggested in this paper may be useful for reducing the proliferation of MPs in the environment. Based on all reviewed studies related to MPs research, we discussed the occurrence of MPs by identifying the major types and sources of MPs in water bodies; examined the recent ways of detecting, monitoring, and measuring MPs routinely to minimize projected risks; and proposed recommendations for consensus regulatory actions that will be effective for MPs mitigation.
Understanding the migration and conversion of nitrogen in wood-based panels (WBPs) during pyrolysis is fundamentally important for potentially transforming the N-containing species into valuable material-based products. This review firstly summarizes the commonly used methods for examining N evolution during the WBPs pyrolysis before probing into the association between the wood and adhesives.The potential effects of wood-adhesive interaction on the pyrolysis process are subsequently analyzed. Furthermore, the controversial statements from literature on the influence of adhesives on wood pyrolysis behavior are discussed, which is followed by the detailed investigation into the distribution and evolution of N-containing species in gas, liquid and char, respectively, during WBPs pyrolysis in recent studies. The differences in N species due to the heating sources (i.e. electrical heating vs microwave heating) are particularly compared. Finally, based on the characteristics of staged pyrolysis, co-pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis, the converting pathways for WBPs are proposed with an emphasis on the production of value-added chemicals and carbon materials, simultaneously mitigating NOx emission.
Anthropologic activities caused frequent eutrophication in coastal and estuarine waters, resulting in diel-cycling hypoxia. Given global climate change, extreme weather events often occur, thus salinity fluctuation frequently breaks out in these waters. This study aimed to evaluate the combined effects of salinity and hypoxia on intestinal microbiota and digestive enzymes of Crassostrea hongkongensis. Specifically, we sequenced 16 S rRNA of intestinal microbiota and measured the digestive enzymes trypsin (TRS), lipase (LPS) and amylase (AMY) in oysters exposed for 28 days to three salinities (10, 25 and 35) and two dissolved oxygen conditions, normoxia (6 mg/L) and hypoxia (6 mg/L for 12 h, 2 mg/L for 12 h). Oysters in normoxia and salinity of 25 were treated as control. After 28-day exposure, for microbial components, Fusobacteriota, Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteriota comprised the majority for all experimental groups. Compared with the control group, the diversity and structure of intestinal microbiota tended to change in all treated groups. The species richness in C. hongkongensis intestine also changed. It was the most significant that high salinity increased Proteobacteria proportion while low salinity and hypoxia increased Fusobacteriota but decreased Proteobacteria, respectively. Additionally, Actinobacteriota was sensitive and changed under environmental stressor (P
Malaysia depends heavily on rivers as a source for water supply, irrigation, and sustaining the livelihood of local communities. The evolution of land use in urban areas due to rapid development and the continuous problem of illegal discharge have had a serious adverse impact on the health of the country's waterways. Klang River requires extensive rehabilitation and remediation before its water could be utilised for a variety of purposes. A reliable and rigorous remediation work plan is needed to identify the sources and locations of streams that are constantly polluted. This study attempts to investigate the feasibility of utilising a temporal and spatial risk quotient (RQ) based analysis to make an accurate assessment of the current condition of the tributaries in the Klang River catchment area. The study relies on existing data sets on Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and Ammonia (NH3) to evaluate the water quality at thirty strategic locations. Analysis of ammonia pollution is not only based on the limit established for river health but was expanded to include the feasibility of using the water for water intake, recreational activities, and sustaining fish population. The temporal health of Klang River was evaluated using the Risk Matrix Approach (RMA) based on the frequency of RQ > 1 and associated colour-coded hazard impacts. By using the developed RMA, the hazard level for each parameter at each location was assessed and individually mapped using Geographic Information System (GIS). The developed risk hazard mapping has high potential as one of the essential tools in making decisions for a cost-effective river restoration and rehabilitation.
Attenuated backscatter profiles retrieved by the space borne active lidar CALIOP on-board CALIPSO satellite were used to measure the vertical distribution of smoke aerosols and to compare it against the ECMWF planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) over the smoke dominated region of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), South Asia. Initially, the relative abundance of smoke aerosols was investigated considering multiple satellite retrieved aerosol optical properties. Only the upper IGP was selectively considered for CALIPSO retrieval based on prevalence of smoke aerosols. Smoke extinction was found to contribute 2-50% of the total aerosol extinction, with strong seasonal and altitudinal attributes. During winter (DJF), smoke aerosols contribute almost 50% of total aerosol extinction only near to the surface while in post-monsoon (ON) and monsoon (JJAS), relative contribution of smoke aerosols to total extinction was highest at about 8 km height. There was strong diurnal variation in smoke extinction, evident throughout the year, with frequent abundance of smoke particles at lower height (<4 km) during daytime compared to higher height during night (>4 km). Smoke injection height also varied considerably during rice (ON: 0.71 ± 0.65 km) and wheat (AM: 2.34 ± 1.34 km) residue burning period having a significant positive correlation with prevailing PBLH. Partitioning smoke AOD against PBLH into the free troposphere (FT) and boundary layer (BL) yield interesting results. BL contribute 36% (16%) of smoke AOD during daytime (nighttime) and the BL-FT distinction increased particularly at night. There was evidence that despite travelling efficiently to FT, major proportion of smoke AOD (50-80%) continue to remain close to the surface (<3 km) thereby, may have greater implications on regional climate, air quality, smoke transport and AOD-particulate modelling.
Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is regarded as deleterious to the environment, primarily owing to the substantial volume of waste it produces during palm oil extraction. In terms of contaminant composition, POME surpasses the pollutant content typically found in standard municipal sewage, therefore releasing it without treatment into water bodies would do irreparable damage to the environment. Main palm oil mills are normally located in the proximity of natural rivers in order to take advantage of the cheap and abundant water source. The same rivers are also used as a water source for many villages situated along the river banks. As such, it is imperative to degrade POME before its disposal into the water bodies for obvious reasons. The treatment methods used so far include the biological processes such as open ponding/land application, which consist of aerobic as well as anaerobic ponds, physicochemical treatment including membrane technology, adsorption and coagulation are successful for the mitigation of contaminants. As the above methods require large working area and it takes more time for contaminant degradation, and in consideration of the strict environmental policies as well as palm oil being the most sort of vegetable oil in several countries, numerous researchers have concentrated on the emerging technologies such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to remediate POME. Methods such as the photocatalysis, Fenton process, sonocatalysis, sonophotocatalysis, ozonation have attained special importance for the degradation of POME because of their efficiency in complete mineralization of organic pollutants in situ. This review outlines the AOP technologies currently available for the mineralization of POME with importance given to sonophotocatalysis and ozonation as these treatment process removes the need to transfer the pollutant while possibly degrading the organic matter sufficiently to be used in other industry like fertilizer manufacturing.
In this study, we assess the intense pollution episode of June 2013, in Riau province, Indonesia from land clearing. We relied on satellite retrievals of aerosols and Carbon monoxide (CO) due to lack of ground measurements. We used both the yearly and daily data for aerosol optical depth (AOD), fine mode fraction (FMF), aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) and UV aerosol index (UVAI) for characterizing variations. We found significant enhancement in aerosols and CO during the pollution episode. Compared to mean (2008-2012) June AOD of 0.40, FMF-0.39, AAOD-0.45, UVAI-1.77 and CO of 200 ppbv, June 2013 values reached 0.8, 0.573, 0.672, 1.77 and 978 ppbv respectively. Correlations of fire counts with AAOD and UVAI were stronger compared to AOD and FMF. Results from a trajectory model suggested transport of air masses from Indonesia towards Malaysia, Singapore and southern Thailand. Our results highlight satellite-based mapping and monitoring of pollution episodes in Southeast Asia.
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer derived from phthalate ester, is used as an additive in industrial products such as plastics, paints, and medical devices. However, DEHP is known as an endocrine-disrupting chemical, causing cancers and adverse effects on human health. This study evaluated DEHP biodegradation efficiency via food waste composting during 35 days of incubation. At high DEHP concentrations (2167 mg kg-1) in food waste compost mixture, the DEHP biodegradation efficiency was 99% after 35 days. The highest degradation efficiency was recorded at the thermophilic phase (day 3 - day 11) with the biodegradation rate reached 187 mg kg-1 day-1. DEHP was metabolized to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and would be oxidized to benzyl alcohol (BA) and mineralized into CO2 and water via various metabolisms. Finally, the compost's quality with residual DEHP was evaluated using Brassica chinensis L. seeds via 96 h of germination tests. The compost (at day 35) with a trace amount of DEHP as the end product showed no significant effect on the germination rate of Brassica chinensis L. seeds (88%) compared to that without DEHP (94%), indicating that the compost can be reused as fertilizer in agricultural applications. These results provide an improved understanding of the DEHP biodegradation via food waste composting without bioaugmentation and hence facilitating its green remediation and conversion into value-added products. Nevertheless, further studies are needed on DEHP biodegradation in large-scale food waste composting or industrial applications.
The occurrence of tributyltin (TBT) is reported in the coastal waters of a few selected sites in Peninsular Malaysia. Water, bivalves and sediment samples collected were analysed specifically for TBT using sensitive analytical methods which involved a solvent extraction procedure with appropriate clean-up followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric measurements. The levels of TBT in the seawater in unexposed areas were found in the range from <3.4 to 20 ng litre(-1) as compared to coastal areas with high boat and ship activities where TBT levels in seawater were generally above 30 ng litre(-1), with the highest level found at 281.8 ng litre(-1). TBT levels in the tissues of random cockle and soft-shell clam samples from local markets were found in the range from <0.5 to 3.7 ng g(-1) wet weight. The levels of TBT found in green mussel samples both from the market (23.5 ng g(-1) wet weight) and those from a mussel farm (14.2 ng g(-1) wet weight) indicate slight accumulation of TBT. In sediments, TBT levels were found ranging from <0.7 ng g(-1) dry weight in unexposed coastal sites to as high as 216.5 ng g(-1) dry weight for a site within a port area.
This study proposes an integrated cattle breeding and cultivation system that provides zero emission and sustainable livelihood for the community in rural areas. The proposed integrated farming system improves agricultural productivity and environmental and sanitation conditions, minimizes the amount of waste, and increases the family income up to 41.55%. Several waste types can be recycled and transformed into valuable products, such as energy for cooking, organic fertilizer for crops, and cattle feed for breeding. Wastewater effluent from the biogas tank can be treated by biochar and results show that it then meets the standards for irrigation purposes. Also, the waste flow from cattle breeding supplies enough nutrients to cultivate plants, and the plants grown supply are adequate food for the 30 cows living on the farm. This research shows that the use of an integrated farming system could achieve zero-emission goal. Thereby, it provides a sustainable livelihood for cattle breeding family farms. The proposed integrated cattle breeding and cultivation system improves agricultural productivity, environmental and increases the farmer income up to 41.55%.
Rising of temperature in conjunction with acidification due to the anthropogenic climates has tremendously affected all aquatic life. Small changes in the surrounding environment could lead to physiological constraint in the individual. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of warm water temperature (32 °C) and low pH (pH 6) on physiological responses and growth of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀ × Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂) juveniles for 25 days. Growth performance was significantly affected under warm water temperature and low-pH conditions. Surprisingly, the positive effect on growth was observed under the interactive effects of warm water and low pH exposure. Hybrid grouper exposed to the interactive stressor of warm temperature and low pH exhibited higher living cost, where HSI content was greatly depleted to about 2.3-folds than in normal circumstances. Overall, challenge to warm temperature and low pH induced protein mobilization as an energy source followed by glycogen and lipid to support basal metabolic needs.
In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk.
Chemical forms of copper and lead in river water of the Linggi River Basin have been fractionated into ASV labile, moderately labile, slowly labile, and inert metal species, based on a previously proposed scheme. Free (hydrated) metal ions were identified by a potentiometric method using an ion selective electrode. Speciation results showed that the soluble copper and lead species occurred mainly in the moderately labile and slowly labile fractions. The speciation results are primarily interpreted in terms of organic interaction due to agricultural based and light industries, and urban discharges. The measured metal complexing capacity (MCC) of the samples reveals consistency of the results with the nature of the discharge. MCC correlates reasonably well with the value from the permanganate test on the river water. In general, the speciation pattern was found to be consistent with the findings of other workers.
This manuscript describes the reuse of biowaste for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and their applications. In particular, we hypothesized that the phytochemicals in the onion peels could act as reductant for silver nanoparticles syntheses. AgNO3 solution (1 mmol) was added dropwise to an aqueous solution of onion peel extract in 3:7 ratio. The reaction mixture was subjected to heating at 90 °C for about 30 min. During the synthesis of the AgNPs, the change of the colour of solution was observed. The AgNPs solution was centrifuged to obtain the two layers, which consists of clear solution and solid layers at 12000 rpm for 30 min. The precipitate was filtered and was re-dispersed in deionised water (25 mL). The solution was centrifuged again to obtain the purified AgNPs. Subsequently, this solution was freeze dried for 48 h to afford the powdered AgNPs. In this work, the structure of the AgNPs were synthesized in spherical shape, with an average size of 12.5 nm observed in the Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. For catalytic application, the synthesized AgNPs could be applied as green catalyst to promote Knoevenagel and Hantzsch reactions. In most cases, the desired products were obtained in satisfactory yields. In addition, the AgNPs were found to be recyclable for the subsequent reactions. After five successive runs, the average isolated yields for both transformations were recorded to be 91% (Knoevenagel condensation) and 94% (Hantzsch reaction), which indicated that the existing AgNPs could apply as green catalyst in the field of organic synthesis. Furthermore, the AgNPs also showed satisfactory result in antioxidant activity. The current results indicate that the AgNPs can act as alternative antioxidant agent and green catalyst in mediating organic transformations.
The study of lead exposure among workers in Selangor and the Federal Territory was carried out based on the delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) level in urine. Occupations which are expected to have higher lead exposure were chosen in this research. The ALA level in the workers' urine was linked to a few variables which may contribute to the lead level in the body. The result of this study showed that the ALA level of the urine of university students (0.352 +/- 0.038 mg/100 ml) < clerical staff (0.560 +/- 0.043 mg/100 ml) < traffic police (0.612 +/- 0.064 mg/100 ml) < vehicle workshop workers (0.673 +/- 0.099 mg/100 ml) < petrol kiosk workers (0.717 +/- 0.069 mg/100 ml) < bus drivers/conductors (0.850 +/- 0.055 mg/100 ml) which was similar to workers in the printing industry (0.852 +/- 0.110 mg/100 ml). The ALA levels in the urine of the exposed workers were significantly different from the control group (university students). However, results obtained from clerical staff revealed that they were also in the exposed group category. Analysis of variance showed that the exposed groups are in a population which is different from the control population. Correlation tests suggest that there is no significant connection between the ALA level in the urine and the variables tested. Furthermore, Duncan's Multiple Range Test showed no significant differences between the smoking/non smoking group, alcoholic/non-alcoholic group, race and sex (p > 0.05).
The presence of emerging water pollutants such as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), including 17-ethynylestradiol (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in contaminated water sources poses significant environmental and health challenges. This study aims to address this issue by investigating the efficiency of novel calcium-based metal-organic frameworks, known as mixed-linker calcium-based metal-organic frameworks (Ca-MIX), in adsorbing these endocrine-disrupting compounds. This study analyzed the influence of influent concentration, bed height, and flow rate on pollutant removal, with bed height emerging as a crucial factor. From the breakthrough curves, it was determined that the column maximum adsorption capacities followed the order of 17-ethynylestradiol (101.52 μg/g; 40%) > bisphenol A (99.07 μg/g; 39%) > perfluorooctanoic acid (81.28 μg/g; 32%). Three models were used to predict the adsorption process, with the Yan model outperforming the other models. This suggests the potential of mixed-linker calcium-based metal-organic frameworks for removing endocrine-disrupting compounds from water, using the Yan model as an effective predictor. Overall, this study provides valuable insights for the development of effective water treatment methods using mixed-linker calcium-based metal-organic frameworks to remove endocrine-disrupting compounds from contaminated water sources.
Concentration of butyltin compounds (BTs), including tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) and total tin (SigmaSn) were determined in green mussel (Perna viridis), 10 species of muscle fish and sediment from coastal waters of Malaysia. BTs were detected in all these samples ranging from 3.6 to 900 ng/g wet wt., 3.6 to 210 ng/g wet wt., and 18 to 1400 ng/g dry wt. for mussels, fish and sediments, respectively. The concentrations of BTs in several locations of this study were comparable with the reported values from some developed countries and highest among Asian developing nations. Considerable concentration of BTs in several locations might have ecotoxicological consequences and may cause concern to human health. The parent compound TBT was found to be highest than those of its degradation compounds, DBT and MBT, suggesting recent input of TBT to the Malaysian marine environment. Significant positive correlation (Spearman rank correlation: r2=0.82, P<0.0001) was found between BTs and SigmaSn, implying considerable anthropogenic input of butyltin compounds to total tin contamination levels. Enormous boating activities may be a major source of BTs in this country, although aquaculture activities may not be ignored.